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Gc M. l: 







Mr. Van Tiiyl Is Lively at One 
Hundred and Fourteen. 

Whpn He Was » I5"y a Grp»y Woman 

Tola Him That IIo Would Live to Be 

thr> OUIest Man Alive— The 

Prophecy Jul filled. 

Benjamin Van Tuyl, who claims to 
be U4 years old, called recently upon 
Jaraes Pine, of Troy, N. Y.. father of 
J. K. P. Pine, ,&f Lansinn-burff. The 
elder Mr. Pine$|has known Donjamin 
for sixty yeariC and the young-cr Mr. 
Pine can remember the centenarian 
forty years. 

Benjamin's knowledge of historical 
facts is somewhat limited. But he is 
well informed on the history of early 
agriculture in Washing-ton and Sara- 
toga counties, N. Y., and he dwells 
with delight on the old-fashioned meth- 
ods employed by the farmers in the 
early part of the'" century. 

Old Mr. Van Tuyl, says the Troy (N. 
Y.) Times, was born on New Y^ear's 
day, 1781— that is. a family Bible is 
said to record this momentous event, 
and Mr. Van Tuyl says that_ family 
Bibles never lie. The centeriSirian's 
'birthplace was Argyle, Washington 
county. He says that his father was 
John Van Tuyl, a white man, and his 
mother a southern black slave. 

Benjamin says that he was 'bought 
and sold three times into slavery. Ilis 
father was a harnessmaker and kept a 
tanyard at Fort ]\Iiller. When Benja- 
min was very young he was set to work 
i.i his father's tanyard. He subse- 
mently learned the business of currier, 
which trade he has worked a^^j^ring 
ost of hi; 

One of the most interesting events i|^ 
Benjamin's caieer was his first and only'' 
sight of Washington. He says that his 
fathe* was accustomed to drive jAittle 
from Washington county to Albany, 
where they were sold. When Benja- 
min was thirteen years old his father 
took him to the old Dutch city. Gen. 
Washington was in the citj' at tlie time 
— aocording to Benjamin's best recol- 
lection—for the purpose of seeing some 
persons of prominence. The Father of 
Ills Country was dressed in uniform, 
'and he smiled and looked grand while 
!he shook the hands of the black and 
white people that filed by. And little 
lUennie crowded fo^vard, and he man- 

HOW LIFE 'looks AT 114. 

aged to get hold of Wasiiington's hand, 
and he squeezed the precious member. 
When Benjamin wasj .still a boy his 
father went west and he saw him no 
more. For a time the hoy worked with 
his father's brother, Abram Van Tuyl. 
When he was twenty-one years old ho 
went to Saratoga county and worked 
on a farm and did handy jobs. Later 
he went to North Cambridge, where ho 
was employed by Robert Wilcox. ; Ben- 
jamin can turn his hand to many t^ngs. 
This summer he expects to gain a Hveli- 
►^ood at ;his home in Hoosick Falls by 

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lowd City Iowa, J^ov. 18 , 1874 

From the Daily of Wednesday Nov. 1 1 

Taxpayers.— The following list of 
our heaviest taxpayers will be found of 
interest : 

James McConnell $ 27G 27 

P. M. Miisser 863 52 

L. B. Patterson 249 00 

Chai-les Pinney 272 14 

Lucy Smith' 720 30 

James D. Templin 420 00 

'. T. K. Wilson 322 92 

John Wilde 549 97 

Peter A.Dey 670 29 

Eobert Hutchinson , . . . 681 22 

J. M. Haas 276 13 

Dietz & Hammer 296 70 

'JB.Gower 293 33 

' George Powell 393 45 

P. P. Freeman 448 51 

F. P. Brossart 308 88 

Hotz & Geiger . 1,058 21 

J C, R. I. & P. K. E, 5,607 07 

|,A. H.Graham 112 62 

? ^. K. Morse. 194 37 

Carver Thompson 106 04 

Charles H. Fairall 100 78 

Benjamin Graham 173 20 

Bryan Dennis 102 48 

O. G.Babcock 105 46 

John Stoner 129 90 

C. B. Wray 160 00 

L. K. Wolfe 220 00 

R. McAllister, est. 201 06 

Jos Walker 167 87 

Henry Walker 144 08 

William Kelso..-. 114 C2 

J. Stonebarger, est . 124 16 

John Mentzer^Sr 130 84 

AUin Breed 118 .30 

.James Evans, est 138 45 

^ John Armstrong 19159 

B. G.Jayne 112.36 

C'J. W. Jayne 367 54 

.-John Borland 4.58 00 

i John H. Clark 319 27 

Close Bros 1,038 26 

S. H.FairaTl 294 97 

Thomas Hill 102 17 

Edmonds & RanBoni. . . 678 90 

Aquilla Whitacre 819 90 

G. Folsom, est 106 16 

C. F. Lovelace. 132 73 

James McAllister 123 75 

Miller & Kirkwood. ... 164 92 

E. T. Seymour. ........ 122 03 

Amana Society 393 06 

Henry Dupont, est — . tl6 23 

D.H. Fowler 12112 

. t. C. Durant 154 53 

John Scott 127 56 

Francis Daniels 184 78 

Henry Herring 128 58 

George Rohrett 127 95 

E.Tudor 22891 

W.B.Ford 15138 

GotleibRessler ......... ill 09 

William Shaw 104 60 

Chris Shetler 133 13 

Corly Snyder 125 08 

Phil E. Sharer 145 18 

Julius Brown 179 00 

E. A. Brown 246 13 

John P. McCane 224 68 

S.Devault 122 74 

C. W.McCune 244 67 

Charles Pratt 101 21 

James Cougal 133 67 

James .Strang 137 00 

E.Clark 287 05 

William Crum 224 17 

John R. Van Fleet 760 00 

A.J. Bond 188 98 

Sol.Cokhen 472 19 

F. X. Rittenmyer 347 90 

George J. Boal 408 22 

J. B. Berryhill 300 00 

Moses Bloom 619 55 

First National Bank. . . 2,100 00 

Iowa City Natio'l Bank 2,613 63 

F.P.Burckle 334 75 

C. H. Berryhill, est 700 00 

D. W. C. Clapp 593.30 

James C. Cochran 363 23 

T. C. Carson 378 29 

W. P. Coast 37815 

T.J. Cox 224 64 

JohnP. Dostal 404 26 

Daniel Ham 2,54 08 

Anson Hart 259 80 

F. .LHass 315 50 

E.C.Lyon 1,153 60 

C. W. Landsberg 237 56 

F. H. Luse 359 25 

John B. Miller 240 25 

W. A. Morrison 411 75 

G. W. Marquardt 642 30 

Bertie Campion and Leo Kessler 
-while husking corn for James Hall- 
jagworth, 10 miles southeast of Iowa 
•^ty, last Monday, Nov. 25. husked 
-.and cribbed 120 bushels of corn 
apiece in nine hours. 

Henry Kessler, who lives near ' 
Solon, has pretty nearly broken all 
records in theworld of husking and 
cribbing corn hereabouts. He isan em 
ploye of John Bothell, of Lincoln 
township, andhe has the figures to 
prove that he husked and cribbed in 
two consecutive days of 91,^ hours 
each, 210 bushels of cora, and 954 
bushels in 10 days — an average of 
95 2-5 bushels per day— the com av- 
eraging 65 bushels per acre. If any- 
body in that line of business can beat 
these figwes, the Press will be glad 
^^o he|tfrom^m^^ ^^ / 

Writing Department, 

^-^^j^^^^iWi^^,^^^ A 









Author of " History of Wisconsin," " History of Indiana." '* History of Michigan," "Hlstoi*' 
of Border Wars," '* Centennial History of the Northwest," etc., etc., 

A8818TBD BY 


For twenty years Librarian ol the Wisconsin State Historical Society. 


P TT T P A P O • 


Entered according to Act of Congress In the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six, 


Jn the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 

Madison, Wis.: 
Stebeottped by 





The Most Productive Ageicultueal State in the Union, 



In the preparation of this volume, I have not aimed so much 
at literary excellence as to produce a work of usefulness. The 
materials for its pages were ripe in abundance, and it has been a 
work of no little difficulty to select, from these contemporaries, 
subjects most appropriate for a History of Iowa, and to group 
them in the order best calculated to make their presentation ac- 
ceptable. In the pursuit of this end, the following range of gen- 
eral subjects has been considered in the order designated. 

The opening chapters are intended to familiarize the reader 
with the physical and antiquarian features of the territory now 
embraced within the limits of the state. This is not only neces- 
sary to a better understanding of the events that have transpired 
upon it, but furnishes in itself much of interest and instruction. 

The early history of Iowa constitutes the second distinguishing 
feature. In this part, pains have been taken to present a strictly 
chronological narrative of all the important events in the early 
history of the territory, covering a period from its first exploration 
down to the organization of the territorial government, in 1838. 
The third division of the work may be designated by a cyclo- 
paedia of legislation during the administrations of each of the gov- 
ernors, from Lucas to Carpenter inclusive. This phase of the 
volume includes a review of Iowa's record in the war for the 
union, as, also, a brief mention of the several political contests 
that have characterized the state and territorial governments. 

The history of the school system and educational advantages of 
Iowa occupies quite a prominent place, and the county sketches, 
upon which particular labor has been bestowed, will, I think, not 
only fairly represent the great resources and well advanced devel- 

8 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

opments in commerce and manufacture, but furnish interesting 
themes for contemplation. I invite special attention to the 
sketches of the counties, which are arranged in alphabetical order. 
Following these are presented biographical sketches of many 
leading citizens of Iowa. 

I have received much valuable assistance from Daniel S. Durrie, 
A. M., for the past twenty years librarian of the Wisconsin State 
Historical Society. I have relied upon his contributions for the 
materials for the legislative accounts. 

The History of Iowa is my sixth book and fourth state history. 
I regret that I was unable to bring to my assistance a long resi- 
dence in the state, which is so necessary to the success of such an 
undertaking; yet after all, scarred with errors as it may be, I 
fancy tiiis work will serve a purpose of some value to the great 
state of which it treats, and be the means of preserving the mate- 
rials for a better history, which future generations will demand. 


Madison, Wis., January, 1876. 




Surface, Soil, Geology, Minerals — Climate — Productions — Rivers, Lakes — 
Beauty of Scenery, etc., .... .17 



The Des Moines River — Discovery of the Valley — Its Early Inhabitants — 
Antiquities — Mounds — Mineral Wealth and Early Mining, - 28 



Chronology of Political Jurisdiction from 1763 to 1845 — Visit of Joliet and 
Marquette — Their Early Experiences among the Indians in Iowa — 
Louisiana — French Possession, - . - - - 42 



First settlement — Julian Dubuque — His Wonderful Purchase from the In- 
dians — His Characteristics — Spanish Land Grants, - - - 46 



Sacs and Foxes — Other Tribes — Their Locations — Characteristics — Tribal 
Divisions, ......... 50 



Treaty on the Muskingum — Upper and Lower Louisiana — Black Hawk — 
History of the Early Life of this Noted Chief, - - .57 



Expedition of Gen. Pike — A Sketch of his Travels — His Interview with 
Dubuque — Gen. Pike effects Treaties with the Indians — Early Indian 
Convplications, . - - . . - - 64 

10 TuTTLffs History of Iowa. 



The Provision for Half Breeds — Tlie Half Breed Tract of Land — Congres- 
sional Act Enabling tlie Half Breeds to Sell their Lands— Sac and Fox 
Outbreaks — Conflict between Miners and Indians, - - - 70 



He Refuses to Leave his Old Home — Militia Called Out — His Removal and 
Subsequent Return — The War — Bravery of Black Hawk — His Last 
Days, ...------ 78 



Difficulties Between Miners and the Government — Early Incidents in Du- 
buque— A Tragedy — Lynch Law — Indian Troubles — Early Settle- 
ment, - - - - - ■ - - - 85 

EVENTS OF 1836-7. 

Wisconsin Territory — Iowa a Part of Wisconsin — Banking, etc. — Fight 
over the Capital — Treaties with Indians, etc., - - - 92 



Indian Reminiscences — " Squatter Sovereignty " — The Burlington Laud 
Office — Sketch of the Land Sale Interest — Speculation — Anecdotes — 
The Eady Farmers — Produce in 1838 — " Iowa," - - - 99 



Iowa Territory Organized — Gov. Lucas' Administration — First Session of the 
Legislature — State Officers — Acts Passed — State Prison — Stormy 
Politics — Legislative Incidents — Vetoes — Conflict Between Lucas and 
the Legislature — President Van Buren Upholds Gov. Lucas, - - 110 



Judges Irwin and Mason — Jail Incidents — Trial of a Justice — Curious 
Trials — Pioneer Administration of Justice, - - - -133 



Second Session of the Territorial Legislature — Legislative Statistics — The 
Capitol, ' - 133 

Contents. 11 



BouuUary Commissioners — The State Militia — Counter- Proclamations — Sul- 
livan's Line — Victory of Lucas, . . - . . 136 



The new Capitol Building — The Legislature at Iowa City— A State Govern- 
ment Discussed — Scarcity of Money — Banking, - - - 144 



Collecting Debts by Force — Sheriffs Employed — The Sunday Law: Revis- 
ion of the Statute — The Legislature of 1844 — Public Debt — Constitu- 
tional Convention, ....... 150 



The Indian Girl Haxta — Her Fate — Bill Johnson — His History — Peck's 
Revenge — Indian Murders — Murder of Miller — Execution — Murder 
of Davenport, ... .... 157 



Events of 1845 — Boundary DitBculties — A. C. Dodge and the Boundary — 
The Miners' Bank of Dubuque — How it was Closed Up — The Mor- 
mons, ......... 169 



Legislation of 1845 — Move for a Constitutional Convention — Convention at 
Iowa City in 1846 — Its Labors — Forming a State Constitution, 175 



State Government — Events of 1847 — Organization of the State Legislature — 
Bribery — Exciting Election Contest iu the Legislature — Adjournment — 
The United States Senators — Liquor Question — Education — Hard 
Times — Land Grants — Uncle Sam Appoints Judges, - . 178 



Commissioners on Permanent Seat of Government — Extra Session of the 
Legislature — The School Laws — Railroads — School OlHcers Disquali- 
fied— The Mormon Vote— Election, - - - - 189 

12 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 



Election of United States Senators — Second Meeting of tlie State Legisla- 
ture — Aid to Railroads — Legislati/)n — State University — Hungarian 
Settlement, ........ 198 



Statistics — Legislation — The Wet Season — Floods — Incidents and Anec- 
dotes of the Deluge in Iowa — Curious Remains — Wind and Rain, 204 



Camp Des Moines — Adventures — Battles — Encounters with the Indians — 
Gen. Mason — Fort Dodge, ...... 213 



Fourth Session of the State Legislature — Statistics — Election — Immigra- 
tion — Progress of Settlements, ..... 2i9 



Fifth Session of the State Legislature — Indian Outbreak — Governor's Mes- 
sages— Special Session — Its Work — Events of 1854^5, - - 225 



Sixth Session of the State Legislature — Statistics — Legislation, . 231 


Seventh Session of the State Legislature — Gov. Grimes' Last Message — 
State Institutions — Indian Troubles — Slavery, . . . 23.5 





Gov. Lowe's Last JK-ssage — Eelcction of United States Senator — Extra Ses- 
sion in May, 1861 — Gov. Kirkwood's Message — The Civil War — War 
Measures, ........ 264 

Contents. 13 



First Regiment — Regimental History — Statistics of Officers, etc. — Cavalry- 
Statistics, .-.--... 273 



Kirliwood's Administration — His Message of January, 1862 — State Institu- 
tions — War Measures and tlieir Operation — Kirljwood's Reelection — 
The Election Contest — Legislation — Laws of the Ninth Session, 283 



Kirkwood's Second Term — Extra Session of the Legislature in 1862 — Laws 
Passed — Governor's Message — Election of 1863 — Regimental History 
for 1862— Cavalry and Battery Sketches, - - - - 298 



Regimental History — Condensed History of Iowa in the War for the 
Union, - - - - - . . . - 312 



Last Message of Gov. Kirkwood — Summary of War Statistics — State Mat- 
ters — Election Canvass — Laws of the Tenth General Assembly — Elec- 
tion Notes, ........ 320 



Regimental History of 1864 — Legislature of 1866 — Gov. Stone's Message of 
1866 — Financial Statistics — Election Canvass — Election of Stone — 
Eelection of United States Senator — General Legislation, - 326 



The Des Moines Convention — The National Union Party — Elections, 839 


Inauguration — Message of Gov. Merrill — Legislation — Amendment of the 
Constitution — United States Electors for Grant — Merrill's Second 
Term — Wright Elected Senator — Sketch of Legislation during Gov. 
Merrill's Second Term — Election in 1870 — Election uf 1871, - 344 

14. Tvttle's History of Iowa. 



Last Message of Gov. Merrill — Statistics from the Governor's Message — 
Carpenter's Election — Legislation — Presidential Election — Events of 
1872-3 — General Assembly of 1873 — Election of Judges, 356 



Railroad Legislation — Election of 1874 — Litigation — Election of 1875, 36!) 


TeiTitorial Officers — State Officers — Members of Congress from the Organ- 
ization of the Civil Government to the Present Time, 1875, - 874 



Iowa State Capitol — State Agricultural Society — Agricultural College — The 
State Prison, ........ 382 



The Iowa State University — Historical and Descriptive Sketch — The De- 
partments — Terms and Conditions — Other Institutions, - 391 



Sketch of the Public School System of Iowa — Statistics — Growth in Pros- 
perity, ....-.--- 405 



The Agricultural, Mineral, Educational and Manufacturing Resources and 
Developments of the State of Iowa by Counties, and Notes and Statistics 

of the leading cities, 



Adair, . - . - 




Adams, - 

- 411 


- 436 

Allamakee, - 


Buc'ua Vista, - 



- 416 

Butler, - 

- 444 





Benton, . 

- 420 

Carroll, . 

- 447 

Black Haw , 


Cass, - 



- 429 

Cedar, . 

. 452 



Cerro Gordo, 
Clinton, - 
Decatur, - 
— Delaware, 
Des Moines, 
Fayette, - 
Greene, - 
Guthrie, - 
Howard, - 
Iowa, - 
Jackson, - 
-j- Kossuth, - 



Lyon, - 



Marion, - 




Monona, - 







Palo Alto, 








Scott, - 

Shelby, - 




Taylor, - 

Union, - 

Van Buren, 


Warren, - 


Wa3'ne, - 






Wriglit, . 



Blographi'^i Sketches of the Leading Men of Iowa, of the Past and the Pres- 
ent, 666-783 


TvTTLtfs History of Iowa. 

Chief Justice Miller, 

Hon. D. C. Bloomer, 

Amelia Bloomer, 

Hon. James Grant, - 

Gen. Jonathan Emerson Fletcher, 

Col. Nathan Boone, 

Theodore S. Parvin, 

Serranus Clinton Hastings, 

Hon. Philip Viele, - 

Gov. Robert Lucas, 

Gen. John Edwards, 

Gen. James A. Williamson, 

Col. John A. Garrett, 

Hon. Chas. Negus, 

Gov. John Chambers," 

Prof. D. Franklin Wells, 

Gov. Samuel J. Kirkwood, - 

Col. John CJ. Wild, 

Gen. Marcellus Monroe Crocker, 

Maj. Gen. T. J. Herron, 

Maj. Gen. S. R. Curtis, 

Gen. Wm. Vandever, 

Gen. Cj-rus Bussey, - 

Brig. Gen. James M. Tuttle, ■ 

Antoine Le Claire, - 

Geo. L. Davenport, Esq., 

Willard Barrows, Esq., 

Hon. Hiram Price, 

Col. D. S. Wilson, - 

Brig. Gen. Benj. Stone Roberts, 

Hon. G. C. R. Mitchell, 

Capt. Hosea B. Horn, 

Brig. Gen. Samuel A. Rice, 

James L. Langworthy, 

Gen. G. M. Dodge, 

Hon. Smiley H. Bonham, - 

Hon. Napoleon B. Moore, 

Geo. L. Brooks, 

George E. Clarke, 

Hon. Charles Henry Lewis, 

Hon. Samuel Merrill, - 

George W. Cleveland, 

George B. Smyth, 

Michael Donahue, - 

Lauren Fletcher Ellsworth, - 

Col. Warren S. Dungan, - 



Rev. Stephen H. Tafl, - 

. 708 

Hon. B. F. Gue, 


Capt. E. Cummins, 

. 711 

Hon. Austin Adams, 


Asa Horr, M. D., 

. 712 

Hon. Joseph Barris Young, 


Joseph R. Standley, M. D., 

. 714 

H. E. J. Boardman, - 


Isaac Mosher Preston, - 

. 715 

Ezekiel E. Cooley, - 


Hon. Clabourne C. Wilson, 

- 718 

Hon. Joseph C. Knapp, 


Hon Martin Luther Edwards, 719 

Hon. Edward Gee Miller, - 


Dr. Edward H. Hazen, - 

- 719 

Theodore W. Barhydt, 


Roderick Rose, - 

- 720 

Lawrence McCarty, - 


Prof. Geo. F. Magoun, - 

- 720 

Daniel M. Miller, - 


A. W. Cook, 

. 721 

Hon. Aylett R. Cotton, 


James Harvey Greene, - 

. 722 

Hon. Geo. W. McCrary, 


John J. Bell, 

. 722 

Robt. Alex. Sankey, - 


Benj. B. Woodward, 

. 733 

Dennis A. Cooley, - 


Presley Saunders, 

. 723 

Wm. R. Smith, 


James J. Folerton, 

. 724 

Orson Rice, - 


John B.Glenn, - 

. 735 

Julius K. Grover, 


Peter Kiene, 

- 726 

Hon. John A. Kasson, 


Hon. C. C. Cole, 

. 728 

Hon. Caleb H. Booth, 


Hon. Geo. G. Wright, - 

. 739 

Hon. J. B. Grinnell, 


Hon. Cjrus Clay Carpenter, 

. 730 

Gen. W. W. Belknap, 


Hon. Alonzo Abernethy, 

. 731 

Hon. Caleb Baldwin, 


Hon. John Russell, 

. 732 





Surface, Soil, (leology, Minerdls — Climate, Productions — Rivers, Lakes — 
Beauty of Scenery, etc. 

The surface of the state of Iowa is remarkably uniform. 
There are no mountains, and yet but little of the surface is level 
or flat " The whole state presents a succession of gentle eleva- 
tions and depressions, with some bold and picturesque bluffs 
along the principal streams. The western portion of the state is 
generally more elevated than the eastern, the northwestern part 
being the highest Nature could not have provided a more per- 
fect system of drainage, and, at the same time, leave the country 
so completely adapted to all the purposes of agriculture." * The 
state is drained by two systems of streams running at right angles 
with each other. The rivers that flow into the Mississippi run 
from the northwest to the southeast, while those of the other sys- 
tem flow toward the southwest, and empty into the Missouri, f 
The former drain about three-fourths of the surface of the state ; 
the latter, the remaining one-fourth. Tne water-shed dividing 
the two systems of streams represents the highest portion of the 
state, and gradually descends as one follows its course from north- 
west to southeast "Low water mark in the Missouri river at 
Council Blufls is about 425 feet above low water mark in the 
Mississippi at Davenport At the crossing of the summit, or water 

* Iowa Board of Immigration Pamphlet, 
t See Map fui-nished herewith. 

2 (17) 

18 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

shed, 245 miles west of Davenport, the elevation is about 960 feet- 
above the Mississippi. The Des Moines river, at the city of Des 
Moines, has an elevation of 227 feet above the Mississippi at Dav- 
enport, and is 198 feet lower than the Missouri at Council Bluffs. 
The elevation of the eastern border of the state at McGregor is 
about 624 feet above the level of the sea, while the highest eleva- 
tion in the northwest portion of the state is about 140 feet above 
the level of the sea." In addition to this grand water-shed divid- 
ing the two great drainage systems of this state, there are smaller 
or tributary ridges or elevations between the various principal 
streams. These ai'e called divides, and are quite as fertile and 
productive as the rich valleys or bottoms along the borders of the 

The entire eastern border of Iowa is washed by the Father of 
Waters, the largest river on the continent ; and during the greater 
part of the year this stream is navigable for a large class of 
steamers. The principal rivers which flow through the interior 
of the state, east of the dividing ridge, are the Des Moines, Skunk, 
Iowa, Wapsipinicon, Maquoketa, Turkey and Upper Iowa. One 
of the largest rivers of the state is Bed Cedar, which rises in 
Minnesota, and flowing in a southeasterly direction, joins its wa- 
ters with the Iowa river in Louisa county, only about thirty miles 
from its mouth, that portion below the junction retaining the 
name of loiva river, although it is really the smaller stream. The 
Des Moines is the largest river in the interior of the state : it rises 
in a group or chain of lakes in the state of Minnesota, not far 
from the Iowa border. The head waters of this stream are in two 
branches, known as east and west Des Moines. These, after flow- 
ing about seventy miles through the northern portion of the state, 
converge to their junction in the southern part of Humboldt 
county. The Des Moines receives a number of large tributaries, 
among which are Eaccoon and Three Rivers (north, south and 
middle), on the west, and Boone river on the east. The Des 
Moines flows from northwest to southeast, not less than three 
hundred miles through Iowa, and drains over ten thousand square 
miles of territory. At an early day steamboats, at certain sea- 
sons of the year, navigated this river as far up as " Eaccoon 
Forks," and a large grant of land was made to the state by con- 

General Description. 19 

gress for the purpose of improving its navigation. The land was 
subsequently diverted to the construction of the Des Moines Val- 
ley Eailroad. For a description of the rivers already named, 
which drain the eastern three-fourths of the state, we refer the 
reader to the map. 

Crossing the great water-shed we come to the Missouri and its 
tributaries. The Missouri river, forming a little over two-thirds 
of the length of the western boundary line, is navigable for large 
sized steamboats for a distance of nineteen hundred and fifty 
miles above the point (Sioux City) where it first touches the west- 
ern border of the state. It is, therefore, a highway of vast im- 
portance to the great commercial interests of western Iowa. 

The tributaries of the Missouri, which drain a vast extent of 
territory in the western part of Iowa, are important to commerce 
also. The Big Sioux river forms about seventy miles of the 
western boundary of the state, its general course being nearly north 
and south. It has also several important tributaries which drain 
the counties of Plymouth, Sioux, Lyon, Osceola and O'Brien. 
These counties are located in the northwestern part of the state. 
Among the most important of the streams flowing into the Big 
Sioux is the Rock river, traversing Lyon and Sioux counties. It 
is a beautiful stream, bordered by a pleasant and fruitful country. 
Being supported by living springs, it is capable of running con- 
siderable machinery. The Big Sioux river itself was, at one 
time, regarded as a navigable stream, but in later years its use in 
this respect has been considered of no value. Not far below where 
the Big Sioux flows into the Missouri, we meet the mouth of the 
Floyd river. This is a small stream, but it flows through a rich, 
interesting tract of country. 

Little Sioux river is one of the most important streams of north- 
western Iowa. It rises in the vicinity of Spirit and Okoboji 
lakes, near the Minnesota line, and meanders through various 
counties a distance of nearly three hundred miles to its confluence 
with the Missouri, near the northwestern corner of Harrison 
county. With its tributaries it drains not less than five thousan d 
square miles. Boyer river is the next stream of considerable size 
below the Little Sioux. It rises in Sac county and flows south- 
west to the Missouri in Pottawattamie county. Its entire length 


is about one hundred and fifty miles, and drains not less than two 
thousand square miles of territory. It is a small stream, meander- 
ing through a rich and lovely valley. Going down the Missouri, 
and passing several small streams, which have not been dig- 
nified with the name of rivers, we come to the Nishnabotna, which 
empties into the Missouri some twenty miles below the southwest 
corner of the state. It has three principal branches, with an 
aggregate length of three hundred and fifty miles. These streams 
drain about five thousand square miles of southwestern Iowa. 
They flow through valleys of unsurpassed beauty and fertility, 
and furnish good water power at various points, though in this 
respect they are not equal to the streams in the northeastern por- 
tion of the state. 

The southern portion of the state is drained by several streams 
that flow into the Missouri river, in the state of Missouri. The 
most important of these are Chariton, Grand, Platte, One Hundred 
and Two, and the three Nodaways — East, West, and Middle. All 
of these afford water power for machinery, and present splendid 
valleys of rich farming lands. 

These few general remarks concerning the rivers must suffice. 
Our space will admit only of a mention of the streams that have 
been designated as rivers, but there are many other streams of 
great importance and value to different portions of the state, drain- 
ing the country, furnishing mill sites, and adding to the variety 
and beauty of the scenery. So admirable is the natural drainage 
of almost the entire state, that the farmer who has not a stream 
of living water on his premises is an exception to the general 

Let us next look at the lakes. In some of the northern portions 
of Iowa there are many small and beautiful lakes. They, for the 
most part, belong to that system of lakes stretching into Minnesota, 
and some of them present many interesting features. Among the 
most noted of the lakes of northern Iowa are the following : — 
Clear lake, in Cerro Gordo county ; Rice lake. Silver lake, and 
Bright's lake, in Worth county ; Crystal lake, Eagle lake, lake 
Edward, and Twin lakes, in Hancock county; Owl lake, in 
Humboldt county ; lake Gertrude, lake Cornelia, Elm lake, and 
Wall lake, in Wright county ; lake Caro, in Hamilton county ; 

General Description. 21 

Twin lakes, in Oalhoun county ; Wall lake, in Sac county ; 
Swan lake, in Emmet county; Storm lake, in Buena Vista 
county; and Okoboji and Spirit lakes, in Dickinson county. 
Nearly all these are deep and clear, abounding in many excellent 
varieties of fish, which are caught abundantly by the settlers at 
all proper seasons of the year. The name ' Wall lake,' applied 
to several of these bodies of water, is derived from the fact that a 
line or ridge of boulders extends around them, giving them some- 
what the appearance of having been walled. Most of them ex- 
hibit the same appearance in this respect to a greater or less extent. 
Lake Okoboji, Spirit lake, Storm lake, and Clear lake, are the 
largest of the northern Iowa lakes. All of them, except Storm 
lake, have fine bodies of timber on their borders. Lake Okoboji 
is about fifteen miles long, and from a quarter of a mile to two 
miles wide. Spirit lake, just north of it, embraces about ten 
square miles, the northern border extending to the Minnesota line. 
Storm lake is in size about three miles east and west by two north 
and south. Clear lake is about seven miles long by two miles 
wide. The dry rolling land usually extends up to the borders of 
the lakes, making them delightful resorts for excursion or fishing 
parties, and they are now attracting attention as places of resort, 
on account of the beauty of their natural scenery, as well as the 
inducements which they afford to hunting and fishing parties. 

The alternating patches of timber and broad prairie render Iowa 
distinguishable. Of course the prairies constitute most of the 
surface. It is said that nine-tenths of the surface is prairie. The 
timber is generally found in heavy bodies skirting the streams, 
but there are also many isolated groves standing, like islands in 
the sea, far out on the prairies. The eastern half of the state con- 
tains a larger proportion of timber than the western. The follow- 
ing are the leading varieties of timber: white, black, and burr 
oak, black walnut, butternut, hickory, hard and soft maple, cherry, 
red and white elm, ash, linn, hackberry, birch, honey locust, cotton- 
wood, and quaking asp. A few sycamore trees are found in certain 
localities along the streams. Groves of red cedar also prevail, 
especially along Iowa and Cedar rivers, and a few isolated pine 
trees are scattered along the bluffs of some of the streams in the 
northern part of the state. Very many kinds of timber have 

22 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

been found to grow rapidly when transplanted upon the prairies, 
or when propagated from the planting of seeds. 

Prominent among the mineral interests of Iowa are her vast 
coal deposits. " In some unknown age of the past, long before 
the history of our race began, nature, by some wise process, made 
a bountiful provision for the time when, in the order of things, it 
should become necessary for civilized man to take possession of 
the broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for the lack of trees, 
she quietly stored away beneath the soil those wonderful carbon- 
iferous treasures for the use and comfort of man at the proper 
time. The increased demand for coal has, in many portions of 
the state, led to improved methods of mining, so that in many 
counties, the business is becoming a lucrative and important one, 
especially where railroads furnish the means of transportation. 
The coal field of the state embraces an area of over 20,000 
square miles, and coal is successfully mined in over thirty coun- 
ties, embracing a territory larger than the state of Massachusetts." 
Within the last year or two, many discoveries of new deposits have 
been made, and counties not previously numbered among the 
coal counties of the state, are now yielding rich returns to the 
miner. A vein of coal of excellent quality, seven feet in thick- 
ness, has been opened, and is now being successfully worked, 
about five miles southeast of Fort Dodge, in Webster county. 
Large quantities of coal are shipped from that point to Dubuque 
and the towns along the line of the Dubuque and Sioux City 
Eailroad. Three or four years ago, it was barely known that 
some coal existed in Boone county, as indicated by exposures 
along the Des Moines river, but it is only within the last two years 
that ihe coal mines of Moingona have furnished the vast supplies 
shipped along the Chicago and Northwestern Eailroad, both east 
and west. The great productive coal field of Iowa is embraced 
chiefly within the valley of the Des Moines river and its tributa- 
ries, extending up the valley from Lee county nearly to the north 
line of Webster county. Within the coal field embraced by this 
valley, deep mining is nowhere necessary. The Des Moines and 
its larger tributaries have generally cut their channels down 
through all the coal measure strata. 

The coal of Iowa is of the class known as bituminous, and ia 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

equal in quality and value to coal of the same class in other parts 
of the world. The veins which have so far been worked are from 
three to eight feet in thickness, but it is not necessary to dig from 
one thousand to two thousand feet to reach the coal, as miners are 
obliged to do in some countries. But little coal has in this state 
been raised from a depth greater than one hundred feet. 

Prof. Gustavus Hinrich of the State University, who also offici- 
ated as state chemist in the prosecution of the recent geological sur- 
vey, gives an analysis showing the comparative value of Iowa 
coal with that of other countries. The following is from a table 
prepared by him — 100 representing the combustible : 



9 d 




Brown coal, from Arbesan, Bohemia. . 

Brown coal, from Bilin, Bohemia 

Bituminous coal from Bentheu, Silisia. 
Cannel coal, from Wigan, England. . . 
Anthracite, from Pennsylvania 







In this table the excess of the equivalent above 100, expresses 
the amount of impurities (ashes and moisture), in the coal. The 
analysis shows that the average Iowa coals contain only ten parts 
of impurities for one hundred parts of combustible (carbon and 
bitumen), being the purest of all the samples analyzed, except the 
anthracite from Pennsylvania. 

The peat deposits have also proved to be extensive and valua- 
ble. These have only been known to exist for the past five or 
six years. In 1866, Dr. White, the state geologist, made careful 
observations in some of the counties, where it was supposed to 
exist. Other official examinations followed, and now it is esti- 
mated that the state contains thousands of acres of good peat 
lands. The depth of the beds is from four to ten feet, and the 
quality is but little, if any, inferior to that of Ireland. As yet, 
but little use has been made of it as a fuel, but when it is consid- 
ered that it lies wholly beyond the coal field, in a sparsely tim- 
bered region of the state, its prospective value is regarded as very 
great. Dr. White estimates that 160 acres of peat, four feet deep, 
will supply two hundred and thirteen families with fuel for up- 

General Description. 25 

ward of twenty-five years. It must not be inferred that the pres- 
ence of these peat beds in that part of the state is in any degree 
prejudicial to health, for such is not the case. The dry, rolling 
prairie land usually comes up to the very border of the peat 
marsh, and the winds, or breezes, which prevail through the sum- 
mer season, do not allow water to become stagnant. Nature 
seems to have designed these peat deposits to supply the defi- 
ciency of other material for fuel. The penetration of this portion 
of the state by railroads, and the rapid growth of timber, may 
leave a resort to peat for fuel as a matter of choice, and not of 
necessity. It therefore remains to be seen of what economic value 
in the future the peat beds of Iowa may be. Peat has also been 
found in Muscatine, Linn, Clinton, and other eastern and southern 
counties of the state, but the fertile region of northern Iowa, least 
favored with other kinds of fuel, is peculiarly the peat region of 
the state. 

The lead mines have also attracted attention for the past forty 
years. Prom four to six million pounds of ore have been smelted 
annually at the Dubuque mines, yielding from 68 to 70 per cent, 
of lead. So far as known, the lead deposits of Iowa that may be 
profitably worked are confined to a belt of four or five miles in 
width along the Mississippi above and below the city of Dubuque. 
Iron, copper, and zinc have been found in limited quantities in 
different parts of the state — the last named metal being chiefly 
associated with the lead deposits. Good material for the manu- 
facture of quicklime is found in abundance in nearly all parts of 
the state. Even in the northwestern counties, where there are but 
few exposures of rock "in place," limestone is found among the 
boulders scattered over the prairies and about the lakes. So 
abundant is limestone suitable for the manufacture of quicklime, 
that it is needless to mention any particular locality as possessing 
superior advantages in furnishing this useful building material 
At the following points parties have been engaged somewhat ex 
tensively in the manufacture of lime, to wit: Fort Dodge, Web 
ster county ; Springvale, Humboldt county ; Orford and Indian 
town, Tama county ; Iowa Falls, Hardin county ; Mitchell, Mitch 
ell county ; and at nearly all the towns along the streams north- 
east of Cedar river. 

26 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

There is no scarcity of good building stone to be found along 
nearly all the streams east of the Des Moines river, and along that 
stream from its mouth up to the north line of Humboldt county. 
Some of the counties west of the Des Moines, as Cass and Madi- 
son, as well as most of the southern counties of the state, are sup- 
plied with good building stone. In some places, as in Marshall 
and Tama counties, several species of marble are found, which 
are susceptible of the finest finish, and are very beautiful. 

One of the finest and purest deposits of gypsum known in the 
world exists at Fort Dodge in this state. It is confined to an area 
of about six by three miles on both sides of the Des Moines river, 
and is found to be from twenty-five to thirty feet in thickness. 
The main deposit is of uniform gray color, but large masses of 
almost pure white (resembling alabaster) have been found imbed- 
ded in the main deposits. The quantity of this article is practi- 
cally inexhaustible, and the time will certainly come when it will 
be a source of wealth to that part of the state. 

In nearly all parts of the state the material suitable for the man- 
ufacture of brick is found in abundance. Sand is obtained in the 
bluffs along the streams and in their beds. Potter's clay, and fire 
clay suitable for fire brick, are found in many places. An excel- 
lent article of fire brick is made at Eldora, Hardin county, where 
there are also several extensive potteries in operation. Fire clay 
is usually found underlying the coal seams. There are extensive 
potteries in operation in the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Des 
Moines, Wapello, Boone, Hamilton, Hardin, and others. 

It is supposed that there is no where upon the globe an equal 
area of surface with so small a proportion of untillable land as we 
find in Iowa. The soil is generally a drift deposit, with a deep 
covering of vegetable mold, and on the highest prairies is almost 
equal in fertility to the alluvial valleys of the rivers in other states. 
The soil in the valleys of the streams is largely alluvial, producing 
a rapid and luxuriant growth of all kinds of vegetation. The val- 
leys usually vary in extent according to the size of the stream. 
On the Iowa side of the Missouri river, from the southwest corner 
of the state to Sioux City, a distance of over one hundred and fifty 
miles, there is a continuous belt of alluvial " bottom," or valley 
land, varying in width from five to twenty miles, and of surpass- 

General Description. 27 

ing fertility. This valley is bordered by a continuous line of 
bluffs, rising from one to two hundred feet, and presenting many 
picturesque outlines when seen at a distance. The bluffs are 
composed of a peculiar formation, to which has been given the 
name of " bluff deposit." It is of a yellow color, and is composed 
of a fine silicious matter, with some clay and limy concretions. 
This deposit in many places extends eastward entirely across the 
counties bordering the Missouri river, and is of great fertility, pro- 
moting a luxuriant growth of grain and vegetables. 

In Montgomery county a fine vein of clay, containing a large 
proportion of ochre, was several years ago discovered, and has 
been extensively used in that part of the state for painting barns 
and outhouses. It is of a dark red color, and is believed to be 
equal in quality, if properly manufactured, to the mineral paints 
imported from other states. 

As before stated, the surface of Iowa is generally drained by 
the rolling or undulating character of the country, and the numer- 
ous streams, large and small. This fact might lead some to sup- 
pose that it might be difficult to procure good spring or well water 
for domestic uses. Such, however, is not the case, for good pure 
well water is easily obtained all over the state, even on the high- 
est prairies. It is rarely necessary to dig more than thirty feet 
deep to find an abundance of that most indispensable element, 
good water. Along the streams are found many springs breaking 
out from the banks, affording a constant supply of pure water. 
As a rule, it is necessary to dig deeper for well water in the tim- 
ber portions of the state, than on the prairies. Nearly all the 
spring and well waters of the state contain a small proportion of 
lime, as they do in the eastern and middle states. 



The Des Moines River — Discovery of tlie Valley — Its Early Inhabitants — 
Antiquities — Mounds — Mineral Wealtli and Early Mining. 

Nearly every state has some particular river which especially 
attracts the attention of its citizens, on which their minds delight 
to dwell, and upon which they bestow their praise. Iowa has the 
beautiful river Des Moines, on which her citizens bestow their 
eulogies. More has been said, done, and thought about this beau- 
tiful river, than all the other rivers of the state. In beauty of 
native scenery, in productiveness of soil, in mineral wealth, and 
in the many things which attract the attention, and add to the 
comfort of man, the valley of the Des Moines is not surpassed by 
any locality in the world. 

The banks of this great water course and the surrounding 
country, bear the marks of having been the home of a numerous 
people centuries in the past, and that this people were possessed 
of many of the arts of civilized life ; but of what race of people 
they were, and of the acts and scenes which have taken place in 
this beautiful-valley, we may imagine, but probably shall never 
know ; of their habits and customs they have left some marks, 
but still there is wrapped around these evidences of their doings, 
a mystery which is hard to solve. The record of this locality is 
of quite modern date. The first discovery of this river by Euro- 
peans has its romance, and the incidents attending it are apt to 
make a vivid impression upon the mind of a person when he first 
learns their history. James (Jacques) Marquette and Louis Joliet 
made a bold adventure into an unexplored wilderness, to find out 
the truth of reports made to them by the Indians, of the existence 

* We are indebted for the greater portion of this chapter to Hon. Chas. 
Negus, whose man}' valuable contributions to the historical collections of 
Iowa find their way, in some form, into this volume. 

30 TvTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

of a great river in the west. When they had paddled their canoes 
up the Fox river, crossed the Portage and reached the waters of 
the Wisconsin, their guides tried to dissuade them from further 
pursuing their journey — "telling us," says Marquette, "that we 
would meet nations that never spare strangers, but tomahawk them 
without provocation ; that they were at war with each other, 
which would increase our danger ; that the great river was full 
of perils, and of frightful monsters, which swallowed men and 
canoes ; that it contained a demon that engulfed all who dare ap- 
proach ; and lastly, that the excessive heat would infallibly cause 
our death." 

Failing to dissuade them from pursuing their journey, their 
guides returned, and left them " alone in this unknown land, in 
the hands of Providence," without any one to direct their way, 
accompanied by only five companions. Marquette and Joliet 
navigated their canoes down the Wisconsin, and in seven days, 
" they entered happily the great river (Mississippi) with a joy that 
could not be expressed." 

They did not stop here, but pursued their journey further upon 
unknown waters, and as they sailed down this magnificent stream, 
passing the numerous sand-bars, the resort of innumerable water 
fowls, glided by the man}' islands which dotted the water, covered 
with dense thickets, and viewed the lofty bluffs and extensive 
prairies, not a sign of a human being interrupted their course or 
met their vision for eight days, and they began to think this 
mighty river was dedicated alone to wild beasts and birds. About 
sixty leagues below the mouth of the Wisconsin, on the west 
bank of the Mississippi, for the first time, they discovered the 
sign of human beings. There they found in the sand, footprints 
of a man. Following these tracks, they discovered a trail leading 
across a prairie, and Marquette and Joliet leaving their canoes in 
the care of their companions, by themselves alone pursued the 
unknown path to ascertain whose feet had made it ; after walking 
about six miles, they discovered an Indian village on the bank of 
a beautiful river, and three other villages on a slope at the dis- 
tance of a mile and a half from the first. This stream was what 
is known at this time as the crystal waters of the river Des 
Moines, which at that time was called by the natives Mon-in-gon- 

Di-'S MoiXES Vallef. 31 

e-na, or Moingona. From whence came the change of name, and ' 
what the words Des and Moines mean, have been matters of some 
speculation. It has been stated by a learned historian (Bancroft, 
vol. Ill, p. 158) that Des Moines is a corruption of the Indian 
word Moingona. It has also been claimed that the meaning of 
the latter word is at the road. (Iowa Grazetteer, p. 18 ; NicoUett's 
Eeport to Congress, Feb. 16, 1841, published in 1819, pp. 22 and 
23.) It is claimed by others that the name Des Moines is of 
French derivation ; that the word cfe, or des in English means of 
the, and the word moine means monk, and is here used in the plu- I 
ral, and that the name as applied to this river means, the river of 
the monks. A monk is "a man who retires from the ordinary 
temporal concerns of this world, and devotes himself to religion ; 
monks usually live in monasteries, on entering which they take 
an oath to observe certain rules." It is claimed that there was 
once a monastery established on the banks of this beautiful stream, 
and from this circumstance it was called the river Des Moines, or 
the river of the monks. But it is believed that it will be hard to 
find any well authenticated history establishing the fact that a mon- 
astery was established in this region of country previous to this 
river bearing this name, or that any monks ever took up their 
abode in this locality. 

The voyage in which this river was discovered was prosecuted 
by two individuals of different callings, and for different purposes. 
It was patronized by the French government and the Catholic 
church ; the former, stimulated by a desire of making discov- 
eries and enlarging their possessions ; the latter by a zeal to spread 
its religion, and convert the Indians. 

It is difficult to conceive any object the church would have to 
establish a monastery here, or that this class of individuals of the 
Catholic church would have, that would cause them to desire 
to locate themselves in this far off, lonely wilderness. From 
these circumstances, to satisfactorily account why this name 
was given to this river, will require further investigation. In the 
valley, of this river, and on the banks of the Mississippi, especially 
about Montrose, they found, when these localities were first ex- 
plored, many mounds. A mound is " an artificial elevation of 
earth, terms used technically in the United States as synonymous 

32 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

with barrow, or tumuli, designating a large class of aboriginal an- 
tiquities or earth-works scattered through the valley of the Miss- 
issippi river and its tributaries." There are to be found in the 
valley " a succession of earth-works extending from the lakes 
southward to the gulf." Some of these works appear to have 
been erected for military purposes, and others in connection with 
religious ideas and the burial of the dead. Most of these 
mounds are constructed of earth, but some with earth and stone. 
These works are of various shapes ; " some square, terraced and 
ascended by graded ways ; some hexagonal, octagonal, or trun- 
cated, and ascended by spiral paths ;" and some are of enormous 
size. There is a mound " on the plain of Cahokia, in Illinois, op- 
posite the city of St. Louis, which is 700 feet long, by 500 feet 
broad at the base, and is 90 feet high, covering eight acres of 

ground, and estimated to have 20,000,000 cubic feet of con- 


' tents. In some of these works are found many relics of art, " dis- 
playing greater skill and advancement in the arts than was known 
to exist among the tribes found in occupation of this country, at 
the time of the discovery by the Europeans ; such as " elaborate 
carvings in stone pottery, often of elegant design ; articles of use 
and ornament in metal, silver and copper. Things which must have 
come from distant localities are often found side by side in the same 
mound. These monuments indicate that the ancient population 
were numerous and wide spread ; " that their customs, habits, 
religion and government were similar ; and that they pursued an 
agricultural calling ; and were possessed, to a great extent of the 
arts of civilized life, and a state of society essentially different 
from the modern race of North American Indians." These works 
bear the marks of great age. From facts gathered concerning 
them " we may deduce an age for most of the monuments of the 
Mississippi valley, of not than two thousand years. But by 
whom built, and whether their authors migrated to remote lands 
under the combined attraction of a more fertile soil, and a more 
genial climate, or whether they disappeared beneath the vic- 
torious arms of an alien race, or were swept out of existence 
by some direful epidemic or universal famine, are questions 

I probably beyond the power of human invention to answer." 

I These mounds are numerous in Iowa, and especially in the re- 

Des 3I0WES Valley. 33 

gion of the river Des Moines and the lower rapids of the Missis- 

About six miles north of Fort Madison, on the road to Burling-^ 
ton near the brow of the bluff, is a mound about thirty feet long, 1 
and fifteen feet wide, making it elliptical in form. In the spring 
of 1874, a party made an examination of the interior of the mound, 
and there was found " a large number of separate compartments, 
which were each occupied by a skeleton, and articles of flint stone 
and ornamental bones." " The compartments were constructed ' 
as follows : There was a floor made 01 limestone, which was evi- 
dently brought from a quarry some miles distant, this being the 
nearest point at which limestone could be obtained. The floor 
was regular and smooth, the best rock only being used." The 
sides of these graves seemed to have had stone walls, but when 
examined had caved in. " The roofs were made of limestone and 
closel}^ built. The contents of these compartments were a queer 
assortment of flint and curiously shaped stones. All the skeletons 
of human origin were placed in a sitting position, the knees 
drawn up, and the head leaned over between them." The arms 
were placed by the side, and sometimes dropped over the knees. 
" Besides human bones, there were bones belonging to large 
birds, also the bones of some animals, and quantities of charcoal." 
About half a mile above Montrose, and about five hundred 
yards from the river bank, on the prairie, there are five mounds, 
situated in a straight line, and evidently not the work of nature, 
but of some anterior race. Their height is about eight feet, and 
their circumference about one hundred, all nearly of a uni- 
form size. At Kilbourne, in Van Buren county, there are three 
mounds, on an elevated piece of ground in the back part of the 
town, in close proximity to each other, which, when built, must 
have been of a large size. On the middle one, since the countr}^ 
has been settled by the whites, there has been a cabin built and a 
. large excavation made for a cellar, which has much changed its 
■ natural appearance, and the other two have been plowed over till 
they are much flattened down from what they were originally. A 
little east of the town, on the brow of a high bluff, there are eight 
mounds in close proximity to each other. These mounds are lo- 
cated in a straight row, measure from thirtv to forty feet across 

34 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

their bases, and are from three to four feet high. About a quarter 
of a mile northeast from them there is another mound, about one 
hundred and fifty feet in circumference, and about five feet high. 
This mound has been dug into in the center to the depth of eight 
feet, but nothing discovered except that the earth showed that it 
is artificial work ; for, after digging to a level with the surround- 
ing countr}', the earth was found jo be of a dark color, like prai- 
rie soil. About two miles southeast of Kilbourne, on the south 
side of the river, there are two mounds, about fifty yards from 
each other. These mounds are about one hundred and thirty 

' feet in circumference, and about six feet high, both of which have 
been dug into and human bones discovered. About a mile from 
lowaville, on a^high bluff on the northeast quarter of section 
five, township seventy, range eleven, there are six mounds of 
nearly uniform size, each about ninety feet in circumference and 
about four feet in height, so close together that their bases touch. 
About a third of a mile, across a deep ravine, on a high hill east 
of these, there is another mound, which is fifty feet across its 
base and about five feet high. On the prairie, within the bounds 
of the laid out town of lowaville, and on the prairie back of it, 
there are a large number of tumuli, but none of them exceed 

I two feet in height, are not symmetrical in form or placed in rele- 
vant position to each other like the work of the mound-builders, 
and it is not likely they were built by them. Here was once the 
noted village of the Iowa Indians. The prairie is level, and, in 
wet seasons, the water does not readily run from it. These eleva- 
tions of the earth were probably made by the Indians on which 
to build their wigwams, so that they might not be exposed to 

In Wapello county, there is a chain of mounds, "commencing 
near the mouth of Sugar creek, and extending twelve miles to 
the northwest, at a distance between them reaching as far as two 
miles. The one nearest the Des Moines is one hundred and forty 
feet in circumference, and is situated on an eminence — the high- 
est point in the vicinity. The second mound lies directly north 
of the first, at a distance of about one-fourth of a mile. This 
mound is two hundred and twenty-six feet in circumference. In 
May, 187-i, a party made an examination of the larger mound, 


36 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

and, upon digging into the center, they found 'a ledge of stones 
a* the depth of four feet, which bore all the marks of having 
passed through a fire.' They also found 'a mass of charcoal, a 
bed of ashes and calcined human bones.' " 

In sections 30 and 31, in township 72 north, of range 10 west, 
Jefferson county, there is some romantic and picturesque scenery. 
Here may be seen the waters of the Cedar meandering their 
course along its zigzag channel ; sometimes swift and turbid, over- 
flowing its banks, and attaining the size of a large river, but most 
of the time quietly and gently moving along as clear as a moun- 
tain spring. On the south side of this stream the ground is low 
and level, interspersed with small prairies and groves of timber, 
with here and there a little pond. On the north side, the country 
is elevated and very broken, being interspersed with high hills 
and deep ravines ; and, at the first settlement of the country, for 
a long distance, it was mostly a forest of woodland. At one point, 
for a number of rods, a high bluff comes up to the stream on 
one side, and a beautiful low prairie of several acres stretches out 
from the bank of the creek on the other. 

i At the first settlement of this country, the bluff on the north 
side, from the bank of the creek for some thirty feet or more high, 
was nearly perpendicular, and mostly composed of a solid sand- 
stone, and then, for several feet more, gently sloping back, were 
earth and rock. This location must have been a place of attrac- 
tion and visited by those who had some knowledge of the arts of 
civilization, long before Iowa was permitted to be settled by the 
whites ; for when this place was first seen by the early settlers of 
the country, at a point on this bluff' most difficult of access, near 
the top, there was discovered bedded in and firmly bolted on to 
the solid sand rock an iron cross, the shaft of which was about 
three feet, and the crossbar eighteen inches long. A short dis- 
tance from this place, a little northeast, on the summit of a high 
ridge, there is a series of mounds which give evidence of hav- 
ing been built by human hands many years in the past. These 
mounds are from twenty to fifty feet across from their bases, and 
from three to five feet high. 

Since the settlement of this country, this sand stone bluff has 
very much changed its appearance, and no longer presents the 

Des Moines Valley. 37 

lofty form of earlier days. Large quantities of rock have been 
quarried out and taken away for building purposes ; so niuch so 
that instead of being almost perpendicular, it now presents a 
gradual slope, and the rock on which was fastened the iron 
cross has been undermined and tumbled down from its elevated 
position, and the cross has been pried o2 and carried away by 
the seekers of curiosities.* 

Sac City, the county seat of Sac county, is situated on a beauti- 
ful site in the bend of the Eaecoon river, within the limits 
of this town " arranged on a general direction from northeast to 
southwest, but without regular order, the distance between the ex- 
tremities in that direction being a little less than six hundred feet, 
and in the transverse direction, less than one hundred feet." Two 
of these mounds are elliptical in form and the others are circular. 
The two elliptical ones are located farthest to the northeast. 
One of the elliptical mounds is ninety feet in diameter east and 
west, and thirty feet north and south, and two feet high ; the other, 
sixty by thirty feet and two feet high. The circular mounds 
range from sixty to eighty feet in diameter, and from two and 
one-half to six feet high. These have been dug into, but no hu- 
man bones or works of art have been discovered. 

These works are peculiar to the valley of the Mississippi and its I 
tributaries, and are not found in European countries, and when' 
the French took possession of this country, they had to designate 
them by some name, and called them Moines ; and from the fact 
that there were a great many mounds in the valley of the river 
Des M(jines, and about the lower rapids of the Mississippi, es- ■' 
pecially, at and near Montrose, it was reasonable to suppose that 
the Indian name of Moingona was abandoned, and that this river 
and these rapids were designated by the French as the river Des 
Moines, and the rapids Des Moines, which mean the river of the 
Mounds, and the rapids of the Mounds. Gen. Pike and other 
early writers in speaking of this river, and these rapids, call them 
the river Des Moines and the rapids Des Moines. But in the act 
of congress, defining the boundaries of the State of Missouri, it 

* A portion of this cross is uow in possession of the family of Hon. Chas. 
Negus, the author of this slcetch. It has the appearance of having been iong 
exposed to the weather. 

38 Tvttle's History of lon^A. 

describes the line of the northern boundary as being on the 
" parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the river 
Des Moines." From these words, after the settlement of Iowa, 
the Missourians claimed the rapids referred to were in the great 
bend of the river near the town of Keosanqua, and set up title 
* and claimed jurisdiction over the territory in Iowa to a line due 
west through that point, which was the cause of much ill feeling 
between the authorities and citizens of the two governments, and 
the means of calling into requisition the civil and military author- 
ities of both parties interested, and of a lengthy litigation in the 
United States supreme court. All of which would probably have 
been avoided, had the true meaning of the words been understood, 
or the rapids described as the rapids of the Mounds. 

The river Des Moines was embraced in the " Louisiana pur- 
chase " and came in the possession of the United States, April 
30, 1803. The contracting parties at that time knew but lit- 
tle of the beautiful scenery and rich soil skirting the banks of this 
river, and little did they calculate the vast population that was 
to reside, and the wealth that would be accumulated, here in this 
great valley. This locality must have especially attracted the at- 
tention of the French and Spanish Indian traders before the 
United States became possessed of it, for Gen. Pike in his report 
of the exploration of the Mississppi in 1805, gives the names of 
five forts and two places on his map, located on this river, but he 
did not tell when they were made, or by whom occupiea. Not 
only did this locality attract the attention of the French and Span- 
ish traders, but as soon as the whites were permitted to take' pos- 
session of Iowa soil as their own, the valley Des Moines, especially, 
attracted the attention of the emigrant, and of the first purchases 
from the Indians, this part of Iowa, for many j'ears, had a more 
dense population than any other part of the territory, and Farm- 
ington and Keasauqua, for a long time, were the most noted towns 
on the Mississippi river. 

Within the limits of Iowa, is in part located the] most import- 
ant lead region in the country, excepting the Missouri lead mines. 
This region embraces a district of country about sixty miles in 
diameter, of which about one-half is in Wisconsin, and the re- 
mainder is equally distributed in Iowa and Illinois. The Missis- 

Des Moines Valley. 39- 

sippi river cuts through the southwestern portion of the region. 
The Dubuque district is about sixty miles in length by seven to 
ten miles in width. The richest deposits are within the corporate 
limits of Dubuque, and they decrease in value toward the borders 
of the district. The Dubuque mines were purchased of the Indi- 
ans in 1788, at Prairie du Chieu, Wis., by Julian Dubuque, who 
worked them successfully. An account of this individual will be 
found in an early part of this volume. In 1833, the Indian title 
was extinguished, and mining subsequently began. From the 
surface of the river to the top of the bluffs there are four distinct 
strata. On the surface, a clay soil, varying in depth from eight to 
twenty feet ; below the clay, shale, of which the thickness is five 
to twenty feet ; next, Galena limestone, the lead bearing rock and 
the blue or Trenton limestone. An obstacle to success has been 
the water, which appears to be equally diffused over the mining 
regions. The pumps, driven by machinery, have produced only 
a temporary effect on its diminution. Beyond this, they have 
been found to be not only costly, but useless. In a large number 
of instances, .some of the heaviest lodes have been worked into the 
water at the very point where the yield has been of the most lu- 
crative kind. A plan of drainage has now been commenced by 
means of an adit, which has been run about twelve hundred feet, 
and is to be extended about one mile. It is to be made in solid 
rock, with an average height of ten feet and a width of about four 
feet. It is expected to drain off the water of a section of country, 
of an average of between one and two miles. More than sixty mil- 
lions of pounds have been taken from the clay diggings b}' some 
of the parties at work in the region expected to be thus drained. 
The amount of lead produced from the entire region in the three 
states, in 1860, was in value as follows : Illinois, $72,953 ; Iowa, 
$160,500 ; Wisconsin, $825,368. The annual yield of these mines, 
of the Dubuque region, ranges from five to ten millions of pounds. 
To show the productiveness of the lead region country in early 
times, the following extract is taken from a memorial of inhabit- 
ants residing in the mining country of the territory of Michigan, 
made to congress in the year 1829 : " Your memoralists ask the 
attention of your honorable body to the following statement, show- 
ing the quantity of lead manufactured at the upper Mississippi 

40 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

lead mines from 1821 to September 30, 1828. The whole quan- 
tity of lead made, during that period, was 18,421,772 pounds; 
from the 30th of September, 1827, to September 30, 1828, of 
that quantity, 11,805,810, was manufactured at the mines, and 
the probable quantity made from September 30, 1828 to 1829, will 
be equal to about ten millions ; making the quantity manu- 
factured, the two last years, equal to 21,105,810 pounds." The 
memorialists prayed for the passage of an act of congress defining 
the powers and duties of the officers, employed by the general 
government, for the government of the mines, and the passage of 
such laws as may be necessary, and will comport with the interest 
of the government and the rights of the people of the min- 
ing country. 



Chronology of Political Jurisdiction from 1763 to 1845 — Visit of Joliet and 
Marquette — Their Early Experiences among the Indians in Iowa — Lou- 
isiana — French Possession. 

The early history of what is now known as the state of Iowa, 
is very much the same as that of other states and territories lying 
in that portion ofjthe United States northwest of the Ohio river. 
The teriitory has experienced various changes of ownership and 
jurisdiction, as also all the present possessions of the government 
west of the river Mississippi (except the territory since obtained 
from Mexico and Eussia). It was claimed by France, by right of 
discovery and occupation, until 1763, at the close of what is 
known in our history as the " Old French War," and in Europe 
as the "Seventeen Years War," when it was ceded to Spain ; and 
on October 1, 1800, by the treaty at St. Idlefonzo, Spain retro- 
ceded it to France. 

By a treaty made April 30, 1803, and commonly known as the 
"Louisiana Purchase," all the above named territory was ceded 
to the United States, in consideration of the sum of $11,250,000, 
and the liquidation of certain claims held by citizens of the United 
States against France. On the 1st of October, 1804, by act of 
congress, what is now the state of Iowa, with other western terri- 
tory, was organized and placed under the jurisdiction of the terri- 
torial government of Indiana, under the name of the " District of 
Louisiana." On the 4th of July, 1805, under an act of congress, 
approved March 5th, 1805, the "District of Louisiana," was re- 
organized under the name of the "Territory of Louisiana." In 
December, 1812, through an act of congress, it was again reorgan- 
ized under the name of the " Territory of Missouri." Through 
an act of congress, of June 28, 1834, it underwent another trans 

Earlt Histobt. 43 

formation, and what is now Iowa was made a part of the " Terri- 
tory of Michigan," and on July 3, 1836, with the addition of the 
present states of Wisconsin and Minnesota, was again given a new 
name and government by being organized into the " Territory of 
Wisconsin." On July 3, 1838, another change took place ; all 
of Iowa, and most of what is now Minnesota, being erected into 
the "Territory of Iowa." In March, 1845, provision was made 
by congress for the admission of Iowa as a state ; the boundaries 
prescribed by the act not meeting the approval of the people of 
Iowa, the act was rejected ; various boundaries were proposed by 
congress and the people, and finally, the present bounds of the 
state were agreed upon, and on December 28, 1846, Iowa was 
admitted as the twenty-ninth of the United States, being the six- 
teenth admitted under the federal constitution. 

The first Europeans that visited the present state, as far as we 
have knowledge, were M. Joliet, and Father Marquette, who were 
sent by the French government " to discover a passage to the 
South Sea." The former was appointed to this work, and Mar- 
quette missionary. These two celebrated explorers arrived at 
Green Bay, June 7. 1673, and with a party of seven Frenchmen 
and two Miami guides, passed up the Fox river to the Portage, 
crossed over to the Wisconsin, and slowly sailed down its current, 
amid its vine clad isles and countless sandbars, and after sailing 
seven days without seeing a human form, on the 17th of June, 
glided into the great river. Passing down the Mississippi, the 
first landing made by them was on the 21st of June, four days 
after they entered the river. They landed on the western bank 
where, says Marquette, " We discovered footprints of some fellow 
mortals, and a little path or trail, leading into a pleasant meadow. 
Following the trail a short distance, we heard the savages talking, 
and making our presence known by a loud cry, we were received 
by the Indians, and were led to the village of the Illinois, where 
we were treated with much kindness." Marquette farther states 
that as the party reached the village, an old man arose, perfectly 
nude, with his hands stretched out and raised toward the sun, 
as if he wished to screen himself from its rays, which nevertheless 
passed through his fingers to his face. When he came near them, 
he said : " How beautiful is the sun, Frenchmen, when thou 

44 TvTTLifs History of Iowa. 

comest to visit us ! All our town awaits thee, and thou shalt enter 
all our cabins in peace." A great feast was subsequently pre- 
pared for the guests, consisting of sagamity and fish, and for a 
third dish they produced a large dog, which was regarded as a 
choice dish, and prepared only for distinguished guests ; and a 
fourth dish consisted of a piece of wild ox. which concluded the 

The spot where the travelers landed, from the description given 
by them, was at the site of the present city of Davenport, and 
from the fact that an Indian village had been located there from 
time immemorial, it would seem that there the soil of Iowa was 
first pressed by the foot of the white man. These French explor- 
ers were the first to pass through the present state of Wisconsin, 
and to discover an upper Mississippi, and also to land on the ter- 
ritory of Iowa. 

Seven years after, in 1680, Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan friar 
and missionary, passed along the whole eastern shore of Iowa, 
ascending the Mississippi from the Illinois river. Two years 
after, La Salle entered the Mississippi by the same river and 
passed down to the Gulf of Mexico. On the 9th of April, 1682, 
he unfurled the banner of the king of France at the mouth of the 
great river, and in the name of his sovereign, took formal pos- 
session of the whole country watered by it, and by all streams 
that flow into it. In this act, he named the country Louisiana ; 
and thus, the mighty valley lying between the Alleghany and 
the summit of the Hooky mountains, embracing one-fortieth of 
the land surface of the globe, and constituting, in the language 
of De Tocqueville, " the most magnificent dwelling place pre- 
pared by God for man," came into the hands of France. The 
victory of Wolfe over Montcalm at Quebec, in September, 1759, 
gave the possession of Canada to Great Britain, and blotted out 
the name of New France, causing an entire reconstruction of 
the map of America. As a result of treaties, the territory 
now embraced in the state of Iowa, with the whole of Louisiana, 
lying west of the Mississippi river and the city of New Orleans, 
was ceded to Spain. Meanwhile, by a secret treaty (October, 1800), 
Louisiana was retroceded to France. Afterward, before formal 
possession was taken (November 80. 1803), France sold it to the 

Early Histoby. 45 

United States (April 80, 1803), for eighty million of francs, and 
the transfer was made at New Orleans, December 20, 1803. 

Thus, for one hundred and thirty years after its discovery, 
the territory now composing the state of Iowa remained under 
the dominion, ikst of France, then of Spain. During this period, 
the savage roamed over the prairies and the trader coursed up 
and down the rivers. No European institution found a foothold. 
No mortal eye is known to have observed, with any distinctivness, 
the great resources of a state now attracting the eyes of the civil- 
ized world, but elsewhere events were transpiring calculated to 
reach the hand of energy and enterprise over the broad prairies 
of Iowa. 

At only two points are any traces of the dominion of the Span- 
iards, viz. : at Dubuque and Montrose. 



First Sattlement. — .Julian Dubuque — His Wonderful Purchase from the 
Indians — His Characteristics — Spanish Land Grants. 

The first white person who made a residence within the 
present limits of the state of Iowa is believed to have been 
Julien Dubuque, who, on the 22d of September, 1788, at Prairie 
du Chien in what is now the state of Wisconsin, purchased from 
the Fox Indians a large tract of land situated in what was after- 
wards known as the Dubuque Land District. This tract is con- 
tiguous to and bordering on the Mississippi, and extends from 
the mouth of Little Makoketa river to the mouth of the Musqua- 
bineque creek, now called Tete des Morts. This conveyance was 
signed by chiefs, Blondean Basib-Piar, Ala Austen, Quirneau, 
Tobaque and Antaque, and the deed issued to Julien Dubuque, 
called by the Indians, the "Little Night" (la petit nuit). In 
consideration of this grant, Dubuque delivered to the Indians 
certain goods in full payment. Mr. Dubuque appears to have 
occupied the land deeded to him, and made improvements thereon, 
consisting of the clearing and preparation of an extensive farm, 
the erection of a horse mill and houses to dwell in, and until the 
22d day of October, 1796, cultivated the farm, worked the lead 
mines on the land, smelting the lead in a furnace he had caused 
to be constructed. The district of country at that time was situ- 
ated in the dominions subject to the king of Spain, and consti- 
tuted part of what was then known as the Spanish province of 
Louisiana. On the 22d of October, 1796, at the city of New 
Orleans, Dubuque presented to the Baron de Oarondelet, Acting 
Governor General of the province, a petition for a confirmation 
of the grant by the Spanish government of his interest in said 

48 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

land, which, on the 10th of November, the Governor General 
granted. On the 20th of October, 1804, at St. Louis, Dubuque 
deeded to Auguste Chouteau, for the sum of $10,848.60, 72,324 
arpens of land, a part of said tract. The whole number of acres, 
comprising the original grant bj the Indians, was 148,176 arpens, 
forming in superficies, " about twenty -one leagues, beginning at 
the heights of Mesquatte Manque, being the front of the Missis- 
sippi seven leagues, by depth three leagues, the whole forming 
the tract known as the "Spanish Mines." 

Of this early settler of Iowa, we learn that he was also an 
Indian trader ; that he adopted the manners and customs of the 
Indians, married into their tribes and became a chief among 
them. He is said to have been of French and Spanish parentage, 
of small stature, greatly addicted to the vices incident to the com- 
mingling of Spanish and Indian races in America, and a great 
medicine man. He would take live snakes of the most veno- 
mous kinds on his arms and bosom, and was, consquently, 
regarded by the Indians with superstitious veneration. He died 
March 20, 1810, aged 45 years, and was buried on a high, bluff 
that overlooks the river near the mouth of the Catfish creek. 

Towards the clo-e of the last century Lewis Fresson, alias Honore, 
a Canadian, came down from Prairie du Chien to the head of the 
lower rapids, among the Sacs and Foxes at their invitation, and 
established a trading post. The lieutenant governor of Upper 
Louisiana, Zenon Trudeau, gave him permission at St; Louis, 
March 30, 1799, to settle there with the concessions of a sufficient 
space "to make the establishment valuable and useful to the 
commerce of peltries, to watch the Indians, and keep them on the 
fidelity they owe to their majesty." He lived there with his family 
several years, surrounded his establishment with pickets and rail 
fences, erected buildings and a trading house, planted gardens and 
an orchard of a hundred trees. Falling in debt at St. Louis, the 
whole property was seized on the 27th of March, 1803, under 
the Spanish law, and offered at public sale at the door of the Par- 
ish church in St. Louis, at the conclusion of high mass, the people 
, coming out in great numbers. After due notice, given in a high 
and intelligible voice by the public crier of the town on three suc- 
cessive Sundays, the property was sold on the 15th of May and 

The Two Fibst Settlers. 49 

brought one hundred and fifty dollars. These particulars indi- 
cate the manner of transacting business seventy-two years ago; 
and because this grant and sale constitute the oldest legal title to 
land in Iowa, and are the only acts under the Spanish administra- 
tion and law that have afiEected the disposition of any portion of 
the soil of the state, they are worthy of record. They were con- 
firmed by the United States and sustained by the supreme court 
against those holding other claims, in 1852. 



Sacs and Foxes — Other Tribes — Their Locations — Characteristics — Tribal 

Thus far the discovery and history of what is now the state of 
Iowa, with incidental circumstances of two of the early settlers 
within its borders, have been noticed, and before referring to sub- 
sequent events connected with the permanent settlement of the 
country, it is proper to give some account of those who were its 
original proprietors. The relations of the aborigines are so in- 
timately interwoven with the pioneer history of the state, that it 
is proper to devote some space to those who formerly occupied, 
and inhabited ttie beautiful prairies of Iowa. 

At the time of the acquiring by the United States of the country 
west of the Mississippi river, most of the territory now embraced 
within the limits of Iowa was in the possession of the Sac and Fox 
Indians, who at one time had been a powerful nation, and were 
in the possession of a large tract of countr3'. Those Indians were 
formerly two distinct nations, and resided on the waters of the 
St. Lawrence ; but for many years before they left Iowa, they- 
lived together and were considered one people, though they kept 
up some customs among themselves, calculated to maintain a 
separate name and language. 

The Foxes first moved to the west and settled in the vicinity 
of Green Bay, on lake Michigan. But they had become involved 
in wars with the French and neighboring tribes, and were so much 
reduced in numbers that they were unable to sustain themselves 
against their hostile neighbors. 

The Sacs had been engaged in a war with the Iroquois, or Six 
Nations who occupied the country which now composes the state 
of New York, and had become so weak thai thev were forcetl to 

The Ixdiaxs of Iowa. 51 

leave their old hunting grounds and move to the west. They 
found the Foxes, their old neighbors, like themselves reduced in 
numbers by the misfortunes of war, and from a matter of necessity, 
as well of sympathy, they united their fortunes together and be- 
came one people ; and as such remained so long as they lived 
within the limits of Iowa, and probably will, so long as they 
remain a nation. The date of their emigration from the St. Law- 
rence is not definitely known. Father Hennepin speaks of thei. 
Fox Indians being at Green Bay in 1680, which was at that time 
called the Bay of Puants. 

After the union of the Sacs and Foxes at Green Bay, and when 
their nation had become powerful, they crossed over and extended 
their hunting grounds west to the Mississippi, and uniting with 
other tribes, began to act on the defensive. 

All the valley from Eock river to the Ohio, on the east of the 
Mississippi, and on the west up to the Des Moines river, was in- 
habited by a numerous and warlike nation of Indians called the 
Minneways, signifying '-men." This great nation was divided 
into different bands, known by various names, such as the Illinois, 
Gahokins, Kaskaskins, Peorias, etc., and occupied separate parts 
of the valley. This nation had long been prosperous and power- 
ful, and feared and dreaded by other nations ; but a circumstance 
happened which brought the vengeance of their neighbors upon 
them, and they in turn were humbled. Pontiac, a chief very 
much beloved and respected by his people, had been wantonly 
murdered by some of the Minneways. This act aroused the anger 
of the Sacs and Foxes, and, forming an alliance with other tribes, 
they commenced a fierce and bloody war against the different 
bands of the Minneways. This war was continued till that great 
nation was nearly destroyed, and their hunting grounds possessed 
by their enemies. At the time the United States made the Lou- 
isiana purchase, the Sac and Fox nations were in possession of 
most of the state of Illinois, and nearly all the country west of the 
Mississippi between the upper Iowa river and the Jeffreon, in 
Missouri, west of the Missouri river. The Sacs bad four large 
villages where most of them resided, one at the head of Des 
Moines rapids, near where Montrose is now located, which con- 
sisted of thirteen lodges ; the second village was on the east shore 

52 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

of the Mississippi near the mouth of the Henderson river, about 
half way between Burlington and Oquawkee. The third village 
was located on Eock river, about three miles from the Mississippi, 
which was their largest and principal village. The other was on 
the west side of the river near the mouth of the upper Iowa. 

The Foxes (or Eeynards) had three villages ; one on the west 
side of the Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock river ; 
the second, " twelve miles in the rear of the lead mines at Du- 
buque ; " and the other on Turkey river. 

The lowas, who may be regarded as a band of the Sacs and 
Foxes, at this time had one village near the mouth of the lower 
Iowa river, and another on the north side of the Des Moines, near 
where is now located the town of lowaville. These Indians had 
their separate villages and different chiefs, but they occupied in 
common the same hunting grounds, were united in their wars 
and alliances, and the Sacs, Foxes and lowas were generally re- 
garded as one nation. It appears that the lowas, at one time 
were identified with the Sacs who lived on Rock river ; but, from 
some cause, at a period not generally known, there were eight 
families who left that village and started out as a band by them- 
selves, and for a long time " they recognized eight leading fami- 
lies" in their band. "These clans bear the title or name of the 
particular animal or bird from which they are supposed to have 
sprung," and they were known as the Eagle, the Pigeon, the 
Wolf, the Bear, the Elk, the Beaver, and the Snake Indians. 
" These families were known severally in the tribe by the pecu- 
liar manner in which they cut their hair. The Eagle family was 
marked by two locks of hair on the front part of the head and 
one on the back left part ; the Wolf family had scattered bunches 
of hair representing islands, whence their families were supposed 
to have sprung; the Bear family left one side of the hair of the 
head to grow much longer than the other; the Buffalo family left 
a strip of hair long from the front to the rear part of the head, 
with two bunches on each side to represent horns." The other 
families, with their peculiar bodies, were lost or had become ex- 
tinct long Before they left Iowa. In 1830, and for many years 
after, the lowas were estimated at about 1,100 souls; but in 18i8, 
thev were stated to be a fraction under 750 ; and, in 1852, the 

54 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

Sacs only numbered about 1,300, and the Foxes about 700, which 
indicates that this once powerful nation will soon become extinct. 
When the lowas left their village on the Des Moines, they 
''ascended the Missouri river to a point of land formed by a 
small stream on its east shore, called by the Indians Fish creek, 
which flows in from the direction of, and not far from the Red Pipe 
stone quarry, many hundred miles from their former village. 
The nation, composed of the Sacs, Foxes and lowas, and par- 
ticularly those about Eock river, raised large quantities of corn, 
beans and melons, more than they wanted for their own use, and 
frequently sold large quantities to the traders, and probably cul- 
tivated the soil to a greater extent than any other Indians in the 
West. At this time, besides the Indian population, many por- 
tions of Iowa had been traversed by the French, who had pene- 
trated the wilderness, either in the pursuit of minerals or to carry 
on a trade with the Indians. The history of these operations is 
obscure and but little known. They must have carried on quite 
an extensive business in the valley of the Des Moines, for Gen. 
Pike, on his map of the Mississippi valley, published with the 
report of his tour in 1805, lays down four forts on the Des Moines 
river : Fort Crawford on the south side, a short distance below 
where the town of Portland has been laid out ; Fort Gelaspy, 
nearly opposite to lowaville ; Fort St. Thomas, very near, if not 
on the very spot, where the town of Chillicothe is now located ; 
and another fort a short distance below, on the north side of the 
river ; and there were, long after this country was settled by the 
whites, many indications to be seen of settlements having been 
made, by other people than the Indians, along the banks of this 
beautiful river. 

North of the hunting grounds of the Sacs and Foxes, were the 
Sioux. In 1805, their possessions embraced a portion of the 
north and northwest part of Iowa, extending from the Mississippi 
to some distance south of the Missouri river, and north to the south 
side of the St. Peters river; and they sometimes hunted on the 
east side of the Mississippi. The Sioux were divided into sev- 
eral bands, and known by different names, each band having 
their own chief. There were the Miuowa, Rangtons (or Gens de 
Lac), who resided on the lower waters of the St. Peters, and this 

The IxDiANs of Iowa. 55 

band was again divided into four subdivisions. The principal 
chief of this division was La Fienelle or Wabashaw, who was 
friendly in his intercourse with Gen. Pike. The second band 
were the Washpetongs (or Grens des Fienelles), who inhabited the 
upper waters of the Wason-qui-ani. The third band were the 
Sussitongs, who occupied the country on the Mississippi above 
the Minowa Eangtons. This band was divided into two sub- 
divisions, called the Cawrees and the Sussitongs proper, and each 
had their separate chiefs. The fourth division was called the 
Yanctongs of the North and the Yanctongs of the South. The 
fifth division were the Titongs, who were dispersed on both sides 
of the Missouri. The}' were divided into two divisions, known 
as the north and south bands. The Titons and Yanctongs were 
never stationary. The immense plains, over which they were 
constantly roving, rendered it impossible to point out their pre- 
cise place of habitation. They had a number of horses on which 
they traveled ; and, if seen in a certain place one day, frequently 
in ten days after they might be found five hundred miles from 
there. They moved with a rapidity hardly to be credited, and 
felt themselves equally at home in every place. These bands 
were reputed to be the most warlike and savage of all the Sioux. 
The sixth division were the Washpacoutes. Their hunting grounds 
were the head waters of the Des Moines, and they were consid- 
ered the most stupid and inactive of any of the Sioux nations. 
The Sioux have long been noted as the most warlike and power- 
ful nation of Indians within the limits of the United States, and 
have, for the most of the time, been at war with some other na- 
tion, though they have generally cultivated friendly feelings to- 
ward the whites. 

The Puants or Winnebagoes occupied the northern part of Illi- 
ntiis and the southern part of Wisconsin. They had seven large 
villages, situated so near each other that their warriors could be 
assembled in a few days' time. They were ferocious in their dis- 
position, and noted for their cruelty and treachery. The Sacs and 
Foxes had a fierce war with their neighbors, the Winnebagoes, 
and after subduing them and taking possession of their lands, 
they established their principal village on Eock river, near its 
junction with the Mississippi. This village at one time contained 

56 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

upwards of sixty lodges, and was among tbe largest Indian vil- 
lages on the continent. In 1825, the secretary of war estimated 
their entire number at 4,600 souls ; and in 1826, their warriors 
were supposed to number between 1,200 and 1,400. This village 
was situated in the immediate vicinity of the upper rapids of the 
Mississippi, where the beautiful and flourishing cities of Eock 
Island and Davenport are located. The beautiful scenery of the 
island, the extensive prairies dotted over with groves, the pictur- 
esque bluflEs along the river banks, the rich and productive soil, 
producing large crops of corn, pumpkins and other vegetables, 
with little labor; the abundance of wild fruit, game and fish, and 
almost everything calculated to make it a delightful spot for an 
Indian village, which was found there, had made this place a 
favorite resort of the Indians ; and the whole nation had become 
so much attached to this location, that they yielded it to the white 
man with a great deal of reluctance ; and their being required by 
the government to leave this cherished home, was the principal 
cause of the " Black Hawk war." 



Treatj' on the Muskingum — Upper and Lower Louisiana — Black Hawl^ — 
History of the Early Life of this Noted Chief. 

Havikg thus given an account of the Indian tribes that occu- 
pied the present slate at an earlj day, soine notice of the various 
treaties made with the Indians by the United States, after the 
latter had obtained possession of the country, will be given, and 
the subsequent events connected with the early history of this 
section of country. The first treaty ever held by the government 
of the United States with the Indians of the northwest, was had 
on the Muskingum river at Fort Hamer, on the 9th of January, 
1789, and was conducted by Arthur St. Clair, governor of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio river, on the part of the United 
States. At this treaty, the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippe- 
wa and Pottawattamie tribes were represented by their sachems 
and warriors ; and the territory of Iowa was also represented by 
two chiefs of the Sacs. The principal object of this treaty seems 
to have been to make peace and friendship between the several 
tribes, and to establish and confirm the boundary between the 
United States and the Indians. 

On the 21st of March, 1801, Spain retroceded her possession of 
this valley to France, and Bonaparte showing a disposition to dis- 
pose of the territory. President Jefferson entered into a negotia- 
tion for the purchase of these possessions, and on the 30th of 
April, 1803, a treaty was concluded by which France ceded to 
the United States the whole of her dominion in the Mississippi 
valley. This country had been known as upper and lower Lou- 
isiana ; New Orleans being the capital of the lower territory, and 
St. Louis of the upper. On the 20th of December, 1803, lower 
Louisiana was delivered up to the authorities of the United States, 


58 TuTTLtfs HlSTOBY OF lOifA. > 

and on the 9th of March, 1804, upper Louisiana was surrendered ; 
and Wm. C. C. Claiborne was appointed governor of the lower, 
and Amos Stoddard of the upper territory. 

Upper Louisiana embraced within its boundary of her territory, 
what now composes the state of Iowa, at that time a wilderness, 
the hunting ground of the Indian. Though it had been almost a 
century and a half since this fertile country, with its numerous 
navigable waters, had been known to the civilized world, as yet 
the advance of civilization had made slow progress in the country 
west of the Mississippi. The long and tedious journey by land, 
or the slow and laborious work of paddling a canoe, made the 
settlement of this country an enterprise so dif&cult and hazardous, 
that none but the most daring would venture the undertaking. 
On the 26th of March, 1804, congress passed an act establishing 
the boundaries between upper and lower Louisiana. The lower 
country was called the territory of New Orleans, and the upper, 
the district of Louisiana. The white population of the district 
then embraced in that part of the territory which now includes 
the states of Arkansas, Missouri and Iowa, had recently been 
somewhat augmented from the old French settlements on the 
other side of the river, and by Anglo American adventurers. The 
whole white population did not exceed three or four thousand in 
the whole district, and emigration to this region was not encour- 
aged by the American, for the government of the United States 
had conceived the idea of reserving this country for the Indians, 
and the President was authorized to propose to the tribes east of 
the Mississippi an exchange of lands for those on the west side of 
the river. The district of Louisiana, by the same act dividing 
the territory, was attached to the territory of Indiana for political 
and judicial purposes ; but nearly the whole country embraced in 
the territory of Indiana thus formed, belonged to the Indians. 
The United States, being anxious to purchase from the Indians a 
portion of their lands, look steps to aceotnplish their object. 

On the 27th of June, 180-4, Wm. H. Harrison, afterwards pres- 
ident of the United States, then governor of Indiana territory, 
and by the act of the 26th of March, governor of the district of 
Louisiana, and superintendent of Indian affairs, was instructed by 
Jefferson to hold a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, and if possi- 

60 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

ble, to obtain from them a tract of land. In pursuance with these 
instructions, Harrison, in the month of November, 180-i, met at 
St. Louis, five chiefs from these Indians, and made a treaty with 
them, by which the said chiefs conveyed to the United States 
their lands east of the Mississippi, and a large tract on the west, 
for which they received at the time two thousand two hundred 
and thirty-four and one-half dollars in goods, and were to receive 
a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars. The United States 
were bound never to interrupt the Indians in the possession of 
land rightfully held by them, and also agreed to protect them in 
the quiet enjoyment of the same. There were also several other 
stipulations made in reference to their mutual interests. 

Soon after making this treaty, the United States commenced the 
erection of Fort Edwards, now Warsaw, 111., within the limits of 
the then recently acquired territory, which gave much uneasiness 
to the Indians. The government also erected Fort Madison on 
the west side of the Mississippi in the territory not ceded by the 
Indians, about ten miles above the Des Moines rapids. This fort 
was constructed by Col. Zachary Taylor, and named in honor of 
President Madison. The erection of this fort at this point by any 
reasonable construction, was a violation of the treaty of 1804. 
By the eleventh article of the treaty, the United States had a 
right to build a fort in the vicinity of the mouth of the Wiscon- 
sin river ; but that would not by any fair construction, authorize 
them to construct a fort where this was located : and by article 
sixth they had bound themselves, '• that if any citizens of the 
United States, or any other white persons, should form a settle- 
ment upon their lands, such intruders should forthwith be re- 
moved;" yet tha government, notwithstanding they had made 
such stipulations with the Indians, built fort Madison within the 
limits of their reserved territory. 

This treaty never gave satisfaction to the Sacs and Foxes, an^l 
some of the chiefs afterwards decided that the five chiefs wK" 
met and held this treaty with Gren. Harrison, at St. Louis, had iin 
right to dispose of the lands belonging to the nation. The most 
prominent among those who were displeased with the provisions 
of the treaty, was Black Hawk (or Muk-ka-ta-mischa-ca-kaig). 
Black Hawk was not by birth a chief, but by his bold daring 

Treaties with Iowa Indians. 61 

and warlike skill, made himself one 6f the principal chiefs in the 
nation ; and his intimate connection with the early history of 
Iowa makes it a matter of interest to give a short notice of his 
life. Black Hawk was a Sac by birth, and was born at their 
village on Rock river in 1767. His father's name was Pyesa, and 
held the oiSce among his people of carrying the medicine bag. 
At the age of fifteen he distinguished himself by wounding an 
enemy, and was put in the rank of the braves. In a war which 
his nation had with the Osages, he gathered a party of seven men 
and attacked a party of over a hundred of the enemy, killed one 
of them and retreated without injury. From this exploit his 
valor was such, though not twenty years of age, he marched 
against the Osage village oi^ the Missouri with a party of one 
hundred and eighty braves, but finding it deserted, most of his 
party being disappointed, left him and returned home ; but he 
with five of his men, followed their trail and after several days 
pursuit took the scalp, of a man or a boy and made a safe retreat. 
In 1786 Black Hawk with two hundred braves again set off to 
avenge the repeated outrages of the Osages upon his nation. He 
met with a number of the enemy, equal to his own, and a fierce 
battle ensued. The Osages lost nearly a hundred men, while 
there were only thirteen of his own party killed. In this battle 
Black Hawk claims to have killed five of the enemy with his 
own hand. This battle stopped for a while the intrusions of the 
Osages, and Black Hawk turned his attention to redressing the 
wrongs which the Cherokees had committed in killing some of 
their women and children. He met the Cherokees below St. 
Louis on the Merrimack river who in number had the largest 
force ; but Black Hawk attacked them, and compelled them to 
retreat with a loss of twenty-eight men. The Sacs only lost 
seven, but among this number was Pyesa, Black Hawk's father. 
Owing to this misfortune, for several years he ceased from all 
warlike operations, and spent his time in hunting and fishing. 

In 1800 he made another excursion against the Osages, at the 
head of about five hundred men selected from the Sac, Fox, and 
Iowa bands. In this attack he destroyed about forty lodges and 
killed many of the warriors of the enemy, five of whom were 
slain by himself. In 1802 he terminated a war which had been 

62 TuTTLrfs His TORT of Iowa. 

carried on against the Chippawas, Kaskaskias and Osages, during 
which six or seven battles were fought, and more than one hun- 
dred of the enemy slain. Black Hawk had been in the habit of 
making frequent visits to St. Louis to see the Spanish governor, by 
whom he had been kindly received. In 180i he made one of his 
accustomed visits, and represented that he found many sad and 
gloomy faces there, because the United States were about to take 
possession of the town and country. He says : " soon after the 
Americans came, I took my band and went to take leave of our 
father. The Americans came to see him also. Seeing them ap- 
proach, we passed out at one door as they entered at another, and 
immediately started in our canoes for our village at Eock river, 
not liking the change any more than our friends appeared to at 
St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that 
strange people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never 
see our Spanish father again. This information made all of our 
people sorry." 

From his own account, it would seem that Black Hawk was 
not pleased with the Americans taking possession of the country, 
and was inclined to look upon them with distrust before the na- 
tion by their chiefs held the treaty of 1804 ; and he always con- 
tended that his people were wronged by the Americans in this 
treaty ; and that the chiefs who were sent to St. Louis to have a 
talk with their great father, Gen. Harrison, were not an authorized 
to sell their lands ; that they were sent for the purpose of trying 
to get one of their people released, who was confined in the 
prison at St. Louis for killing a white man. A great portion of 
the Indians at the head of whom was Keokuk (the watchful Fox), 
felt disposed to sanction the treaty of 1804: and to cultivate 
friendly feelings towards the United States ; while Black Hawk 
and his party, jealous of the encroachments of the whites upon 
their hunting grounds, took the opposite course, and their feelings 
of hostility were increased by the machinations of the British. 
In the war of 1812 the United States requested the Indians not to 
interfere in the quarrel with Great Britain, but to quietly pursue 
the chase and provide for their families, which request was strictly 
adhered to by Keokuk and his party ; but Black Hawk and his 
friends were persuaded by kind words and presents from thfe 

Treaties with Iowa Indians. 63 

British to engage in their cause against the Americans. Black 
Hawk remained in the service about a year, and was engaged in 
several battles, but does not seem to have achieved any signal 

In the month of August, 1813, he was engaged in the attack 
upon Fort Stephenson, at that time under the command of Maj. 
Croghan. The repulse given to the combined British and Indian 
forces disheartened Black Hawk, and he and about twenty of 
his band left the service and returned home to their village on the 
Kock river. 

Shortly after his return an adopted son of Black Hawk was 
killed by some frontiersmen, and his body badly mutilated. 
Deeply touched by the mournful fate of the young man, his venge- 
ance was aroused. He soon collected a band and prepared to 
carry on an offensive warfare upon the frontiers. They descended 
the river in canoes to where Fort Madison had stood, and found it 
abandoned and burnt. They continued their course down the 
river till they came near " Cap au Gris " where they killed one 
of the United States rangers, but were driven away by troops 
from Fort Howard. The Indians, about thirty in number, rallied 
in the woods and on the 24th of May 1814, a severe battle was 
fought between Black Hawk and his party and the troops, known 
as the "Sink Hole " battle. The Americans lost seven killed, 
three wounded of the troops, and one citizen killed and two 
mortally wounded. Five of the Indians were killed and a large 
number wounded. After the conclusion of the war of 1812, 
Black Hawk resided at Rock River, but they were not inclined to 
bury the tomahawk up to as late as the spring of 1816, but com- 
mitted many depredations on the frontiers. In 1*^14 he and his 
party made an attack upon some boats ascending the Mississippi 
with stores and provisions for the garrison at Prairie du Chien, in 
which one boat was captured and several of the crew killed. On 
the 13th of May 1816, twenty-one chiefs and Black Hawk met at 
St. Louis, at which time and place a treaty was made and duly 
signed and an adjustment of difficulties was made. 

The history of Black Hawk will be continued hereafter, with 
an account of what is known as to Black Hawk war. 



Expedition of Gen. Pike — A Sketch of his Travels — His Interview with 
Dubuque — Gen. Pike effects Treaties with the Indians — Earlj- Indian 

We will now resume the early history of Iowa. After the 
treaty made at St Louis in 1804 by Gov. Harrison on the part of 
the United States, and the Sac and Fox nations, and after acquir- 
ing Louisiana, the government of the United States took measures 
to explore the newly acquired territory. There was a military 
post established cit St. Louis under the command of Gen. James 
Wilkinson, to- whom the subordinate officers made their reports. 
Merriweath'jr Lewis, then captain in the first regiment of infantry, 
and Cape. C. Clark were selected by the President to explore the 
unknown sources of the Missouri, and General (then major) Z. M. 
Pike was chosen to trace the Mississippi to its head waters. Gen. 
Pike started on his tour from his encampment near St. Louis on 
the 9th of August, 1805, with one sergeant, two corporals and 
seventeen privates, in a keel boat seventy feet long, with pro- 
visions for four months, and on the 20th of August arrived within 
the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines rapids. At 
this place he was met by Wm. Ewing, who had been appointed 
bv the government an agent to reside among the Indians, to teach 
the science of agriculture, with a French intereprter, four chiefs 
and fifteen men of the Sac tribe who assisted him crossing the 
rapids. At the head of these rapids, on or near the spot where 
Montrose is built, was a large village of the Sacs. This village 
must then have been recently established, for in 1673, when 
Joliet and Marquette first'descended the Mississippi, they found 
no Indian settlement on the river ; but there was a large settle- 
ment of another tribe (the Illinois) of the aborigines, a short dis- 
tance below on the Des Moines. 

66 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

At the rapids, Gen. Pike called all the chiefs to his camp, and 
had a talk with them, stating that their Great Father, the Presi- 
dent, wished to be more intimately acquainted with the different 
nations of red men and their wants, and that he and his warriors 
were sent to take them by the hand, etc., also that he was author- 
ized to choose a station for their trading establishment, closing 
his talk by a presentation of some knives, tobacco and whisky. 
The chiefs thanked him for his presents, and said that for the sit- 
uation of the trading-house, thej' could not determine, being but 
a part of the nation. At the close of the council. Pike with his 
party pursued his journey up the river, and by the 23d of 
August he must have been near where the city of Burlington is 
located, if not on the very site, which place he selected as the 
location for a fort. On the 24th with one of his men, he went 
ashore to hunt, and following up a stream which they supposed 
was the Mississippi, they were led out of their intended course, 
and got lost on the prairie. Pike retraced his steps to the boat, 
but two of the soldiers were sis days without anything to eat but 
muscles, which they gathered from the stream, and would prob- 
ably have perished had they not accidentally fallen in with a 
trader on his way to St. Louis, who gave them aid, and with the 
assistance of a couple of Indians and a canoe, the)' overtook the 
boat at the mines of Dubuque on the 1st of September, 1805. 
On Gen. Pike's arrival, Mr. Dubuque fired a salute with a field 
piece, and received his guests with every mark of attention, but 
he was very reserved in giving them information about the coun- 
try, or the extent of the mines. 

Gen. Pike, being attacked with a fever, was unable to explore 
the country in person, and propounded Mr. D. a series of ques- 
tions, to which he gave replies. The following statements were 
given : That the grant of lands of the mines was by the Span- 
iards, and a copy thereof filed at the office of Mr. Sonland ; that 
the mines in extent were twenty-eight or twenty-seven leagues 
long, and from one to three broad ; that from 20,000 to 40,000 
pounds of lead were made yearly, and that the mineral yielded 
seventy-five per cent, of lead, and was made into pigs. At this 
place Pike met the celebrated war chief, Black Hawk, on his 
return with his warriors from an invasion into the countrj- of the 

Exploration: 67 

Sauteurs, who made a very " flowery speech on the occasion," 
which Pike answered in a few words, accompanied by a small 
present. Proceeding up the river, they arrived at Prairie du 
Chien on the 4th, and in his narrative Pike gives an account of 
the place, as it appeared at the time ; and passing upwards on his 
journey, they came to the upper Iowa river, where Wabasha (or 
La Fieulle) sent down six of his men to invite the General to 
partake of a feast at his lodge. Arriving at the village they were 
received with a military salute by the Indians which was re- ' 
turned from the boat. After a speech from the chief, expressing 
welcome, Gen. Pike replied, stating the object of his visit, that 
his government was about to establish a military post among 
them, and to send officers and agents into their country to attend 
to their wants, and above all, to try and make peace with the 
Sioux and Sauteurs, and that he intended on his return, to bring 
down with him some of the chiefs of the two nations for the pur- 
pose of bringing to a close the long and bloody war which had 
existed between the two nations, etc. After partaking of their 
hospitalities, Pike presented the chief with some tobacco and 
other presents, and then resumed his voyage up the river. On 
the 22d of September, they arrived at the mouth of St. Peters 
river, where they were received and treated in a similar manner 
as at the former place. On the 23d a council of the Indians was 
held, and Pike addressed the council, requesting that peace should 
be made with the Sauteurs, and that a tract of land should be 
given, on which to establish a military post. It will be remem- 
bered that this section of territory was included in the territory 
of Louisiana, as the adjoining territory, west of the Mississippi, 
now the state of Iowa. The speech of Gen. Pike was replied to 
by Fils de Pinchard, and the head chief, Le Petit Corbean. 
They gave the grant of land asked for, amounting to 100,000 
acres, and promised him any chief he might bring down from the 
nation above, but would give no positive assurance that they 
would make peace with the Sauteurs. On the 26th of September, 
the party left St. Peters and made a stop 233 miles higher up the 
river, near a small stream called Pine creek, and erected a fort 
in which to leave a portion of his men and a part of the stores. 
From thence they proceeded up the river, a portion of them with 

68 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

canoes, and the others with sleds on the land, stopping at a trad- 
ing post on Lake de Sable in latitude 47°, and on the 1st of 
February, 1806, arrived at the head waters of the Mississippi. 
Here Pike held a council with the Indians, and on his return 
south, on the 18th of February, took with him two chiefs to St. 
Louis, at which place he arrived on the 30th of April. During 
the period of the war between the United States and Great Brit- 
ain, from 1812 to 1815, the Sac and Fox nations were divided in 
sentiment, which caused them to have different locations for their 
villages. Those friendly to the United States had moved over to 
the west side of the Mississippi, and one band of the Sacs had 
located themselves on the Missouri, while those who were friendly 
to the British, occupied their old village at Eock Island. Of this 
band Black Hawk was the most prominent character. 

At the conclusion of the war, and in accordance with their 
agreement in the treaty of Ghent, the United States took immedi- 
ate measures to establish friendly relations with the Indian tribes, 
and for this purpose, Wm. Clark, governor of Missouri territory, 
Ninian Edwards, governor of Illinois territory, and Aug. Choteau, 
Esq., of Missouri, were appointed commissioners to treat with the 
several Indian tribes interested. The commissioners had a coun- 
cil at Portage Des Sioux, and on the 13th of September, 1815, 
concluded a treaty with the Indians who resided on the Missouri 
river and were friendly disposed to the Americans ; and on the 
14th of September concluded a treaty with a band of Foxes who 
had been friendlv to the British, in which it was agreed, that all 
injuries and acts of hostility were to be forgiven, and peace estab- 
lished between them. The Indians were to give up all prisoners 
in their hands to be delivered up to their respective nations ; and 
this tribe also recognized and confirmed the treaty of 1804. 

Another treaty was made on the 13th of May, 1816, but not 
ratified and proclaimed until the following year. This band of 
Indians were at the mercy of the United States ; for by the treaty 
at Ghent, they could not expect any support from the British gov- 
ernment ; and the neighboring Indians, as well as some of their 
own nation, had made peace with the United States, and refused 
to give them any help, and not having numbers sufficient to con- 
tend with so powerful an enemy, they were forced to submit to 

Exploration. 69 

any terms which might be imposed upon them. Under these cir- 
cumstances, Black Hawk and twenty-one of his party were induced 
to sign a treaty, in the preamble of which their many faults were 
enumerated, and the magnanimity of the United States portrayed 
in glowing colors ; and in the first article they were made to give 
their "unconditional assent to recognize, reestablish, and confirm 
the treaty between the United States of America and the united 
tribes of the Sacs and Foxes, which was concluded at St. Louis 
on the third day of November, 1804, as well as all other contracts 
and agreements heretofore made between the said tribes and the 
United States." The United States agreed to restore them to the 
same footing on which they stood before the war, provided they 
would restore all the property they had plundered since they were 
notified of the ratification of the treaty at Grhent, and in case they 
did not deliver up the property aforesaid, or any part of it, by 
the first day of the following July, then the United States 
were to be exonerated from paying their proportion of the annui- 
ties as provided by the treaty of 1804. Thus was a friendly rela- 
tion between the whole Sac and Fox nation and the United States 
established. Soon after the treaty of 1816 the United States built 
Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, but a few miles from Black 
Hawk's village. This act of the government was considered by 
the Indians as another violation of the treaty of 1804. 

In the fall of 1820, Black Hawk and some of his band made a 
visit to their British Father at Maiden, and received many pres- 
ents from him. These visits were frequently made, and probably 
did not result in cultivating any friendly feeling towards the 
United States. 



The Provision for Half-breeds — The Half-breed Tract of Land — Congress- 
ional Act Enabling the Half-breeds to sell their Lands — Sac and Fox 
Outbreaks — Conflict between Miners and Indians. 

After the United States acquired the Louisiana purchase from 
France, and the former government had taken possession of the 
country, several persons who went into the Indian country as 
traders, or were in some other way connected with the Indian 
agencies, took to themselves squaws or wives, and had children, 
which were generally designated as '• half-breeds." These children 
as they grew up, not fully adopting the habits of Indian life, were 
cared for by their nation in this treaty with the United States. 
In a treaty made on the 4th of August, 1824, by Wm. Clark, the 
United States Indian agent residing at St. Louis, with the Indians, 
the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, by their deputies in council 
assembled, agreed to sell to the United States for a valuable con- 
sideration, all their title to the northern part of the state of Mis- 
souri, from the Mississippi to the western boundary of that state. 
By the same treaty, 119,000 acres were reserved for the use of the 
half-breeds of the Sac and Fox nations. It occupied the strip of 
country between the Mississippi, and south of a line drawn from 
a point on the Des Moines river, about one mile below Farming- 
ton, east to the Mississippi, and at the lower end of Fort Madison, 
including Keokuk, and all the land between said line and the 
junction of the rivers. This reservation embraced some of the 
most valuable lands in the state, and lying in the south part of 
Lee county. After the Black Hawk purchase, and the surround- 
ing country became settled, the whites were very' anxious to 
acquire and settle these lands. Some ten years after the reserva- 
tion of this tract of land to the half-breeds, when the Indians had 

72 Tc'ttle's History of Iowa. 

ceded their contiguous lands, and with them had migrated many 
half-breeds, leaving a few females who had married white men, 
and a few drunken vagrants to annoy the whites who were begin- 
ning to occupy the half-breed tract as well as the ceded lands, and 
when no semblance of a half-breed community existed, congress, 
in view of these circumstances, on the 13th of June, 1834:, passed 
an act releasing to the half-breeds the '• fee in reservation and the 
right of preemption, severed their joint tenancy, invested them 
individually, their heirs and assigns as tenants in common, with 
the allodial fee simple, and prescribed the rules of alienation and 
descent which were to be in accordance with the laws of Missouri, 
the same as any other citizen of the state." 

Soon after the half-breeds were permitted to dispose of their 
lands, a great many persons became interested in this tract by 
purchases from different half-breeds. These gentlemen formed 
themselves into a company, obtained an act of the legislature for 
their special benefit, and on the 22d of October, 1836, entered 
into articles of association, the object of which was to purchase a 
part of certain lands known as the half-breed tract, and that the 
title to the same should be invested in trustees. This company 
became extensive owners of the ti-act referred to, for out of the one 
hundred and one shares into which the tract was divided, they 
were the owners of forty-one shares ; as the treaty making this 
reservation to the half-breeds did not designate the number or 
names of the parties who were embraced in the reserve, it became 
a disputed question as to who were the rightful owners of the 
land, and whether those who had made purchases had good titles, 
and if so, bow much of this tract they were entitled to by their 
purchase ; and to settle these disputed rights, on the 16th of Jan- 
uary, 1838, there was an act passed by the Wisconsin legislature 
then sitting at Burlington, Iowa, " for the purpose of settling the 
rights of certain claimants to land in the south part of Lee 
county." The law and the action of the commissioners were un- 
satisfactory, and without going into particulars, it is only neces- 
sary to saj', that the subject of the ownership of these lands came 
before the legislature of losva, and the different courts in the terri- 
tory and state, and the United States courts, and was the cause of 
much litigation. In the spring of 1855, the supreme court of the 

Ralf-Bbeeds — Mixing — Indian Troubles. 73 

United States made a decision, making what is commonlj^ known 
as the decree title to Keokuk and the whole half-breed Sac and 
Fox reservation, indisputable, firm and effectual forever. 

The ensuing summer (1820), the propriety of the whole nation 
removing to the west side of the Mississippi was urged upon them 
by the agent at Fort Armstrong. The principal of the Fox chiefs, 
as well as Keokuk, favored the removal, and urged the Indians 
to go ; but some of them were opposed to going, and called upon 
Black Hawk for his advice. He took the ground that their lands 
had not been rightfully purchased ; that the Americans had no 
right to insist on their removal, and as a matter of policy, he was 
opposed to it. From this time till the close of the Black Hawk 
war, Black Hawk seems to have been the master spirit among 
those hostile to the United States, and Keokuk that of the friend- 
ly party. 

After the death of Julien Dubuque, which took place in 1810, 
the lead mines on the west side of the Mississippi were not worked 
to any extent, till after the purchase of these mines from the In- 
dians. The Indians did not feel disposed, nor had they the abil- 
ity to work these mines successfully, and to prevent the whites 
from intruding, they always guarded the mining district with 
great care. They would not allow the whites to visit the grounds, 
even to look at the place where Dubuque had worked, and much 
less admit mining to be done or settlements made. But early in 
the spring of 1830, an incident happened which gave the whites 
from the east side of the river an opportunity to explore the min- 
ing country. The hostilities which had long existed between the 
Sac and Fox nations and their allies were kept up, notwithstand- 
ing all the efforts that had been made by the government author- 
ities to keep them at peace, and they were constantly committing 
depredations upon one another whenever an opportunity presented. 
Early in the spring of 1830, a party of ten or twelve Sac and Fox 
chiefs with a small part}', started for Prairie du Chien to have a 
talk -with the United States' commissioner : but when they as- 
cended the river as far as Cassville Island, they were attacked by 
a large party of Sioux and Menomonies, and the whole party ex- 
cept two were killed on the spot, and these subsequently died of 
■wounds received. The receipt of the intelligence of this slaugh- 

74 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

ter, at their village at Catfish Creek, created the greatest alarm 
among the Indians, and they fled from their village in great con- 
fusion, most of them never to return. Previous to this, there had 
been some white settlements on the east side of the Mississippi, in 
the vicinity of Galena. As early as 1823, Col. Johnson, from 
Kentucky, with a large force of negro slaves, commenced mining 
near Fever river, and found some profitable diggings. In 1824, 
other parties came on and worked the mines nine miles north of 
Galena, in the present state of Wisconsin, at a place which was 
named Hardscrabble, which received its name from a fierce contest 
which was had here by contending parties for the possession of 
the mines. The emigration to this part of the country was so 
great that previous to 1830, Galena was known at a long distance 
as a town, and mining was carried on to a considerable extent. 

The whites on the east side of the river, learning that the Indians 
had deserted their village on the Catfish creek, thought they might 
venture across and look at a country they had long been anxious 
to explore; and in the month of June, Mr. L. H. Langworthy and 
his brother came over to what was looked upon as the promised 
land. At this time there was not a white settlement north of the 
Des Moines, and west of the Mississippi to Astoria in Oregon, with 
the exception of a few Indian trading posts and establishments. 
These gentlemen crossed the river in a canoe, swimming their 
horses by its side, and stood upon the soil of an unknown land. 
The place where has since been built the city of Dubuque, had 
been cultivated by the Indians as a cornfield, and the stalks of the 
last year's crop were still standing. About seventy buildings, 
constructed with poles and the bark of trees, remained to tell of 
those who had so recently inhabited them. But this village soon 
disappeared before the whites. It was set on fire by some visitors 
that summer, and burned to the ground, much to the regret of the 
new settlers. 

A short distance below this place is the Sioux bluff, noted from 
Indian tradition as the place where the Sac and Fox nations 
fought a great battle with the Sioux. It is an isolated bluflt, about 
two hundred feet high. The side next to the river is nearly per- 
pendicular, and separated on all sides from the neighboring bluffs 
by a wide valley. The Sioux had fled from their enemies to this 

Half-Bseeds— MixixG — Indian Troubles. 75 

place for safety, and had fortified their position on the summit of 
this bluff, by cutting down the trees and brush, interlocking them 
together, forming a rude parapet, behind which with their wives 
and children, they sought to protect themselves from the assaults 
of the enemy. The Sacs and Foxes, learning their position, 
thought it not prudent to commence an attack by day light, but 
chose a time when their enemy could not watch their movements. 
At the dead hour of night, they commenced to ascend the hill : 
they proceeded in a slow, quiet manner, unobserved by the SiouK 
to the very outposts of their camp. They then made a desperate 
assault, dispersed the sentinels, and were over the breast-works 
and attacking the camp before the main body of the Sioux were 
aware of their approach. They set fire to the brush fortifications 
and fell back, and the fire illuminated the camp of the enemy, 
and they fought with the advantage of darkness around them, 
while the Sioux were exposed by the light of the burning camp 
to the deadly aim of the arrows and guns of the assailants. The 
fight continued around the illuminated outlines of the camp till 
the Sioux, thinned in numbers, began to yield the ground. The 
Sacs and Foxes now made a charge with their tomahawks and 
war-clubs; short and terrible was the conflict which now ensued 
upon the summit of this towering bluff, for the Sioux, driven to 
the very brink of the precipice, next to the river, and their enemies 
occupying the front ground, had no chance to retreat, and were 
all slaughtered on the spot or hurled headlong down the precipice, 
and their bleaching bones were to be seen along the margin of the 
bluff after the country was settled by the whites. 

The miners who crossed over the river made some valuable dis- 
coveries, and were about commencing to mine on an extensive 
scale, when they were visited about the 4th of July, by Capt. 
Zachary Taylor, (afterwards president of the United States), then 
in command of the United States troops at Prairie du Chien, who 
ordered them not to make any settlements upon the Indian lands, 
and also to recross the river. These lands had not then been pur- 
chased from the Indians, and it became the duty of Capt. Taylor, as he 
was then called, to protect them against the encroachments of the 
whites. The captain ordered them to leave within one week, but 
the miners at first told him they would not go, saying to him, 

76 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

that the country had been abandoned by the Indians, and that 
they had discovered some valuable mines ; that the lands would 
soon be purchased, and they intended to retain possession of their 
mines. To this, Taylor replied: "We shall see to that my boys," 
and in the course of a week a detachment of troops was dispatched, 
with orders to clear the country of whites. But most of the 
miners believing that Taylor would execute his order by force if 
not obeyed, recrossed the river before the troops arrived, so that 
when the soldiers landed they only found three of them remain- 
ing. These were taken into custody and retained as prisoners, 
but not being watched veiy closely, they soon made their escape ; 
but the whites were not permitted to engage in mining at that 
time. Soon after, a military force was stationed at this point, after 
which the Indians ventured to return to their old home, and aided 
by the traders and settlers from the east side of the river, they 
worked the mines which had been opened by the whites, with 
good success. 



He refuses to leave his Old Home— Militia called out — His Removal and 
Subsequent Return — Tlie War — Bravery of Black Hawk — His Last 

In the spring of 1831, the government agent at Rock Islan'd 
informed Black Hawk that he must remove, and that if he did 
not, the government would oblige him to do so. The former 
offered to remove for the sum of $6,000. This was refused. The 
squaws had now planted their corn and it was beginning to grow, 
when the whites again commenced plowing it up. Black Hawk 
having threatened violence, a force of troops was sent against the 
Indians which alarmed him and on the night of June 25th, he 
passed with all his party to the west bank of the river, and on 
the 30th a treaty was entered into in which the '' British Band " 
as Black Hawk's party was termed, was required to submit to the 
chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations, who resided on the west side 
of the Mississippi. The period of the removal of Black Hawk 
and his band to the west side of the river was too late in the sea- 
son to enable them to plant corn and beans a second time, and 
before autumn they were out of provisions. 

In the early part of April 1832, Black Hawk and his whole 
party, rashly and in violation of the treaty of the previous year, 
crossed to the east side of the Mississippi, for the avowed purpose 
of ascending Rock river to the territory of their friends, the Win- 
nebagoes, and raising a crop of corn and beans with them. Gen. 
Armstrong with 300 regulars and 300 militia ascended Rock river 
in boats to Dixon's Ferry ; but the first to come up with Black 
Hawk, was Maj. Stillman, who, on the 14th of May, with 
275 mounted militia, arrived within eight miles of Black Hawk's 
camp. The latter sent to him three young men and a flag of 

Black Hawk and His War. 79 

truce. The bearers were fired upon and one killed. Upon learn- 
ing this, Black Hawk desperatly started to meet the enemy with 
about forty men. He soon met Stillman's command and charged 
upon them with such tremendous energy that they fled with the 
utmost consternation, and continued running such an astonishing 
length of time, that the battle ever after went by the name of 
Stillman's run. 

War ensued. Three thousand Illinois militia marched to Rock 
river, where they were joined by the United States troops. Six 
hundred mounted men were also ordered out, while Gen. Scott, 
with nine companies of artillery, moved with such celerity as to 
pass from Fort Monroe on the Chesapeake to Chicago — a dis- 
tance of eighteen hundred miles in eighteen days ; but long be- 
fore they reached the scene of action the western troops had closed 
the contest. After several battles had been fought. Black Hawk 
was taken on the 27th of August (1832), which virtually ended 
all the disturbances of the Indians in this section of the country, 
and from which time we may date the permanent growtTi of the 

On the 15th of September, 1832, a treaty was held with the 
Sacs and Foxes by Gen. Scott, by which a small strip of land 
only, was ceded to the United States, called the " Black Hawk 
Purchase " which relinquished to the white men 6,000,000 acres of 
land, constituting the eastern portion of the state of Iowa, for 
which stipulated annuities were to be paid. To Keokuk and his 
party a reservation of forty square miles (since purchased) was 
given, including his village, in consideration of his fidelity, while 
Black Hawk and some of his most sanguiue followers were sent 
as hostages to Fort Monroe where they remained until June, 
1833. At the last date the Indians peaceably removed from the 
Black Hawk purchase, and thus gave to the whites free access to 
this beautiful country. 

When Keokuk and his associates, after making the treaty of 
1837, for the purchasing of another tract, came back from the east, 
Black Hawk did not return to their village on the Des Moines 
river, but spent the winter on Devil creek in Lee county. The 
old man doubtless feeling his degradation, preferring to be isolated 
from those whom he had been accustomed to command, he erected 

80 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

his lodge outside of the boundary of the Indian country, where 
with his own family, and a few favorite braves, he made a tem- 
porary residence. His family consisted of his wife, two sons 
Nash-she-ar-kuk and Sam-e-sett, a daughter, Nan-ne-qua and her 
husband. Here his companions passed their time mostly in hunt- 
ing deer, turkeys and prairie chickens which were very abundant 
and aiiorded them a good supply of provisions, while he spent 
most of his time in fixing his cabin, and exercising his skill with 
mechanical tools. In the spring of the year 1838, he removed 
into the Indian country, and built his lodge on the Des Moines 
river, a short distance above the old Indian village, where was 
subsequently laid out the town of lowaville. " Here he had 
a very comfortable bark cabin, which he furnished in imitation 
of the whites, with chairs, a table, a mirror and mattrasses. His 
dress was that of the other chiefs with the exception of a broad 
brimmed black hat which he usually wore." 

He kept a cow, and adopted many of the habits of civilized 
life. During the summer he cultivated a few acres of ground and 
raised quite a crop of corn, melons and other vegetables. His 
lodge was often visited by the whites, who were always received 
by the old chief hospitably, and treated to the best his cabin 

On the 4th of July, 1838, the citizens of Fort Madison got up a 
celebration, and gave Black Hawk a special invitation to attend, 
which was accepted ; and the old man was decidedly the lion of 
the day. In reply to the toast : " Our illustrious guest, Black 
Hawk — may his declining years be calm and serene as his pre- 
vious life has been boisterous and full of warlike incidents. His 
attachment and friendship to his white brethren may fully entitle 
him to a seat at our festal board," he arose and replied : 

" It has pleased the Great Spirit that I am here to-day. I have 
eaten with my white friends. The earth is our mother ; we are 
now on it, with the Great Spirit above us — it is good. I hope we 
are all friends here. A few winters ago I was fighting against you ; 
I did wrong, perhaps, but that is past ; it is buried — let it be 
forgotten. Eock river was a beautiful country ; I liked my towns 
and my cornfields, and the homes of my people ; I fought for it 
— it is now yours ; keep it as we did ; it will produce you good 

Black Hawk and His War. 81 

crops. I thank the Great Spirit that I am now friendly with my 
white brothers : we are here together, we have eatea together, we 
are friends. It is his wish and mine ; I thank you for your 
friendship. I was once a great warrior ; I am now poor ; Keo- 
kuk has been the cause of my present condition ; but do not 
attach blame to him. I am now old ; I have looked upon the 
Mississippi river since I have been a child ; I love the great river; 
I have dwelt upon its banks from the time I was an infant. I look 
upc>n it now. I shake hands with you, and it is my wish you 
are my friends." 

Early in October, 1838, the commissioner for adjusting claims 
with the Sac and Fox tribe was to meet them at Rock Island, 
and most of the Indians were there on the first of the month. 
Black Hawk had been taken sick with a violent billious fever, 
and was unable to go with them, and on the third of October, 
after a sickness of only seven days, he died. His wife, who was 
much devoted to him, was deeply distressed during his sickness. 
She seemed to have a presentiment that he was about to leave 
her, and said, some days before he died : " He is getting old ; he 
must die. Monotah (God) calls him home." After he was dead, 
his corpse was dressed in the uniform which had been given him 
when at Washington, and placed upon a bier made of two poles 
with bark laid across them, and carried by four braves to his 
grave, " followed by his family and about fifty of the tribe (the 
chiefs all being absent), who were deeply affected at the death of 
their once powerful and distinguished chief. The grave was 
six feet deep, and of the usual length, situated upon a little emi- 
nence, about fifty yards from his wigwam. The body was placed 
in the grave in a sitting posture, upon a seat constructed for the 
purpose. On his left side the cane given him by Henry Clay was 
placed upright with his right hand resting upon it. Many of the 
old warrior's trophies were placed on the grave, and some Indian 
garments, together with his favorite weapons." The grave was 
then covered with plank, and a mound of earth several feet high 
" sodded over with the blue grass sod " raised over the spot. At the 
head of the grave there was raised a flagstaff, bearing the national 
flag, and at the foot there was placed a post, on which were in- 
scribed in Indian characters, many of the warrior's heroic deeds, 

82 Tur TLB's History of Iowa. 

and his age, which was supposed to be about seveney-two years ; 
and the whole was inclosed with a picket fence about twelve feet 

But his remains were not permitted to rest in quietude in their 
narrow abode to which his friends had consigned them. It was 
subsequently ascertained that a Dr. Turner, a resident of Lexing- 
ton, Van Buren county, from pecuniary motives, disinterred them 
and carried away the bones with the trophies and habiliments 
which had been deposited in the grave, with a design of taking 
them through the country to exhibit them for money. 

The whole nation, and particularly the family of Black Hawk, 
were very much incensed at the desecratioii of the grave of the 
distinguished chief, and Black Hawk's son and many of the prin- 
cipal Indians called on Gov. Lucas and desired him to have the 
wrong redressed. The governor succeeded in recovering tJie 
remains, but not in punishing the offender, and the Indians were 
informed that the bones were at his office, ready to be delivered 
to them. They expressed much gratitude for what the governor 
had done, but on account of some superstitious notions enter- 
tained by the Indians, they never took them away. The bones, 
clothes, and other articles which had been deposited in the grave 
were kept in the office of the governor at Burlington for some 
time, and were afterwards given in charge of the Historical So- 
ciety, and in a conflagration, were consumed by fire with many 
other valuable collections of the society. 

"Black Hawk," says Mr. Clemens, "was one of the noblest of 
Indians, and an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and 
power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the 
lofty spirit which secures the respect, and confidence of the people. 
He loved his people and fought for them with as true patriotism 
as ever animated any man's heart. He was about five feet eight 
inches high, with a stoop in his shoulders, an aquiline nose, a re- 
treating forehead, and eyes of a dark hazel color. He was always 
polite and pleasant, but never seemed to forget the treatment he 
had met with from the whites." 

On his return from captivity at Fort Monroe, Black Hawk was 
formally deposed from his authority as chief, and was informed 
that the President wished him to listen and conform to Keokuk's 

84 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

counsels, and he also was given to understand that his band was 
thenceforth to be merged into that of Keokuk, whom the Presi- 
dent would thereafter receive and acknowledge as the principal 
chief of the Sac and Fox nation. This was done at Fort Arm- 
strong in August 1833. Black Hawk and his family deeply felt 
the degradation, and afterwards associated but little with other 
Indians. He never had but one wife, and she was the neatest 
and most provident woman of her tribe. He had a daughter who 
was very beautiful, and was engaged to be married to a merchant 
of Fort Madison, but the match was broken off by the influence 
of a relation. He had also two sons, the eldest of whom accom- 
panied him in his tour through the United States. 



Difficulties between Miners aud the Government — Early Incidents in Du- 
buque — A Tragedy — Lynch Law — Indian Troubles — Early Settle- 

In 1832, as soon as it was known in the mines at Helena, that 
the war with the Indians had closed, and they had disposed of a 
portion of their lands on the west side of the Mississippi, the 
whites again crossed over the river and commenced to work the 
mines which had been discovered is 1830. They built houses, 
erected furnaces for smelting, cut hay and made every preparation 
for a winter's work, and before the first of January, 1833, there 
were over two hundred persons collected about the mines, and 
many valuable lodes had been discovered and a large amount of 
lead manufactured ; but in the month of January, the United 
States soldiers again interposed, and forced the miners to again 
leave their work and recross to the east side of the river. Many 
of the miners thought this a great hardship, and severely censured 
the government authorities for driving them away after these 
lands had been purchased from the Indians ; but the treaty had 
not then been ratified by the senate of the United States, and 
under its stipulations the Indians had the right to occupy the 
lands till the first of the following June, unmolested by the whites ; 
and for the government to maintain good faith towards the In- 
dians, it was necessary to prevent the whites from occupying any 
of the purchase until the time it was to be given up to the whites. 

The duty of keeping the whites from intruding upon the rights 
of the Indians did not produce a good feeling between the sol- 
diers and the miners, and there were several of the cabins erected 
by the miners torn down by the soldiers stationed there, and 
some wagons engaged in moving mineral which had been dug. 


were cut to pieces by the order of .Lieut. Covington, who had 
command of the troops at that point, and saw tit to use his au- 
thority to the injury of the miners. Complaints of the conduct 
of Covington were made to Capt. Z. Taylor at Prairie du Chien, 
and he was recalled and Lieut. Gen. Wilson was sent to take his 
place. This gentleman proved more acceptable to the settlers, 
and there was no more trouble with the miners about intruding 
on Indian territory. 

On the first of June 1833, the whites were permitted to make 
settlements in Iowa. The miners about the mineral region had 
waited anxiously for the arrival of the time when they might 
lawfully be permitted to work the mines, and immediately a large 
quantity of these lands was taken into possession ; but just as 
the miners had fairly become engaged in raising the mineral, they 
were again molested in their operations, for the United States 
government assumed control of the mineral lands, and sent out 
John P. Sheldon as their agent to superintend the mines. No 
one could work the mines without the agent's consent. He gave 
permits to the miners, which authorized each one to stake off two 
hundred yards square of land where there was no previous claim, 
and hold possession of the same on condition that all the mineral 
which was dug should be delivered to a licensed smelter. A 
licensed smelter, before he could do any business, was required to 
give bond with condition that he should pay the government a 
percentage on all the lead which he manufactured. These re- 
strictions were, as long as imposed, very objectionable to the 
miners, and hard to be enforced, and they became so odious that 
the government was induced to change its policy, and under the 
provisions of an act passed on the 11th of February, 1846, regu- 
lating mineral lands, these lands were brought into market and 

The immigration to the mining regions was rapid, and in the 
winter of 1833-4, a town was laid off at the mines, and by a vote 
of the citizens assembled in a public meeting, was called Du- 
buque, after the person of that name before mentioned, who ob- 
tained a grant from the Spanish government, and worked the mines 
as early as 1788. The new town progressed rapidly; stores were 
erected, " the mines increased in richness, and as a consequence, 

Mining — Dubuque. 87 

emigration began to increase rapidly, becoming a prosperous com- 
munity in the midst of this then lone — and from its reputed bar- 
renness — dreary wilderness." 

In the first settlement of the country at Dubuque, there were 
many exciting scenes. The people collected about these mines 
were not generally persons of the strictest moral character ; drink- 
ing, gambling and fighting were amusements of common pastime, 
and there being no established law, every one, to a great extent, 
regulated his conduct as he thought proper. A man by the name 
of O'Connor shot his partner dead with a rifle. This act en- 
raged the community to such an extent, that he was arrested 
without due process of the law, and the citizens immediately or- 
ganized a court from among their own number, impaneled a jui-y, 
assigned the prisoner counsel and put him on trial. The jury 
found him guilty, and he was sentenced to be hung. After giv- 
ing him a reasonable time to prepare for death, and receive relig- 
ious consolation from a priest of his own choice, he was executed 
upon a mound which for a long time bore his name ; but it has dis- 
appeared before the hand of improvement, and substantial build- 
ings are erected on the site. The population of the place at that 
time was about 1,000, nearly the whole of which were witnesses 
to the final act of that dreadful tragedy. 

Burlington was quite a noted place before it was settled by the 
whites, and was known by the name of Flint Hills (or by the In- 
dian name of Sbak-o-quon), and had been for a long time a post 
for carrying on trade with the Indians. At the time when the 
whites were first permitted to make settlements here, there were 
a number of old trading houses, boat houses, and a number of 
graves along the bank of the river, "and the remains of other 
Indians deposited in canoes with their trinkets, suspended in the 
trees, which were fastened to the limbs with bark ropes ; among 
the graves was that of the noted French or half-breed, Maurice 
Blondeau, who previous to his death lived and had an extensive 
improvement near the head of the Des Moines rapids, between 
Montrose and Keokuk." 

In October, 1832, some twelve or fifteen persons crossed the 
Mississippi in canoes at the head of " Big Island," and made a 
landing about two miles below Burlington, took an excursion 

88 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

through the surrounding country, and laid claims for future set- 
tlements. The_y built for themselves cabins, and in February, 
1833, brought over their stock and commenced making fences and 
preparing the ground for cultivation. But to their great annoy- 
ance, they were driven away from their claims by the "govern- 
ment soldiers from Eock Island," and they recrossed the river 
and stopped on " Big Island," taking with them their implements 
of husbandry and their stock. All the labor which they had per- 
formed availed them nothing, for their cabins and fences wei'e set 
on fire by the soldiers and burned up; but notwithstanding these 
molestations, they resolved to hold on to their sites selected for 
their homes. They held a council and " agreed to strike their 
tents and went to work to build a flat-boat so that they could 
cross over the rivei', and improve their claims whenever they had 
an opportunity." 

The first persons who settled within the limits of the city of 
Burlington were Morton M. McCarver and Simpson S. White, 
who moved there with their families previous to " the extiiigui.<h- 
ment of the Indian title, suffering all the prrvations and difficul- 
ties attending the settlement of a wilderness country, which were 
very great, and but a few of them." Mr. A. Doolittle purchased 
a one-third interest of the property, and became a citizen in 1834 
The original town was drafted and surveyed by Benjamin Tucker 
and Wm. E. Eoss, in November and December, 1833. A. Doo- 
little and S. S. White being the proprietors gave it its name. 
The whole town was resurveyed by G. M. Harrison under the 
direction of the general government in 1837. 

The town of Fort Madison derived its name from a fort which 
once had been built there and known b}' that name. The fort 
was built in 1808, and soon after Black Hawk and his party un- 
dertook to destroy it but failed, an account of which has been 
given elsewhere. Another unsuccessful effort was made in 1812. 
In 1813, the Indians made another fierce attack and commenced 
a regular siege. The garrison having been reduced to the great- 
est extremity for want of provisions, the commander resolved to 
abandon the post, and to effect this to the best advantage, a trench 
was dug from the southeast block house to the river. There were 
some boats belonging to the garrison, and about that time they 

90 TvTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

succeeded in capturing one from the Indians. Wlien the boats 
were prepared, and all things made ready for the departure, orders 
were given to set fire to the fort ; and although the Indians were 
encamped with a large force near by, these arrangements were 
made with so much precaution and secrecy, that the soldiers were 
out of danger, and the fort completely wrapped in flames before 
the enemy were aware of their departure. In 1832, after the 
Black Hawk purchase, Zackariah Hawkins, Benj. Jennings, Aaron 
White, Augustine Horton, Samuel Gooch, Danl. Thompson and 
Peter Williams made claims at Fort Madison. In 1833, these 
claims were purchased by J. H. Knapp and Nath. Knapp, upon 
which, in 1835, they laid out a town for the first time, and sold 
lots, though the towns were resurveyed and platted under the 
direction of the general government. 

Soon after the Black Hawk purchase, the tract of land at the 
head of the rapids of the river Des Moines, which was occupied 
in 1799 by Lewis Fresson was selected by the United States gov- 
ernment for a military post, and it was called Fort Des Moines. 
They erected a large, commodious house for officers, and other 
suitable buildings for barracks for soldiers. In 1834,'the post was 
in command of Lt. Col. Stephen W. Kearney. This was retained 
as a military post till 1837, when the soldiers were removed to 
Fort Leavenworth, and the buildings were sold by the authority 
of the government to private individuals. At this place the pres- 
ent village of Montrose is situated. 

In the year 1833, Capt Benjamin W. Clark, a native o£ Vir- 
ginia, who had settled on the Illinois shore, where the town of 
Andalusia is now located, moved across the river and commenced 
settlement upon the present site of the town of Buffalo, and 
was probably the first settler in the county of Scott. He subse- 
quently kept the public ferry across the river, and in 1835, erected 
a public house, and a saw mill at the mouth of Duck Creek. 

The claim upon which Davenport now stands was first made in 
the spring of 1833, by E. H. Spencer and A. McCloud ; these 
gentlemen, having some difference, to end the dispute, sold their 
claim to Antoine LeClaire for the sum of one hundred dollars. This 
claim comprised that portion of the city lying west of Harrison 
street, being outside of what was known as LeClaire's reserve. In 

Mining — Dubuque. 91 

1835, this claim was sold to some eight persons, and the town of 
Davenport was laid out and surveyed. The first improvements 
were made by Mr. LeClaire upon the grounds now occupied as a 
railroad depot. 

EVENTS OF 1836-7. 

Wisconsin Territor}- — Iowa a Part of Wisconsin — Banljing, etc. — Fight 
over the Capital — Treaties witli Indians, etc. 

On the 20th of April, 1836, congress passed an act creating 
the territory of Wisconsin, which territory embraced within the 
boundaries prescribed in the organic act, all the territory em- 
braced in the states of Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota and a part 
of the territory of Dakota, and it was provided that after the 3d 
day of July of that year, it should constitute a separate territory 
for the purpose of a temporary government. Henry Dodge was 
appointed governor. The legislature of Michigan had divided 
this section previous to the organization of Wisconsin territory 
into six counties, known as Des Moines, Dubuque, Iowa, Brown, 
Milwaukee and Crawford ; all the territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river was embraced in the counties of Des Moines and 
Dubuque. Gov. Dodge immediately proceeded to the discharge 
of his duties, and caused the census of the territory to be taken, 
and on the 9th of September, 1836, issued his proclamation for an 
election to be held on the second Monday of October ensumg, 
and ordered that the members of the legislature elected should 
convene at Belmont in Iowa county, on the 2oth of October. Out 
of the twenty-six members of the house and thirteen members of 
the council, Des Moines county had seven representatives and 
three member of the council, and Dubuque had five representatives 
and three members of the council. To this legislature John Foley, 
Thos. McCraney and Thos. McKnight were elected to the coun- 
cil ; and Loren Wheeler, Hardin Nowlin, Hosea T. Camp, Peter 
H. Engle and Patrick Quigley, to the house from the county of 
Dubuque: and Jere Smith, Jr., Jos. B. Teas, Arthur B. Ingham 
were elected to the council ; and Isaac Leffler, Thos. Blair, War 

Events of 1836-7. 93 

ren L. Jenkins, John Box, Geo. W. Teas, Eli Keynolds and David 
R. Ciiance, members of the house from Des Moines county. The 
legislature was organized, Henry S. Baird of Brown county, pres- 
ident of the council, and Peter H. Engle of Dubuque county, 
speaker of the house. One of the acts of the legislature was to 
district the territory into judicial districts, and the counties of 
Des Moines and Dubuque were known as the 2d district, and 
David Irwin was assigned as judge. At the time of the conven- 
ing of the legislature, there was all over the country a great mania 
on banks ; and the settlers of the west, thought they could furnish 
their own circulating medium as well as to be dependent on the 
banks of the east. At this session, there was an act passed estab- 
lishing a bank at Dubuque, called the " Miners' Bank of Dubuque," 
which was the first bank in Iowa, and subsequently claimed con- 
siderable attention before the public and in the legislature. An- 
other act divided the county of Des Moines, and the counties of 
Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Louisa, Muscatine, Cook (now Scott) and 
Des Moines, were made in the southern part of the territory. The 
counties of Van Buren, Henry, Louisa, Muscatine and Cook were 
bounded on the west by what at that time was called the Indian 
country. The act creating these new counties made provisions 
that the new counties should assist in paying the debts (which at 
that time were quite large) of the old county of Des Moines, in 
proportion to their populations. Another and perhaps the most 
important bill enacted at that session was the locating of the seat 
of government of Wisconsin. This bill created great excite- 
ment. The position of the locality of the capital of the new 
territory was the all absorbing question. It is stated by one 
writer that Jas. Duane Doty, afterwards governor, who represent- 
ed the interests of Madison, the present capital of Wisconsin, sup- 
plied himself with a full stock of buffalo robes and went around 
camping with the members and making them as comfortable as 
he could, until he organized a sufficient vote to make Madison the 
permanent capital, and Burlington the temporary capital, and car- 
ried the project through the legislature, much to the disgust of the 
people of Dubuque. It was evident that the Des Moines delega- 
tion in both houses favored the location at some central and con- 
venient point between the Mississippi and Lake Michigan, antici- 

94 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

pating the early division of the territory of Wisconsin, and the 
organization of the terrritory of Iowa ; when they apparently 
hoped to secure the location of the capital in their portion of 
Iowa territory, which they evidently accomplished. 

In accordance with the jjledge given by the members from Des 
Moines county, conditional on the establishment of the temporary 
seat of government at Burlington, Jere. Smith built a very suita- 
ble building near the present mills of Mr. Sunderland. The 
building, at that day, cost Iowa eight or ten thousand doUars, 
and was well adapted to the wants of the legislature, which met 
at that place on the 1st of November, 1837. At that time there 
were no railroads ; the entire carrying trade was by water or 
wagon, and both were expensive. Early in the fall of 1837, the 
river filled with floating ice, but it was late in the season before 
the ice blocked so as to stop navigation. The result was, that 
each thaw brought boats, up from below until late in December. 
At that day, steamboats wintered where] they froze up along the 
shore. One evening, after dark, a boat came in and, before she 
was made fast at the shore, some one on board gave the word 
that a mob at Alton had killed the "abolitionist Lovejoy" and 
destroyed his press. That same night, a few hours later, the new 
capitol took fire and burned to the ground. There was no insur- 
ance on the building. Subsequently, the house of representa- 
tatives met over a store, and the council in a small building 
near by. 

Notwithstanding the United States had purchased from the 
Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux the lands which were embraced in 
the counties of Winneshiek and Alamakee, yet, by the terms of 
the purchase, they were to remain as neutral grounds, and not to 
be occupied by either of those nations of Indians, or by the whites. 

At this session of the legislature, there was a law passed cre- 
ating a board of county commissioners for each county, consisting 
of three persons, whose duty it was to take charge of all county 

During this time, the whites had been permitted to pass over 
the Mississippi and make settlements on the new purchase. The 
tide of emigration had been flowing rapidly into the new country, 
and many settlements had been made on the very borders of the 

96 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

Indian territory, and it had become quite an object with the 
United States to extend the boundaries of her domains. 

In the fall of 1837, the general government called to Washing- 
ton a deputation from most of the tribes residing in the valley of 
the Mississippi. Prominent among others, were delegations from 
the Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, between whom, at the time, 
open hostilities existed. The ostensible object in calling these 
deputations to the seat of government at this time was alleged to 
be for the purpose of restoring peace among the hostile nations, 
but negotiations were held for the purchase of the lands. The 
council was held in a church, and the negotiations between the 
Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux were spirited, and attracted much 

After the council was opened by a few remarks on the part of 
the United States, the representatives from the Sioux spoke. 
Their great effort seemed to be to show that it was useless to 
make a peace with the Sacs and Foxes, for they were treacherous, 
and no confidence could be put in anything they might agree to 
do. "My father," said one of their orators, "you cannot make 
these people hear any good words, unless you bore their ears with 
sticks." "We have often made peace with them," said another, 
" but they never would observe a treaty. I would as soon make 
a treaty with that child (pointing to Keokuk's little boy) as with 
a Saukee or Musquakee." 

Keokuk did most of the talking on the part of the Sacs and 
Foxes, and by the spectators he was the observed of the occasion, 
and in reply to these charges of the Sioux, he said : " They tell 
you that our ears must be bored with sticks, but my father, you 
could not penetrate their thick skulls in that way; it would 
require hot iron. They say they would as soon make peace with 
a child as with us ; they know better, for when they make war 
upon us, they find us men. They tell you that peace has often 
been made, and that we have broken it. How happens it then, 
that so many of their braves have been slain in our country? I 
will tell you, they invade us ; we never invade them ; none of 
our braves have been killed on their land ; we have their scalps, 
and can tell where we took them." At this convention peace 
was restored among the Indians of the northwest ; a i ! the com- 

Events of 1836-7. 97 

missioner, on the part of the United States, succeeded in making 
purchases of land from the Sacs and Foxes and other nations. 
By the iirst article of the treaty with the latter tribes, a tract of 
country containing one million two hundred and fifty thousand 
acres of land, lying west and adjoining the tract conveyed by 
them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 1832 ; 
also, of all the right and interest in the land ceded by said con- 
federate tribes on the 15th of July, 1836, embracing the western 
slope of Iowa, which may be claimed by them under the phrase- 
ology of the first article of said treaty. This treaty was signed 
by C. A. Harris on the part of the United States, and ratified and 
confirmed by the senate and proclaimed on the 21st of February, 

After the business of the convention was concluded, Keokuk 
and his party made a tour east, and visited Boston, at which 
place they received much attention. They were received by Gov. 
Everett on behalf of the state, and by the mayor on behalf of the 
city, by public addresses, and escorted by the military to Fanueil 
Hall and to other public places in the city. Keokuk, in reply to 
this reception, said, " Keokuk and his chiefs are very much 
gratified that they have had the pleasure of shaking hands with 
the governor of this great state, and also with the men that sur- 
round him. 

" You well say, brother, that the Great Spirit has made both 
of us, though your color is white, mine is red ; but he made 
your heart and made mine the same. The only difference I find 
is, he has made you to speak one language and I another. He 
made the same sky above our heads for both. He gave us hands 
to take each other by, and eyes to see each other. I wish to take 
all by the hand. To shake hands with all my white brothers." 

The Indians all received much attention, but the venerable old 
chief. Black Hawk, although he had been degraded, and lost his 
position as chief among his people, was the star of the company, 
and every visitor was anxious to single out the man who had 
made so much disturbance on the frontier. After partaking of 
the honors and hospitalities of the city, and receiving man}' 
valuable presents, the party made their way back to the villages 
of their own country. 

98 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

The purchase made from the Indians at this time embraced 
some of the best lands in the state, upon which sprung up some 
important towns, among which are the county seats of Jefferson, 
Washington, Johnson and Linn counties. 



Indian Remniscences — "Squatter Sovereignty" — Tlie Burlington Land 
Office — Sketch of the Land Sale — Interest — Speculation — Anecdotes — 
The Early Farmers — Produce in 1838 — " Iowa." 

In the early settlement of Iowa, all lands, from the time of the 
departure of the Indians until they were offered for sale by the 
government, were under the rule of " squatter sovereignty." Any 
man had a right to select for himself any portion of the public 
domain not otherwise appropriated, for his home ; and by blazing 
the lines bounding his " claim " in timber, or staking it out on the 
prairie, he was legally possessed of title. Societies were formed 
in some localities who organized themselves to protect one another 
in their rights. The secretary kept a book in which all claims 
had to be recorded. A territorial law existed making contracts 
for claims valid, and notes given for such were collectable by law. 
Great speculations were carried on by pioneer " claim-makers," a 
class of men who no sooner than they had sold one claim to some 
new comer, would proceed to make another, and commence im- 
provements. These claims were respected and held in peace 
(when properly taken) until the sale of the lands by government, 
when the owners were permitted to purchase them at the mini- 
mum price of $1.25 per acre. 

Hon. Willard Barrows in his interesting history of Scott county, 
published in the " Annals of Iowa," gives the following incident . 
"During the fishing season in the spring of the year, 1836, among 
other neighboring tribes that often visited the Sacs and Foxes to 
fish in the waters of the As-sin-ne-seps (Rock river), a small band 
of Winnebagoes were encamped on Rock Island. As usual, the 
young and more profligate of the tribe were hanging around the 
groceries in Stephenson and Davenport, bartering such articles a.s 


100 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

they possessed for whisky. On one occasion, two young Indians 
being crazed by too large potations from the whisky bottle, quar- 
reled, and one struck the other ; an indignity seldom submitted 
to by an Indian, drunk or sober. The next day they met upon 
the little willow island just below the town of Davenport, whether 
by accident or common consent, it is not known ; but the quarrel 
was renewed, and carried to such an extent that one of them was 
killed. No whites were present, and various reports were made 
by the Indians as to the manner of his death. One account of 
the affair was that the difficulty was settled by a duel, after the 
fashion of the white man, one of the parties using a shot gun, the 
other a rifle. If it was a duel, it is the first on record of having 
taken place among the Indians of the northwest The shot gun 
hero was buried in one of the mounds then existing on the banks 
of the river below the city of Davenport, on the farm of Ira Cook, 
the site of Black Hawk's last village. There was another Indian 
buried in the same mound, who died at the same time, having 
been bitten by a rattlesnake while lying drunk one night. They 
were placed four feet apart, facing each other, buried in dirt as 
high up as the waist, holding in one hand the paint, and in the 
other the tomahawk. The graves were surrounded with pales or 
pickets some ten feet high, and set so close that no animal of any 
size could get to the bodies. 

The survivor fled to his home in the Shab-be-nah's grove on 
Rock river, leaving his friends here in deep distress at his misfor- 
tune, and the dire consequences that must unavoidably follow, 
according to Indian custom. The fugitive well knew his doom. 
There was blood upon his skirts. The relatives of the deceased 
demanded his return. They clamored for his blood. His own 
sister and some of his relatives went to him and found him in his 
wigwam, with blackened face, brooding in silence over his act of 
blood, feeling that the Great Spirit was angry with him, and that 
no sacrifice was too great to appease his wrath. The sister plead 
with him to return to Rock Island and meet his fate, and thus 
appease the wrathful spirit of the departed one. One bright morn- 
ing in May, a few days after the murder, the quiet camp of the 
Indians on As-sin-ne-maness (Rock Island) was awakened by the 
doleful chant of the death song. A few canoes came gliding around 

102 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

the point of the island ; among them was that of the murderer, 
singing his last song this side the good hunting ground. His 
canoe was paddled by his own sister, whom he tenderly loved. 
The long protracted howl of the Indian crier, soon put in motion 
the whole camp on both sides of the river. From every cove and 
eddy along the banks of the river, there shot forth canoes filled 
with excited natives eager to participate in the bloody scene about 
to be enacted. 

A circle was soon formed a little above the burying ground of 
the old fort at the foot of the island. A shallow grave was dug, 
and the willing but trembling culprit was led to it by his mourn- 
ing sister, and kneeling upon one side of it, the nearest male rela- 
tive of the deceased approached, and with one blow of the toma- 
hawk, his death song was hushed, and then his body was cut in 
pieces by the surrounding Indians. 

Some trouble occurred this year among the claim holders. The 
new comers in some instances were unwilling to go very far to 
take claims, and considered the squatter sovereignty act too lib- 
eral in giving to each man three hundred and twenty acres, while 
none of it was improved. By the system of registration adopted, 
every man was fully protected in his rights. The law never did 
and never can protect the people in all their rights, so fully and 
so completely, as the early settlers of Iowa protected themselves 
by these organizations, doing justice to all, as well as paying the 
government fully for the lands occupied by them. 

The land officers at Burlington, Gen. Van Antwerp and Gen. 
Dodge, most heartily entered into the spirit and interests of the 
settlers at the land sales m securing them their land, for which 
these early settlers honored Gen. Dodge, politically, as few men 
were ever trusted by any people. Strange as it may seem to 
people at the present time, the settlers on the public lands were 
held as squatters, without any rights to be respected by the gov- 
ernment or laud speculators. 

Hawkins Taylor, Esq., of Washington, D. G., an early settler 
of Iowa, says: "There were thousands of settlers at the sale at 
Burlington in the fall of 1838 ; the officers could sell but one or 
two townships each day, and when the land in any one township 
was offered, the settlers of that township constituted the army on 

Pioneer Incidents. 103 

duty for that day, and surrounded the office for their own pro- 
tection, with all the other settlers as a reserve force if needed. 
The hotels were full of speculators of all kinds, from the money 
loaner, who would accommodate the settler at fifty per cent, that 
is, he would enter the settler's land in his own name, and file a 
bond for a deed at the end of two years, by the settlers paying 
him double the amount the land cost. At these rates, Dr. Barrett 
of Springfield, Illinois, and Lewis Benedict of Albany, N. Y., 
loaned out one hundred thousand dollars each, and Lyne Sterling 
and others, at least, an equal amount at th e same or higher 
rates of interest. The men who come to Iowa now cannot realize 
what the early settlers had to encounter. The hotels were full of 
this and a worse class of money sharks. There was a numerous 
class who wanted to rob the settlers of their lauds and improve- 
ments entirely, holding that the settler was a squatter and tres- 
passer, and should be driven from his lands. You would hear 
much of this sort of talk about the hotels, but none about the 
settlers' camps. Among the loudest talkers of this kind was a 
gentleman from Virginia. This person was going to invest his 
money as he pleased, without reference to settlers' claims. When 
the township of West Point was sold, it was a wet, rainy day. I 
was bidder and the officers let me go inside of the office. Just 
when I went into the office, 'Squire John Judy, who lived on 
section thirty-two or thirty-three, whispered to me, that he had 
been disappointed in getting his money at the last moment, and 
asked me to pass over his tract and not to bid it off. I did so, 
but this Virginian bid it off. I was inside and could not com- 
municate to any one until the sale was through ; and, as I did 
not bid on the tract, the outsiders supposed that it was not 
claimed by a settler, and the moment the bid was made, the 
bidder left for his hotel. As soon as I could get out, which was 
in a few minutes, and made known that Judy's land had been 
bidden off by a speculator, within five mmutes not less than 
fifteen hundred of as desperate and determined a set of men as 
ever wanted homes, started for the bold bidder. Prominent in 
the lead was Mr. John G. Kennedy of Fort Madison, who enjoyed 
the sport. Col. Patterson, now of Keokuk, a Virginian by birth, 
but a noble, true hearted friend of the settler, and who had been 

104 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

intimate with the Virginian, made a run across lots, and reached 
the hotel before Kennedy and his armj'. The Colonel informed 
the bidder of the condittion of afiEairs, and advised him at once 
to abandon his bid, which he did, or rather, he authorized the 
Colonel to do it for him. The Colonel went out and announced 
to the crowd, that the bid was withdrawn, and that the bidder 
had withdrawn himself. Both offers were accepted, but the latter 
was bitterly objected to, and only acquiesced in, when it was 
found that the party had escaped the back way, and could not 
be found. There was no other remedy. This was the last out- 
side bid given during that sale, and you heard no more talk about 
outside bidding, about the hotels. The squatter's rights were 
respected at that sale." 

Eeferring to the privations of the early settlers, Mr. Taylor 
says: "Alexander Crookshanks, a Noiwegian sailor, an honest 
man in all things, settled a few miles west of "West Point, in Lee 
county, in 1835, and by hard work made himself a large farm. 
When the sale of his land was ordered by the government, he 
went to western New York and borrowed four hundred dollars of 
his brother to enter the land. This was when President Van 
Buren's specie circular was in force, and certain designated banks 
were made government depositories by the government. Crook- 
shanks, to be certain that his money was " land oiiice monev ' 
when he got home, paid a premium of three per cent, in New York 
to get the bills of a city bank that was a government deposit bank. 
His brother gave him thirty-four dollars to pay his wa.y home; at 
that time there were no railroads. Alex, walked to Pittsburgh, and 
there took a boat for St. Louis, but when he got to New Albany, 
Indiana, the Ohio river was so low that there was no certainty of 
getting to St. Louis in time to get home by the day of the selling 
of his land, and he had no money to spare to go by stage. So 
he, on foot, crossed Indiana and Illinois, reaching home the Fri- 
day before the sale on Monday ; and when he went to Burling- 
ton, he found that his New York money would not be taken by 
the land of&ce, and he had to shave off his money that he had al- 
ready paid a premium for, to get " land office money," and pay 
another premium of twelve and a half per cent, reducing his four 
hundred to three hundred and fifty dollars. To make up this 

Pioneer Incidents. 105 

fifty he had to sell off a part of his scanty stock at less than one- 
fifth of what the same kind of stock would sell for now. I recollect 
the day that Alex, started to New York to borrow the money to ea- 
ter his land with, asking him what he would do if he failed ; his 
answer was 'I will come home and try to borrow at the sale, 
but if I fail, and lose my land, I will cross the Eocky Mountains, 
but what I will have and own my own land.' Of such material 
were the early settlers of Iowa." 

Individuals not in actual possession were also liable to have 
their claims jumped. Several cases of this kind occurred when 
the society which had been organized in March of this year inter- 
fered. Having tried one man named Stephens, who had jumped 
a claim of Major Wilson's and he refusing to vacate the premises, 
on application of the major, the sheriff of Dubuque county was 
sent for, there being then no nearer seat of justice than Dubuque. 
On the arrival of sheriff Cummins, he found Mr. Stephens snugly en- 
sconced in the major's cabin, armed with the instruments that 
would terminate life if properly handled, and threatened annihi- 
lation to any and all who might dare to touch him. The sheriff 
soon summoned his posse, and with them came a yoke of oxen, 
which were soon hitched to one corner of the log cabin, and as 
the timbers began to show signs of parting, Mr. Stephens very 
willingly vacated the premises, and was shown the most feasible, 
as well as the quickest route to Stephenson, and never afterwards 
made any attempt to recover his claim this side of the river. 

But little produce was raised in 1838. Meat was scarce, except 
wild game. All seemed happy and well pleased with the coun- 
try. The settlers belonged to Wisconsin territory, and lived un- 
der the laws of Michigan. The first steps towards civilization 
and improvement had been taken. The beautiful prairies in vir- 
gin loveliness were untouched by the rude hand of man. The 
wild flowers were far more numerous and variegated than now, and 
more fragrant in their wild untrodden state, than since reckless 
man has trampled under foot the floral region of our most lovely 
prairies. There are many incidents which transpired among the 
settlers of 1837 that would be interesting to narrate. The finan- 
cial troubles of the east were keenly felt here. There was no 
money, no credit, nor any produce to bring supplies to the infant 

106 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

colonies. But few of the immigrants brought a supply of money, 
and to many the approaching winter looked dark and lowering. 
The Indians that still remained here could not furnish a supply 
of wild game, but in return they asked for per-quash-i-con (bread) 
and co-cosh (pork) or pin-ne-ac (potatoes.) The small stocks of 
merchandise were exhausted, so much so, that the first steamboats 
in the spring were looked for with great an.xiety. Like the Pil- 
grim Fathers of New England looking forth from the " rock 
bound coast" towards the land of their nativity, and like the 
Israelites of old, they sighed for the " flesh pots," and remembered 
the " leeks and garlics" of the country left behind them. 

" Well do the old settlers of Iowa, remember," says Mr. Bar- 
rows, "the days and years from the first settlement to 1840. 
Those -were the days of sadness and often of distress. The en- 
dearments of home had been broken up in another land, and all 
that was dear, and hallowed on earth, the home of childhood and 
the scenes of youth were severed, and we sat down by the gentle 
waters of our noble river, and often ' hung our harps upon the 
willows;' but the bright prospects of the future led us on, a.nd 
with hope as our sheet-anchor, we lived upon the fruits of our 
labor, almost an exiled race, for many years. No splendid cottage 
was then our home. The rude cabin was our shelter, and we 
were scarcely protected from the rains of summer, or the snows of 
winter. No luxuries crowned our board, but we rejoiced in that 
Providence which shaped our destinies, and led us to the shores 
of the Mississippi. We loved the land of our adoption. We loved 
her soil, her climate, and her majestic river, upon whose banks we 
often strayed, and mingled our tears with one another. The pio- 
neers of Scott county, came as the vanguard of that great army that 
has since flooded our land. They came to build for themselves 
and posterity a glorious destiny amid the wilds of Iowa. They 
brought no sword or battle-axe, but the plough-share and prun- 
ing-hook were their only weapons. They had no history to point 
them the way ; no kind friend to bid them welcome to these shores. 
The legends of the Indians could only tell them of the beauty of 
the land they had come to possess, and instead of the smiles of 
welcome, they received only the frowns of the savage." 

Much difference of opinion exists as to the origin and meaning 

108 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

of the word Iowa. The following legends respecting the name 
have been given by various writers on the subject, though the 
question is not by any means satisfactorily settled. 

Mr. Antoine Le Claire, a well known citizen and formerly In- 
dian interpreter, says, the word "Iowa" means — "This is the 
place," — and the meaning is derived as follows : a tribe of the 
Sac and Fox Indians wandering or hunting, were in search of a 
home, and when they crossed the Mississippi (not the Iowa), they 
reached a point they admired, and iinding all they wished, they 
exclaimed "Iowa" — this is the place. " Hence the derivation 
of the word as extracted from an autograph letter from Mr. Le 
Claire to Proi T. S. Parvin, of Iowa City. 

W. H. Hildreth, Esq., of East Davenport, in a communication 
to the " Davenport Gazette," 1860, says : " It is a common thing to 
find words transposed and corrupted, which are transmitted merely 
by sound, and can be traced to no written language ; and fre- 
quently is this the case with Indian words, which first becoming 
used by the trader, who is perhaps a Frenchman or Canadian who 
spells the word according to its sound, with the vowels of his 
own language, which is copied in turn by the tourist or traveler, 
who is perhaps an Englishman or American, and thus it becomes 
Anglicised ; and as the peculiar aspirates and gutterals of the In- 
dian tongue lose their force in the wrilten word, we would scarce 
be able to recognize the same words spoken by a native. 

Corruptions from various causes are inevitable. Interpretations 
are sometimes adopted, as for instance Platte river instead of Ne- 
braska, which first term is evidently a corruption of the true 
meaning, viz; " Flatwater," but resembling closely an English 
proper name "Platte," it has finally lost its original sound and 

It is historical that the Omahas first gave the name of " Grey 
Snow " Indians to the tribe now known as the lowas ; and it is 
also authentic that they were an offshoot of Omahas. A very slight 
circumstance may have caused the giving of the cognomen. The 
Indian tradition is that they left the parent tribe in a snow storm, 
which presented the phenomenon of " Grey Snow " by mino-lino- 
the sands of the shore with the falling snow and thereby sullying 
its purity." The original Omaha word " Py-ho-ja " can very 

PioxEER Incwents. 109 

I'eadily be corrupted by making the j silent, or by using it as a 
vowel as in the German language. The word then becomes Py- 
ho-ia, which can be easily further corrupted into I-o-wa, and with 
all due deference to Mr. Le Claire, who is perhaps more competent 
than any one else to construe Sac and Fox terms, I would say 
that, although the word Iowa may have a place in the Sac and 
Fox language and doubtless he renders it correctly — it is more 
reasonable to look for it, or its derivation, to the tribe who speak 
the same language with the Iowa, and from whom they sprung. 
S. P. Prentiss. Esq., thinks the legend or account given by Mr. 
Le Claire bears a suspicious resemblance to a story long current 
in newspapers to the effect " that a wandering tribe of Indians 
searching for new hunting grounds came at length to a beautiful 
river, and, pleased with the general aspect of nature, exclaimed, 
" Alabama ! Alabama,! " or " Here we rest ! Here we rest I" 

By a reference to Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, in the vo- 
cabulary of Modern Geographical names, we find the following 
definition : Iowa, the French form of an Indian word signifying 
the " drowsy " or the " Sleepy Ones " ; a Sioux name of Pahoja, 
or " Gray Snow Tribe." 



Iowa Territory Organized — Gov. Lucas' Administration — First Session of 
tiie Legislature — State Officers — Acts Passed — State Prison — Stormy 
Politics — Legislative Incidents — Vetoes — Conflict between Lucas and 
the Legislature — President Van Buren upholds Gov. Lucas. 

Having passed through all the events recorded in the foregoing 
chapters, and acquired the necessary population and commercial 
importance, Iowa in 1838 was ready to form a territorial govern- 
ment, and thus to take the first step toward a place in the Union. 
In 1838, the legislature of Wisconsin convened at Burlington on 
the first of June, and continued in session till that portion of the 
territory west of the Mississippi was cut off from Wisconsin, and 
formed a separate government. There was an act passed by con- 
gress on the 12th of June, 1838, by which it was provided, " that 
from and after the third of July next, all that part of the territory 
of Wisconsin that lies west of the Mississippi river, and west of 
a line drawn due north from the head waters or sources of the 
Mississippi to the territorial line, was, for temporary purposes, 
constituted a separate territorial government, and called Iowa " 

This law made provisions, that there should be " nominateil 
and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, appointed 
by the president of the United States, a governor, secretary, chief 
justice and two associate judges, a United States attorney and 
marshal. The governor was appointed for three years, and the 
other officers for a term of four years. The governor was required 
to reside in the territory, was the commander-in-chief of the 
militia, was required to perform the duties of superintendent of 
Indian affiairs, and all laws passed by the legislature were to be 
approved by him, before they should take effect, and he was in- 
vested with the power to grant pardons ; and he was " to nominate, 

Territorial Government. Ill 

and with the advice and consent of the legislative council, appoint 
all judicial officers, justices of the peace, sheriffs and all militia 
officers, except those of the staff, and all civil officers not provided 
for by the organic act. It was further provided, that the territory- 
should be divided into three judicial districts, and the governor 
had the right to define the judicial districts of the territory, and 
assign the judges appointed to the several districts, and appoint 
the time for holding courts in the several counties, till otherwise 
provided by the legislature ; the judges were required each to live 
in and hold the courts in his own district, and the three judges were 
required to meet at the seat of government once a year, and to- 
gether hold a supreme court. It was also made the duty of the 
governor to " declare the number of members of the council, and 
house of representatives to which each of the counties was en- 
titled," and the first election was to be held at such time and 
places, and be conducted in such manner as he might direct. 

Kobert Lucas, who had been governor of Ohio, was appointed 
governor, William B. Conway, secretary, Francis Gehon (the old 
marshal of Wisconsin) marshal, Cyrus S. Jacobs,* Charles Ma- 
son, Jos. Williams and Thos. S. Wilson, judges. 

Governor Lucas caused the census to be taken, and apportioned 
the members of the legislature, and issued his proclamation for 
an election of delegates to congress, and members of the legisla- 
ture. The governor made Burlington the temporary seat of 
government, and convened the first legislature of Iowa territory 
on the 12th of November 1838, consisting of thirteen members of 
the council, and twenty-six members of the house of representa- 

One of the members returned elected, Cyrus S. Jacobs of Des 
Moines county was killed in an unfortunate political conflict in 
Burlington, before the meeting of the legislature, and Geo. H. 
Beeler was elected to fill the vacancy. At that day national 
politics were little thought of in the territory. Notwithstanding, 
a large majority of both branches of the legislature were dem- 
ocrats, yet Gen. Jesse B. Brown of Lee county, whig, was elected 
president of the council and Hon. B. R Wallace, whig, of Henry 

* Jacobs, soon after he was appointed, in a political difficulty, was killed, 
and Isaac Van Allen appointed in his place. 

112 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

county was elected speaker of the house of representatives. The 
session in many respects was a stormy one. 

At this session of the legislature, there were acts passed mak- 
ing provisions for organizing Linn, Jefferson and Jones counties, 
and the name of Slaughter county was changed to Washington ; 
a court of probate was established ; the territory divided into 
three judicial circuits; the towns of Broomfield (now Muscatine), 
and Davenport were incorporated, and there were a great number 
of special acts of incorporation for various purposes passed, giving 
exclusive privileges to private individuals, some of which after- 
wards proved very profitable to the proprietors and onerous to 
the people ; and this was particularly so, in regard to ferry char- 
ters across the Mississippi river at some of the important points 
on the river. Acts were also passed providing for locating the 
sites of, and for building the penitentiary and capitol buildings 
for the territory ; commissioners were appointed who were au- 
thorized and instructed to select the site for the former and to 
erect the penetentiary buildings within one mile of the public 
square of Fort Madison in Lee county ; provided, the citizens of 
the town and county should donate ten acres of land, such as the 
commissioners should think suitable for a site to build upon. 

The question of locating the penitentiary met with but little 
opposition, but it was different in selecting the place for the per- 
manent capital of the territory, and this question called forth 
much feeling and a warm debate. Mr. Leffler, who was a member 
of the legislature, made a very able speech in favor of a perma- 
nent location, and his views for the most part were adopted by 
that body, and they passed an act locating it in Johnson county, 
and appointing three commissioners to select a suitable site. 

The act required that the commissioners should meet on the 
first Monday of May, 1839, at the town of Napoleon and proceed 
to locate the seat of government at the most suitable place in 
Johnson county ; that they should agree upon a plan of building, 
and appointed one of their number to superintend the work. 

Chauncey Swan, John Ronalds, and Robert Rolston were ap- 
pointed commissioners, who, at the proper time proceeded to dis- 
charge the duties of their trust, selected the site, procured the 
title to six hundred and forty acres of land, and laid it off into 

114 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

lots, agreed upon a plan for the capitol, and from their number, 
selected Mr. Swan to superintend the work of erecting the build- 
ing. The location of the seat of government was two miles north- 
west of the town of Napoleon (which has ceased to be known as 
a town), and the location was designated by a stake driven in the 
ground with the following inscription on it : " Seat of govern- 
ment, City of Iowa, May 4, 1839," and signed by the three com- 

The patronage of the governor, at the first organization of the 
territory, was large, and enabled him to exert a great deal of in- 
fluence over the people ; but most of his power to appoint to 
office was taken away from him at the next session of congress, 
and the offices were made elective by the people. At the first 
session, there was a great deal of sparring between the members 
of that body and the governor and secretary of the territory. 
The council passed a resolution requiring the secretary to furnish 
their body with knives, stamps, folders, tin cups, etc. The secre- 
tary not being able to furnish those articles, addressed a commu- 
nication to the council upon the subject, in which they were 
informed that the secretary had made arrangements to procure 
the necessary stationery for the use of the legislature in Cincinnati, 
but owing to the low stage of water in the Ohio, the things 
ordered had not been received. The secretary in his communica- 
tion said : " The navigation of the Ohio was entirely suspended ; 
this was the act of God, whose holy name is pronounced with 
deep reverence, and to whose holy will it is our duty to submit. 
Human power cannot resist the dispensation of His providence, 
nor can human wisdom counteract His unfathomable designs." 
The secretary informed the council that he had been to St. Louis, 
" and returned in spite of every peril ;" that " much exertion had 
been made to procure knives in Burlington, but," said he, " knives 
of suitable finish and quality could not be pi-ocured in town, nor 
can sufficient knives of any quality be obtained, and the secretary 
cannot make knives, if he could, he would do so with expedition 
and pleasure ;" that "it was the earnest and anxious wish of the 
secretary, that all the members should have knives, and stamps, 
and folders, and all and singular such thing or things, device or 
devices whatever, as may facilitate the operation of the hands in 

Territorial Governmext. 115 

yielding assistance to the deliberations of the heads ;" that in 
relation to " that part of the resolution which relates to extra ink- 
stands, and tin patty pans, it can and shall be promptly complied 

The communication of the secretary greatly insulted the dignity 
of the council, and the matter was referred to a special committee, 
of whom Stephen Hempstead (afterwards governor) was chairman. 
The committee after due deliberation, made their report, in which 
they set forth that the secretary's communication " was of such a 
nature as to call forth a severe animadversion upon its tone and 
spirit ;" that " the evident intent of the communication was not 
only to treat the resolution, adopted by the council, with irony 
and contempt, but at the same time to convey the idea that the 
articles asked for by the resolution were unnecessary and unim- 
portant." The report went on to show that the house in which 
they held their deliberations was not properly furnished ; that the 
secretary had used his influence to prevent the council from ob- 
taining things without his sanction, and "that the honorable 
secretary of the territory might rest assured that the present legis- 
lature will not tamely submit to the insults and derisions of any 
ofi&cer of the territory, and they at all times will defend to the 
last their honest rights and the liberty of the people whom they 
have the honor to represent." This report of the committee was 
unanimously adopted. 

This controversy about knives, etc., though fiercely commenced, 
did not last long. The secretary, through the intervention of 
Judge Wilson, apologized to the council and withdrew the objec- 
tionable paper, and the council let the insult to their dignity pass 
without further notice. 

But this matter had hardly been adjusted before another diffi- 
culty arose implicating the governor with the secretary. The 
legislature passed a joint resolution, that the secretary of the 
council and the chief clerk of the house should receive six dol- 
lars per day for their services in the assembly, and each of the 
additional clerks, sergeant-at-arms, doorkeepers, messengers and 
firemen, should receive three dollars per day, to be paid by the 
secretary of the territory, upon the presentation of a certificate of 
their services, signed by the presiding officer of the house in 

116 Tcttle's History of Iowa. 

which they served, and countersigned by the secretary and clerk. 
The secretary, doubting whether this would be a sufficient au- 
thority for him to pay out money, referred the matter to the 
o-overnor, and the governor gave him an opinion in writing, in 
which he took the ground, that the secretary ought not to dis- 
burse the public moneys under that authority. The secretary 
being sustained in his views, as to the disbursing of the public 
moneys by the written opinion of the governor, sent to the legis- 
lature a communication, informing that body, that he did not 
feel authorized to pay out money under such authority, and to 
sustain his views, sent with the communication, the written opinion 
of the governor. 

This counseling of the governor was considered by most of the 
members of the legislature, as interfermg with their prerogative, 
and a matter of so great importance, that there was a joint con- 
vention of the two houses held, to devise ways and means by 
which to protect their rights against the supposed encroachments 
of the governor. This convention passed resolutions expressive 
of what they considered to be the rights of the legislature, and in 
their discussions, many of the members severely animadverted 
upon the part which the governor had taken in this matter. The 
attacks made upon the governor at the fore part of the session 
probably caused him to be a little prejudiced in his feelings 
towards the members, and less disposed to yield his opinion of 
what he conceived to be right, to the wishes of that body, than he 
would have been had there been no misunderstanding between 
them ; and from the time of this joint convention, instead of 
reconciling the strife that had been engendered between his 
excellency and the legislature, the quarrel became sharper and 
more bitter until the adjournment. Governor Lucas, being a 
man advanced in years, and having occupied the guberntorial 
chair in Ohio, thought himself better versed in making laws, and 
what was for the best interests of the territory, than most of the 
members of the legislature, who were mostly young men and 
inexperienced as legislators, and all laws which they passed that 
did not entirely meet with his approbation were vetoed ; and by 
the provisions of the organic act of the territory, it was necessary 
that the governor should approve of all bills passed by the legis- 

Territorial Government. 117 

lature, before they could become laws, so that his veto was abso- 
lute and no act of that body could become a law without his 
consent For the purpose of harmonizing diflferences, there was a 
joint committee appointed by both branches of the legislature to 
consult with the governor, and prepare a bill to regulate the 
intercourse between the legislative and executive parties of the 
territorial government. After such consultation, a bill was pre- 
pared by the committee with such restrictions and provisions as 
met with his approbation ; but when it was brought before the 
legislature, there were some very material alterations made in 
the bill, which were very obnoxious to the governor, and when 
it was presented to him for his approval, he refused to sign it, 
and returned it to the house in which it originated ; and in his 
veto message he laid down the rules by which he would be gov- 
erned in relation to acts presented to him for his approval. He 
informed the legislature that all bills submitted to him would be 
carefully examined, and if approved, would be deposited in the 
secretary's office ; but he said, if " special objections are found, 
but not sufficient to induce me to withhold my assent from the 
bill, a special note will be indorsed with my approval. Bills that 
may be considered entirely objectionable, or of a doubtful policy, 
will be returned to the legislative assembly with my objections, 
at such times and in such manner as I may from time to time 
deem most advisable." 

This veto message fanned the flame of strife already enkindled, 
and many of the members became very bitter towards the governer 
in their denunciations of his course. Among the many acts vetoed 
by him, was an act requiring him when a bill was presented to him 
for his approval, to inform the legislature of his approval thereof, 
or if he did not approve of it, to return the bill with his objec- 
tions ; an act authorizing the post master at Davenport to have 
the mail carried from that place to Dubuque twice a week in two 
horse post coaches : a joint resolution making the secretary of the 
territory a fiscal agent of the legislature, authorizing him to pay 
out money without an appropriation, to the members and officers 
of the legislature. 

The feelings of the members were so bitter towards the governor 
because he kept them in check by his vetoes, that there was a 

118 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

special committee appointed in the house on vetoes, of which 
James W. Grimes (afterwards governor and United States senator) 
was the chairman. The organic act provided that the governor 
" shall approve of all laws passed by the legislative assembly, be- 
fore they shall take effect." On this provision of the law, the 
committee made a lengthy report, in which they took the ground 
that the words " shall approve all laws," meant that it was his 
imperative duty under the organic law to approve of all acts 
passed by the legislature of the territory, and that the mere fact 
of the governor vetoing them or withholding his approval did not 
prevent the acts of the legislature from becoming laws, but was a 
neglect of duty on the part of the governor. This report was con- 
curred in by a vote of sixteen to six. 

These acts, and the abuse of the legislature, did not intimidate 
the governor in the right of the discharge of his duties, being ac- 
tuated with a desire to do what he supposed was right, and let 
those of the future judge of the wisdom of his course. 

When the members of the legislature found they could not 
control the governor by resolutions, reports of committees and 
abusive speeches, their next move was to remove him from office. 
A resolution was introduced in the house, in which it was set 
forth, that whereas, it was known to the legislature " that gov- 
ernor Lucas had been writing notes and explanations on sundry 
laws passed by the legislature," and also setting forth that these 
acts of his were " an unwarrantable encroachment upon the judi- 
cial department of the territorial government, as well as an insult 
and rude invasion of the rights of the legislature ; therefore, 
Resolved, that Robert Lucas is unfit to be ruler of a free people, 
and that a select committee be appointed to prepare a report and 
memorial to the president * * * * praying in strong terms 
for his immediate removal from office." 

This resolution was adopted by a vote of twelve to ten, and a 
committee of five was appointed. The committee, after due delib- 
eration, made their report, requesting the president for various 
reasons to remove the governor from office. There was a majority 
in both branches of the legislature who were opposed to the gov- 
ernor, and the memorial was adopted and forwarded to the presi- 
dent of the United States. 

120 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

In these proceedings, the governor was not without some friends 
who strongly opposed the adoption of the report, and they claimed 
the privilege " to forward a counter-memorial to the president on 
the same subject, and to spread their protest on the journal of the 
house;" but their request was refused, when eight of the mem- 
bers of the house, in their private capacity, got up a protest in 
which they reviewed the memorial, and denied or explained most 
of the charges preferred against the governor, so that from the 
protest, or some other cause, president Van Buren did not see fit 
to remove the governor from his office, and he held it till there 
was a change in the administration of the federal government. 

The difficulties which had arisen between Gov. Lucas and the 
legislature induced congress to make some amendments to the 
law organizing the territory ; and on the 3d of March 1839, they 
passed two acts by which it was provided that every bill passed 
by the council and the house of representatives shou Id be present- 
ed to the governor, and if he approved of it, the same should be- 
come a law ; if not he should return it with his objections to the 
house in which it had originated for reconsideration, and if both 
branches of the legislature passed it by a two-thirds vote, it should 
then become a law without the approval of the governor. They 
also made provision for authorizing the legislature to pass laws 
permitting the people to elect sheriffs, judges of probate, justices 
of the peace and county surveyors. 

There was likewise a law passed authorizing the delegate, Wm. 
W, Chapman, who was elected at the time of the organization' of 
the territory as representative to congress, to hold his seat till the 
11th day of October 1840, and made provisions that the next 
representative, after Chapman's term expired, should only hold 
his seat till the ith of the next March, after which the term 
should be the same as other members of congress, for the period of 
two years. 

The legislature was not slow in taking advantage of these acts 
of congress, for at their next session, among the first measures that 
claimed their attention, were those making provisions authorizing 
the people to elect their sheriffs, judges of probate, justices of the 
peace and county surveyors ; and by these acts the governor was 
very much curtailed in his power and influence. The legislature 

Territorial Government. 121 

closed its business and adjourned January 25, 1839. At the 
election in September, 1838, for members of the legislature, a del- 
egate to congress was also elected. There were four candidates 
for this office, viz : Wm. W. Chapman and David Eorer, of Des 
Moines county ; B. F. Wallace of Henry county, and Peter Hill 
Engle of Dubuque county. Mr. Chapman was elected by thirty- 
six majority over Mr. Engle. The federal appointments in the 
territory in addition to the governor were as follows : Chas. 
Mason of Burlington, Joseph Williams of Pennsylvania and Thos. 
S. Wilson of Dubuque, judges of supreme and district courts ; 
Mr. Van Allen of New York, district attorney, Francis Gehon of 
Dubuque, United States marshal ; Wm. B. Conway of Pittsburg, 
secretary of the territory ; A. C. Dodge of Burlington, register 
and V. P. Van Antwerp of Terre Haute, Indiana, receiver in the 

land office at Burlington ; Thos. McKnight receiver and , 

register of the land office in Dubuque. 



Judges Irwin and Mason — Jail Incidents — Trial of a Justice — Curious 
Trials — Pioneer Administration of Justice. 

At the organization of the territory of Wisconsin on the 4th 
of July 1836, the only counties west of the Mississippi river were 
Dubuque and Des Moines. At the session of the legislature held 
at Belmont that winter, there were created out of Dubuque, the 
counties of Jackson, Clinton, Scott and Cedar ; out of Des Moines, 
the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Henry, Slaughter (Washington), 
Louisa and Muscatine. David Irwin, associate judge of the 
United States district court, was assigned to that part of the ter- 
ritory lying west of the river, and, in company with Charles 
Mason, went to Burlington in the spring of 1837, and settled at 
the jDlace now occupied by Judge Mason. Judge Irwin was origin- 
ally from Virginia, but had been appointed a judgefor the terri- 
tory of Michigan, and presided in that part of the territory which 
afterwards constituted Wisconsin. He was a man of ability, with- 
out the ordinary vices of that day ; he decided promptly and cor- 
rectly. Few, if any, better judges ever presided in that district. 
He was a bachelor, and when Iowa was made a territory, he re- 
turned to Wisconsin and remained upon the bench until 1841, 
when he was removed by the President, and went to Texas where 
he was living a short time since. In the recent war of the rebel- 
lion, he was a rebel of the strictest character. 

Hawkins Taylor, Esq., of Washington, has written a pleasant 
and interesting account of the early sessions of the court held in 
Lee county, with incidents of practice in the courts at that time. 
Mr. Taylor was a pioneer settler of Iowa, and what he states is 
from his own knowledge. 

"The first court in Lee county was held at Fort Madison, on 

Eakly Courts. 123 

the 27th of January, 1837. David Irwin, judge, W. W. Chap- 
man U. S. district attorney, Francis Gehon, marshal, Joshua Owen, 
sheriff, John H. Lines, clei-k of the court. The judge decided 
that the jury was illegally summoned and there was no grand 
jury at that terra and little business transacted. The second term 
of court was held August 28, 1837 — the same officers of court as 
at the March term. The grand jurors were : Samuel Ross,' Jesse 
Wilson, P. P. Jones, John Gregg, Campbell Gilmore, Jesse 
O'Neil, John Box, Wm. Tyrrell, Lorenzo BuUard, Leonard B. 
Parker, John G. Kennedy, A. Hundaker, Geo. Herring, Wm. 
Anderson, Benj. Brattain, E. D. Ayres, Henry Hawkins, J. J. 
Thacris, J. Stephenson, Aaron White, Jos. Skinner, J. S. Doug- 
las and Thos. Small, Jr. E. D. Ayres was made foreman of the 
grand jury and Philip Viele, prosecuting attorney. 

"During the term there were about two hundred bills of indict- 
ment found, but they were all demurred out of court, so that no 
convictions followed the wholesale action of the grand jury. 

" Of the officials of these first courts. Chapman, after being the 
first delegate in congress, went to Oregon, where he now resides. 
Gehon, the marshal, is deceased. Douglas, one of the brightest 
minds in the territory, was blown up on the Moselle, on his re- 
turn home from the inauguration of President Harrison, in the 
spring of 1841. He was to have had one of the land offices at 
Burlington, and bad he lived would, no doubt, have been one of 
the leading men of the territory and state. 

" The jail, in use at that time, was a little log house, on Elm 
street, near the upper square, belonging to Henry D. Davis. Da- 
vis was a shoemaker, and used the jail as a shop, as well as rent- 
ing it to the county. At that time the two hardest cases in Fort 
Madison were two men named Clark and Morehead, both big, 
rough, drunken, dangerous fellows, and all the time in some sort 
of a scrape, and often in jail ; in fact, to be in jail, suited them 
well, for it gave them board at the county's expense, and they 
could go in and out as they pleased. On one occasion, when 
Morehead was boarding at the jail, he cut up into all sorts of 
shapes, entirely destroying the stock of leather that Davis had on 
hand. The next morning, when Davis went to his jail -shop, he 
found his leather entirely destroyed. Morehead showed him the 

124 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

pieces, as cut up, and inquired what kind of shoes he could make 
out of them ; but Davis had no remedy ; he could not prove that 
Morehead had destroyed his leather, and if he could, he had no 
business to use the jail as a shop. 

" One day Clark came and demanded a writ of ejectment against 
Morehead. A few days before, Clark had been committed to jail 
for some offense, and a few days later Morehead had been com- 
mitted ; and when the constable put Morehead in, Clark went 
out, and demanded of the same justice that had committed them 
both, a writ of ejectment against the new-comer, for " jumping 
his claim," a squatter phrase at that day. The justice ordered 
Clark off, telling him to go back to jail, where he belonged. 
Clark went off and got from one of the justice's enemies the 
necessary fee for the writ, when he went back and tendered the 
money for the writ, when the 'squire again refused to issue the 
writ, and ordered Clark off, when the latter stepped outside of 
the door, swearing terrible oaths and threatening what he would 
do, then and there, if the writ was not issued at once, and for the 
purpose of carrying out his threat, he commenced unbuttoning 
his clothes, when the 'squire took up a good hickory club, well 
selected for defense and the enforcement of the law, and with . 
both hands belabored Clark, until he cried "murder, murder." 
By the time help came, his head was completely covered with 
cuts, bruises and blood. The justice was arrested for assault and 
battery and taken five or six miles in the country for trial. The 
trial lasted several days and was prosecuted with much bitterness 
by the enemies of the justice, and defended with great earnest- 
ness by his friends. 'Squires Briggs and Eoss tried the case. 
Judge Viele prosecuted, and Henr}- Eno defended. The court 
acquitted Guthrie, the defendant, deciding that the statute admin- 
istered was not recognized by all the courts, but that its applica- 
tion, as administered and under the circumstances, was admissible 
and appropriate and well calculated to be useful. Guthrie had no 
further trouble with roughs — they found out that the " Yankee " 
would fight, and that fully satisfied them.'' 

The third and last term of court held in Lee county, while a 
part of the territory of Wisconsin, was commenced in Fort Madi- 
son. The same judge and other officers as at previous terms. A 

126 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

grand jury was impaneled, of which Mr. Taylor was one. The 
attorneys in attendance were : J. W. Woods, David Eorer, Henry 
Eno, M. D. Bendney, Jas. W. Grimes and Franklin Perrin. Isaac 
Van Allen, now of Peoria, was admitted a member of the bar. At 
the suggestion of Judge Viele, prosecuting attorney, Jas. T. Dinwid- 
die was made foreman of the grand jury. The latter was a hard 
working blacksmith, living a few miles below town, an honest 
man, a Kentuckian by raising, a man of powerful will and consti- 
tution, a good fighter, and was able to manage a large supply of 
whisky and still wield the sledge-hammer ; but when the jury 
retired to the garret of the "Madison House" where court was 
held, the foreman had more than his usual supply. On a motion 
made by one of the jurors, that Hawkins Taylor act as secretary 
for the jury, the foreman took this as a direct insult, and declared 
that be could do " all the writing needed by the jury," and at 
once demanded that if any one was to be indicted " bring them in." 
The first case presented was the steamer Bee. The offense was 
the taking off the old man Kellogg, deputy sheriff, who had gone 
on board at Port Madison, to serve an attachment on the boat, 
when the captain cut his line and backed out, and took off the 
officer, carrying him down to Warsaw, and then only running near 
enough to the shore to let the officer jump off. When Mr. Kellogg 
appeared before the grand jury, the foreman took his pen and 
marked down the case, and then turned to the witness and with 
great earnestness said, " Where is the steamboat Beef" To this 
the witness could give no positive information, as he had not seen 
her since the previous fall. The foreman then remarked sharply, 
" If you want the steamboat Bee indicted, bring her up here! 

Bring her up here ! She may be gone to the d 1, or she may be 

gone to Texas — if you want her indicted, bring her up here" and 
at once commenced to tear up the memorandum that he had made, 
saying, loudly, but to himself, " No bill, no bill," and then turned 
to the witnesss and said, "you may go," and he went, apparently, 
with about as much feeling of relief as when he escaped from the 
steamer the fall before. Several other cases were brought up and 
disposed of by the foreman in the same summary manner, one 
being a case of James Fiske for an assault with intent to kill made 
on George Perkins, a peaceful citizen. In this case the foreman 

LiARLY Courts. 127 

found a true bill. The next morning sentinels were placed below 
town to meet the foreman and get him into the jury room before 
he had an opportunity to take more whisky than he could man- 
age. The plan was successsful, and after that, there was no 
trouble with the foreman ; but there were many amusing incidents 
that took place in the jury room. Among them H. D. Davis 
who was a member of the jury tried to indict Morehead, who had, 
while in jail, cut up and destroyed his leather, for breaking jail. 
Davis proved by Isaac Johnson, another juror, that Morehead was 
in the habit of crawling into the jail at night ; in fact, that he went 
out and in when he wanted to. There were about sixty bills 
found by this grand jury, mostly for gambling ; all of the bills 
were decided on the trial, to be defective. I believe that no single 
indictment found in Lee county up to the organization of Iowa 
territory was sustained by the court on trial, but it was about as 
well, as if they had been good. There was no penitentiary in the 
territory, and no place to keep criminals, and those indictments 
caused many to run off to where there were both jails and peni- 
tentiaries ; and in those days judge Lynch held court occasionally. 
In his court there was no demurring to indictments, and so seldom 
mistakes in his rulings, that there was a very wholesome dread 
among the worst class of criminals to coming into that popular 

The following sketch of a court scene in pioneer days of Lee 
county is taken from the " Keokuk Daily Constitution," of 1871 : 

" The traveler through Keokuk, as he views its elegant private 
and public buildings, and notices the stream of human beings who 
throng its streets and marts of commerce, can hardly realize the 
fact that thirty years ago, nearly all the ground of Keokuk was 
covered by a dense growth of bushes and trees, and that the most 
important character then of the place, financially considered, was 
a wood dealer ; one who had erected a log hut near the river and 
there kept a wood yard, selling occasionally a few cords to the 
few steamers which then ventured on the waters of the upper Mis- 
sissippi. Yet such was the fact. The wood dealer referred to 
was a yankee by birth, who could turn his hand occasionally to 
any sort of business that would earn an honest penny ; and he 
managed by some means to become the owner of what was called 

128 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

in the language of those days, a " blanket claim or title " to a por- 
tion of the " half-breed tract." That sort of a title usually cost a 
blanket, paid to some drunken Indian or half-breed; and though 
it had merits sometimes, yet usually was good for nothing. But 
to return to our wood-cutter. He sold his "blanket title" to the 
then clerk of the district court at Fort Madison, for eight hundred 
dollars, and took his note therefor upon six months' time ; when 
pay time arrived, the clerk refused to pay the note, on the ground 
that the title bought was valueless, and the note was obtained by 
the fraud of the wood-cutter. This led to a law suit in the dis- 
trict court at Fort Madison, and the wood-cutter had Hon. Phillip 
Viele for his attorney, and the clerk had Miller and Galbraith for 
his attorneys. Charles Mason was judge, and the case was one of 
the first issues submitted to a jury. The evidence of the wit- 
nesses being conflicting, the trial was severely contested. The 
lawyers of Lee county who have come here in late years, can 
hardly realize with what zeal, enthusiasm and sometimes bitter- 
ness of debate attorneys fought over their cases thirty years ago. 
The country was new, the lawyers were mostly young, and the 
struggle was, which, among them, would be enabled to secure the 
best legal character. They were fighting for place and reputation. 
When the evidence was all in, and the case ready for argument 
by the attorneys, Miller whispered to his partner, that their client 
was beaten, unless the plaintiff's attorney (Viele) made some mis- 
step in his argument of the case. Galbraith took the hint, and 
being possessed of excellent speaking powers, especially in a case 
of severe criticism and review of another's conduct, he pitched 
into judge Viele's conduct as attorney for plaintiff with severe 
animadversions. Viele showed signs of excitement during the 
excoriations of the opposing counsel, but husbanded his wrath for 
the concluding speech, which belonged to him. His exordium 
was beautiful in language, though terrible in the denunciations of 
his opponent ; but he was so much excited by controversy with 
the lawyers against him, that his argument was more declamation 
than solid reasoning, and fell much below his usual standard ; for 
the judge was usually an able debater. The exciting character of 
his speech, however, filled the court house with hearers, who sev- 
eral times cheered the best of his periods. But we now come to 

Early Covets. 129 

the conclusion of the judge's speech, which, touching in sentiment, 
yet as it was based in part on a mistake in fact, caused the judge 
to lose his case. The judge, pausing a moment, reached forward, 
and taking his client (who was sitting near him) by the hand, 
raised him up and standing him before the jury, said: " Here, 
gentlemen, is my client ; he is an honest man, and his face bears 
the impress of his honesty. He is a hard working man, and his 
hands show his industry and his honest means of a livelihood. 
He has a wife and a large family of young children at his humble 
home in Keokuk, dependent upon his daily sweat and toil." As 
the judge finished this period, his client stepped close to him and 
whispered that he was not married, but the judge had gone too 
far to retreat, and waving his hand to his client indicative of a 
wish for him to step back, said to him in his usual bland voice, 
" Yes, my friend, it is all right ; it will come out right." He then 
proceeded with his remarks to the jury, as follows : " Yes, gen- 
tlemen, while I am addressing you, demanding justice at your 
bands for my client, at this moment the wife and children of my 
client are standing at the doorway of their humble cottage home, 
with eyes strained up the road towards Fort Madison, looking for 
the return of the husband and father ; and the first words that will 
greet my client on his return home will be, 'husband,' 'pa,' have 
the court and jury at Fort Madison done you justice?" These 
remarks, delivered in a sympathetic tone, and with graceful ges- 
ticulations, were greeted with a general buzz of approbation from 
the audience. When the jury retired to consider of their verdict, 
it stood on its first vote, eleven for plaintiff and one for defendant" 
" The eleven demanded of the one, why he went for the defend- 
ant? He answered that he had intended to go for the plaintiff 
too, until he had heard Judge Viele's sympathetic appeal for the 
" wife and children," etc. " For," said he, "I know the plaintiff 
well, and he has no wife nor children, and keeps ' bach ' in a 
log cabin ; and as that statement of his lawyer was erroneous, I 
believe the whole claim is a fraud." This changed about one 
half the jury ; and they disagreed, and were discharged. Before 
the next term of court, the judge's client committed some act of 
" border warfare," somewhat common in Iowa in those days, and 
fled the country, and neither he nor his have since been heard of. 

130 TuTILlfs HiSTORT OF lOWA. 

" Those were grand old days of pleasantry among lawyers of 
Iowa. But what changes has time made upon them ! Several 
of the most eloquent have long since passed to the summer land ; 
several have retired from the bar, oppressed with the weight of 
years ; and those who still linger on this side of the river, are 
whitened with the frosts of age. A little while yet, and the pio- 
neer lawyer of Iowa, like its old settlers in common, will belong 
to the history of the past ; but the many anecdotes of their gen- 
iality, sociability and forensic displays will survive them, and 
encourage those who succeed them, to rival their pleasantness, 
virtues and honors." 



Second Session of the Territorial Legislature — Legislative Statistics — Tlie 

The second session of the territorial legislature convened at 
Burlington on the 4th of November and adjourned January 17, 
1840 ; and an extra session was held at the same place on the 
13th of July, 1840. Of the regular session, Steph. Hempstead 
was elected president and B. R Wallace, secretary ; and in the 
house, Edward Johnson was chosen speaker and Jos. T. Fales, 
clerk. Soon after the meeting of the legislature, the proceedings 
of that body were interrupted by the death of Hon. Wm. B. 
Conway, secretary of the territory ; and at that time there 
were no provisions by statute for any person to discharge the 
duties of that office in case of a vacancy. To meet this emer- 
gency, the legislature passed a joint resolution appointing Chas. 
Weston fiscal agent, making it his duty to take charge of the 
ofiBce of the secretary, and perform the duties of that office, 
so far as practicable, until the vacancy should be filled by 
appointment from the president. James Clark received the 
appointment to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Con- 
way, and immediately entered upon the duties of his office. 

The death of Conway and the appointment of Clark so inter- 
rupted the chain of business in the secretary's office, that on the 
adjournment of the legislature, Clark, as disbursing agent, was 
not able to pay the members theiv per diem allowance for services 
during the session. Before he could disburse money, Clark had 
to notify the president of his acceptance of the office, give bond 
and receive a draft to draw the money from the treasury of the 
United States. Many of the members had not the means to pay 

Administration of Gov. Lucas. 133 

their bills and get home without receiving their pay, and the. 
secretary, whose business it was to pay them at the time of the 
adjournment, had not the money with which to pay them, and it 
was not probable he could get the necessary documents to enable 
him to get the money for several weeks. This, to many of the 
members, was a serious difficulty. To relieve the members in 
this emergency. Van Antwerp, who at that time held the office of 
receiver in the land office at Burlington, proposed to the legis- 
lature to furnish Clark with the requisite amount of money to 
meet the expenses of the legislature, if they would indemnify 
him against any loss by so doing. Upon this proposition, the 
legislature passed a joint resolution, requesting Van Antwerp to 
advance to the secretary of the territory, from the public moneys 
in his hands, a sufficient amount to pay the officers and members 
of that session, and pledged the faith of the territory to him for 
any amount he might advance to the secretary for that purpose, 
and instructed the governor to refund him the money so advanced 
out of the money he might receive for the purpose of defraying 
the expenses of the legislature. 

During the summer of 1840, the United States caused the census to 
be taken, and the population of the territory at that time was found 
to be 43,114. After the census reports were made out, the gov- 
ernor thought proper to convene the legislature for the purpose 
of making a new apportionment of its members. The legislature 
met on the 13th of July, 1840. Some changes were made in the 
number of members of the council and house of representatives 
from each county, though there was no change made in the 
number of members in the two houses ; there being thirteen mem- 
bers of the council and twenty-six members of the house. 

There was but little done at this session of the legislature, ex- 
cept the passage of local acts. There was a law enacted authoriz- 
ing a vote in the territory on a proposition for taking the prepar- 
atory steps to form a state government. This vote was taken at 
the fall election of 1840, but the popular sentiment at that time 
was in favor of territorial government. In 1840, there was much 
political extitement. The democratic party had had the ascend- 
ency in the federal government for the twelve years previous, and 
public patronage had been generally bestowed upon the members 

134 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

of that party ; and particularly in Iowa, the federal offices were 
filled with democrats Mr. Van Buren's administration had be- 
come unpopular with the people, and the whig politicians being 
anxious for place, there were great efforts made this year to change 
the policy of the administration. Van Buren was the democratic 
and Harrison the whig candidate for president. As is well known 
Gen. Harrison was elected. As soon as the result was known, 
there was a general scramble among the whigs for office, and 
neai'lv all the old officers throughout the country from secretary 
of state down to the smallest postmaster, were turned out and 
whigs appointed in their places; and all the democrats in the 
territory that could be, were removed from their positions to give 
places for whigs, which were mostly filled by strangers from the 

Pursuant to an act of the legislative assembly, approved Janu- 
ary 11, 1840, Chauncey Swan, Esq., the acting commissioner for 
the location of the seat of government, during the session of the 
legislature and in connection with that body, entered into a con- 
tract with the firm of Rague & Co., for the erection of the capitol 
at Iowa City. The above named company was the same that had 
built the capitol of Illinois, at Springfield. These gentlemen came 
on in April, 1840, with a large force of hands, and commenced 
clearing the grounds, and digging out for the foundation of the 
capitol. This work, together with the tide of emigration that now 
began to flow in, gave to the embryo city a lively and business- 
like appearance. Every variety of mechanical labor was now in 
good demand. A large number of buildings were in process of 
erection, displaying every variety of architecture from the most 
rudely constructed log cabin to the well finished two story frame 
building. The difficulty of procuring lumber was most severely 
felt. At this time the hardy lumberman had not found his way 
to the immense pine forests of the north. The most of the pine 
lumber was brought down the Ohio and up the Mississippi to 

Up to the month of June of this year (1840), the foundation of 
the capitol had been carried as high as the top of the basement 
windows, ready to receive the water table. Here the contractors, 
Skean & McDonald of the firm of Rague & Co., abandoned 

Administration of Gov. Lucas. 135 

their contract on account of the bad quality of the stone furnished 
by the commissioners. The work, however, was carried on by the 
acting commissioner, Mr. C. Swain ; but the difficulty in regard to 
the building material not having been obviated, it progressed but 
slowly. Early in the summer a quarry had been found in Cedar 
county, some twenty miles distant, which, being a hard sand stone, 
was pronounced suitable for a water table, and during the sum- 
mer, the rock for the sills of the east and west entrances, and for 
the water table were transported over the prairies, crossing Cedar 
river by the ferry, the wagons being drawn by from four to six 
yoke of oxen. 

Owing to the change that had taken place in national affiairs by 
the election of Gen. Harrison as president, changes took place in 
the territorial government of Iowa. John Chambers, of Ken- 
tucky, was appointed governor, 0. H. Stull, of Virginia, was made 
secretary, James Wilson, of New Hampshire, received the appoint- 
ment of surveyor general, and the land offices and other federal 
offices were mostly filled by men not citizens of the territory. 
These appointments were made very soon after the new adminis- 
tration came in power in 1841, and the appointees, early in the 
season moved into the territory, and entered tipon the duties of 
their respective offices. 



Boundary Commissioners — The State Militia — Counter Proclamations — 
Sullivan's Line — Victory of Lucas. 

The subject of the southern boundary of the territory of Iowa 
was one that created much excitement in its day, and an account 
of this controversy between Iowa and Missouri is an important 
chapter in the early history of the state. 

On the 18th of June, 1838, congress had passed " an act to au- 
thorize the president of the United States to cause the southern 
boundary of the territory of Iowa to be ascertained and marked." 
Under the provisions of this law, A. M. Lee had been appointed 
boundary commissioner on the part of the United States, and Gov. 
Lucas had appointed Dr. James David on the part of Iowa, but 
the state of Missouri, first through her executive, and then through 
her legislature, declined to be represented on the commission, as 
congress had invited her ; but pending the survey, under an act 
of her legislature, passed in 1837, attempted to exercise jurisdic- 
tion north of what was known as Sullivan's or the Indian bound- 
ary line (surveyed and marked by Col. J. C. Sullivan, by direc- 
tion of the United States surveyor general, Wm. Rector, and 
which had till then been recognized by all as the dividing line 
between Missouri and Iowa), by collecting taxes in Van Buren 
county, Iowa, through the sheriff of Clark county, Missouri. The 
acuteness of Gov. Lucas's mind and the clearness of his judgment 
were well shown in this controversy. He promptly called the at- 
tention of the secretary of state to the subject, and approached 
Gov. Boggs, of Missouri, with conciliatory words, desiring to ad- 
journ the question to congress for their settlement; but the states- 
men in the interest of Missouri, being impatient and short sighted, 
then menaced the peace of the territory with an armed force Gov 

138 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

Lucas firmly planted himself on the impregnable position that the 
difference was not one between Missouri and Iowa, as the former 
would have it, and as even the Iowa legislature was willing to ac- 
cept it, but between Missouri and the United States ; and that he 
as agent and representative of the general governiient must hold 
possession, at all hazards and at any cost, of the territory of Iowa, 
as committed to his care, in all its integrity and completeness, and 
see that the people therein, citizens of the United States, were 
protected in their rights, and the laws of the territory, under 
those of congress, faithfully executed. To this end, he, without 
hesitation, called out the militia of the territory, to act as a posse 
comilatus to aid the civil authorities in the enforcement of order 
and the laws. 

An act to organize, discipline and govern militia having been 
passed by the legislature, in accordance with the governor's re- 
commendation, it was approved on January 4, 1839. This law 
divided the militia into three divisions, with a major general at 
the head of each. Jesse B. Brown, of Lee, Jonathan Fletcher, of 
Muscatine, and Warner Lewis, of Dubuque counties, were ap- 
pointed by the governor major generals, respectively of the first, 
second and third divisions. Each division was composed of two 
brigades of four regiments, with the customary officers. They 
were, however, destitute of arms, except such rifles and shot guns 
as were the private property of individuals. Gov. Lucas had 
asked the Hon. J. R Poinsett, then secretary of war, to provide 
books of military instruction for the officers, and to deposit arms 
and munitions of war at some depot within reach for the rank and 
file, in case of Indian troubles, for the red tape of that day for- 
bade the distribution of arms to the militia until they were enu- 
merated and returned to Washington, which the Iowa militia 
had not yet been. Secretary Poinsett had promised to accede to 
the governor's request, and fifty copies of " Cooper's Tactics " 
were eventually furnished for the military education of the offi- 
cers, and Fort Armstrong, on Rock Island, being the most acces- 
sible to the territory of the military posts in the vicinity, was 
designated as a depot for military supplies ; but at the breaking 
out of the trouble with Missouri, the books had not yet reached 
Iowa, nor the arms Rock Island. 

SouTBEBN Boundary Difficulty. 139 

By the 29th of July, 1839, matters had come to such a pass as 
to call for a proclamation from the governor, warning those who 
infringed upon the laws of the United States of the penalties to 
be incurred, and citing peace officers of Iowa to their duties and 
privileges if overborne by force, but charging all that to the civil 
authorities (which he maintained to be all sufficient for the event- 
ual settlement of all internal misunderstandings, whether between 
individuals or committees), they must look for a solution of the 

Soon after this the newspapers gave publicity to a proclamation 
from the governor of Missouri, dated the 23d of August, 1839, 
ostensibly a reply to that of Gov. Lucas, but evidently intended 
to inflame and mislead the public mind, in reference to the ques- 
tion at issue. This called forth, as a rejoinder, another proclama- 
tion on the subject from Gov. Lucas, which was dated on the 
25th of September, 1839, in which he showed that it was Mis- 
souri, and not Iowa, that endeavored to enlarge her boundaries, 
at the expense of a sister commonwealth, by proving that Iowa 
was exercising jurisdiction only to the linei that had, from the 
organization of the state of Missouri till then, been acknowledged 
by that state as her northern boundary line, and which had been 
regarded by sundry acts of congress and Indian treaties as such, 
and to which line the territory of Wisconsin previous to her di- 
vision, and subsequently the territory of Iowa under the author- 
ity of the United States, exercised unquestioned jurisdiction. 
He recited the passage by congress of an act authorizing the pres- 
ident to have the boundary between Iowa and Missouri definitely 
determined ; that Missouri had declined to avail herself of her priv- 
ilege to be represented in the commission appointed for this pur- 
pose; and that the result of that survey then awaited the action 
of congress, with which Iowa would be entirely satisfied ; but 
affirmed that until that decision should be made by congress, the 
territory of Iowa, acting under the authority of the United States, 
would acknowledge no other boundary line than the one to which 
the jurisdiction of the United States, through their territorial offi- 
cers, had ever been exercised from the time the country west of 
the Mississippi river and north of the state of Missouri was, by an 
act of congress, attached to the territory of Michigan for judicial 

140 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

purposes. He contended that Missouri never set up any claim to 
territory north of " Sullivan's Line," till 1837, and never attempt- 
ed jurisdiction in the disputed tract, till Sheriff Henry Heffleman, 
of Clark county, Missouri, attempted to collect taxes in Van Bu- 
ren county, Iowa, under an assessment required by the Missouri 
legislature, passed the 16th of February, 1839. " The line that 
has universally been known as Sullivan's or the Indian boundary 
line," said the governor of Iowa, firmly, " and which has been 
recognized by all the authorities as above cited, is the line to 
which the territory of Iowa, acting under the authority of the 
United States, has heretofore exercised uninterrupted jurisdiction, 
and it is the line to which she intends to exercise jurisdiction 
until congress declares some other line to be the boundary of the 

In this proclamation, he called the attention of the district 
attorney, and the marshal of the United States to the subject, as 
the ministerial officers of the laws of the United States within the 
territory, and directed them to arrest and bring to trial all offend- 
ers under the federal laws, and also directed the district prosecu- 
tor of the first judicial district, and the sheriff of Van Buren county, 
as the proper ministerial officers of the territory, to arrest all offen- 
ders under the territorial laws, authorizing them at the same time in 
case the civil authorities were insufficient, to call to their assistance 
a sufficient number of the malitia as a posse comitatus. Finally, he 
exhorted the citizens at the scene of conflict to be calm and dis- 
creet, reminding them that they occupied the exalted station of 
free and independent citizens of the United States, and that the 
civil authority, to which they must look in the first instance, was 
abundantly able to protect them, but at the same time assuring 
them, that should the president authorize him to repel force by force, 
in the event of an invading force entering the territory, as threat- 
ened by the governor of Missouri, it would be promptly done, re- 
gardless of the boasted powers and superior numbers of the Mis- 
souri militia. 

On the 3d of October, 1839, the governor wrote to the secretary 
of state concerning this boundary difficulty, saying, it seemed to 
be his misfortune to be drawn irresistibly into a controversy with 
the authorities of the state of Missouri, and inclosing copies of 

Southern Boundary Difficulty. 141 

his own proclamations and the proclamation of Governor Boggsof 
Missouri, together with copies of acts of the Missouri legislature 
touching the matter, and the complaints of the county commis- 
sioners of Van Buren county, Iowa. 

In those days the mails traveled in slow and uncertain coaches, 
and the governor, therefore, determined to dispatch to Washington 
a discreet and intelligent special messenger, who, besides bearing 
his communications with safety and celerity, would be able to 
explain satisfactorily the condition of affairs to the authorities at 
Washington. James M. Morgan was selected for this responsible 
duty ; and on the 9th day December, started from Burlington for 
Washington with a detailed statement of the condition of affairs 
in writing by the governor, but Mr. Morgan was only four days 
on his journey, when the situation having become suddenly more 
threatening, the governor on the 13th of December, forwarded 
another communication to Washington, giving additional informa- 
tion, requesting instructions how to act, and inclosing the affidavit 
of Stephen Whitcher, Jr., a lawyer residing at Muscatine, who had 
just returned from a visit to the scene of difficulty, setting forth 
the fact that the state of Missouri had actually embodied an 
armed force for the invasion of Iowa. 

The legi.slature of Iowa, perhaps intending to pour oil upon 
ihe troubled waters, passed a preamble and resolutions of so con- 
ciliatory a temper, that in effect they surrendered the point at issue 
to the Missouri authorities. They were entitled, " preamble and 
resolutions relative to the difficulty between the territory of Iowa 
and the state of Missouri." The governor, whose message to the 
legislature vetoing them was dated Decembr 6, 1839, had no 
further to look than to their title for a reason for withholding his 
signature from them ; for he said he recognized no difficulty be- 
tween Iowa and Missouri, but that the controversy was between 
that state and the United States. The governor of Missouri, 
nevertheless, seems to have taken advantage of their passage by 
the legislature by publishing them, and leaving the inference to 
be drawn that they embodied the sense of the territorial govern- 
ment of Iowa on the subject; whereas they had no such signifi- 
cance without the sanction of the governor. 

However, the Missouri authorities, seeing the firm stand taken 
by Gov. Lucas, soon after began to relax their grasp, and the 

142 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

result of the whole proceedings, which had kept both Iowa and 
Missouri in a state of turmoil for more than a year, was, that 
Sherriff Heffleman of Clark county, Missouri, was arrested by the 
sheriff of Van Buren county, Iowa, and to avoid excitement and 
the possibility of an attempt at rescue by the Missouri partizans, 
was brought to Burlington, where he had an interview with Gov. 
Lucas. The governor extended to him kind words, and in a con- 
ciliatory manner [promising, so far as he could, in his executive 
capacity, to shield him from the consequences of his attempt, in 
obedience to the mad-cap acts passed by the Missouri legislature, 
to discharge official duties in Iowa that should have been con- 
fined to Missouri. HeiSeman declined to enter into recognizance, 
as suggested by the Iowa authorities ; but, notwithstanding this, 
was not imprisoned, but was nominally in the custody of the 
sheriff of Muscatine county. The excitement resulting from his 
arrest gradually subsided, and on the 3d of November, 1840, 
Governor Lucas had the satisfaction to formally and officially 
announce, that it had ceased altogether, and that the cordial and 
fraternal feeling which should ever mark the intercourse of the 
citizens of the several states was fully restored between the people 
of Iowa and Missouri. 

The arrest of Heffieman was the culmination of the contro- 
versy. Missouri having followed bad counsels, and with much 
pomp and bluster precipitated a state of affairs bordering on civil 
war, was in the end most completely defeated, deeply humiliated 
and the judgment and conduct of Gov. Lucas was signally though 
tardily vindicated by a decision of the supreme court of the 
United States, rendered in December, 1848, giving to Iowa all 
the territory claimed for her by her first governor. 

The Democratic administration of Van Buren having given 
place to the Whig government of Harrison, on the 25th of March, 
1841, John Chambers was appointed territorial governor of Iowa 
to succeed Gov. Lucas. The latter, after retiring from office, 
removed to the land adjoining Iowa City, which he had pur- 
chased from the government when it was first brought into 
market, where he spent the most of his remaining days in the 
management of his farm, the care of his family and the education 
of his children. A biographical notice of Gov. Lucas will be 
found in another part of this volume. 



The New Capitol Building — The Legislature at Iowa City — A State Gov- 
ernment Discussed — Scarcity of Money — Banking. 

The third session of the legislature of the territory of Iowa 
was held at Burlington, commencing November 2, 18-iO, and 
adjourned January 15, 1841. M. Bainbridge was elected president 
of the senate and Thos. Cox, speaker of the assembly. One of 
the acts passed at this session required the next legislature to con- 
vene on the first Monday of December, 184:1, at Iowa City, the 
new seat of government, provided the public buildings would be 
so far completed that the legislative assembly should be accomo- 
dated in them, or that other suitable buildings would be furnished 
free of rent. In either case, the governor was directed to issue, 
his proclamation convening the legislature and fixing the place of 
convening. Another act passed was that changing the law rela- 
tive to the capitol building commissioners, doing away with the 
three commissioners, and creating the of&ce of superintendent of 
public buildings and territorial agent. 

The law which had been passed fixing the average price of 
lots at Iowa City at three hundred dollars was amended, and the 
territorial agents, in conjunction with other persons, were to value 
the unsold lots in the city, so as to make their average value two 
hundred dollars a piece. Chauncey Swan was appointed superin- 
tendent, at a salary of one thousand dollars, and Jesse Williams 
was appointed territorial agent, at a salary of seven hundred dol- 
lars. At the organization of the terri.torial government, congress 
made an appropriation of $20,000, for the purpose of erecting the 
capitol building, and subsequently gave the section of land on 
which the town of Iowa City was laid out. The twenty thousand 

Administration of Gov. Chambers. 145 

dollars, with all the proceeds of the sale of the lots had been ex- 
pended, and the territorial agent had borrowed five thousand and 
five hundred dollars from the Dubuque bank, to assist in pushing 
forward the work on the capitol, but up to the time of the meet- 
ing of the legislature, the building had not progressed so that any 
part of it could be finished for use. The wall on the east side had 
been raised to the bottom of the cornice, it being thirty-five feet 
from the ground ; and it was estimated it would cost a thousand 
dollars to raise them to the square. The foundation of the last 
portico was completed, and there was material enough purchased 
and on hand to nearly put on the roof and inclose the building, 
but it was estimated that it would take thirty-three thousand, 
three hundred and thirty dollars, to complete the entire building, 
and fifteen thousand to finish two rooms forty-three feet long by 
twenty-two and a half feet wide, so that they could be used for 
legislative halls. Great efforts were made to so far complete the 
capitol building that it could be used by the legislature the com- 
ing winter, but as soon as it was ascertained that it could not be 
done, rooms were furnished at private expense, and tendered to 
Gov. Chambers, and on the 1st of November he ordered the fur- 
niture used at Burlington to be removed to Iowa City and issued 
his proclamation convening the legislature at the new capitol. 
Iowa City at that time was quite a small place ; there being but a 
few houses, and the accommodations for members of the legisla- 
ture, and those who had occasion to visit the capital were not as 
commodious or extensive as many of them had been accustomed 
to in their native states. Provisions were scarce and hard to be 
obtained and the requisites for comfortable entertainment in al- 
most every respect were very limited, and there were great com- 
plaints by those who visited the place about the fare they received 
and the accommodations provided. 

The propriety of assuming the responsibility of a state govern- 
ment was discussed at an early day ; and this question was brought 
before the legislature, and on the sixteenth of February, 1842, a 
law was passed providing for a convention, and the taking of the 
necessary steps for the establishment of a state government. The 
convention was to consist of eighty-two members, and to meet on 
the first Monday of the next November ; but before the law was 

146 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

to be in force it was to be submitted to the vote of the people. 
But it seems that the people did not at that time feel disposed 
to assume the responsibility of a state government, for at the 
next election, the proposition was voted down. In the fall of this 
year there was another treaty held with the Sac and Fox Indians, 
at their agency, and on the eleventh of October, 1842, an agree- 
ment was signed for the purchase of all their lands in Iowa. By 
the provisions of this treaty, the Indians retained the right to 
occupy all that part of their lands ceded, '' which lies west of a line 
running due north and south from the Painted, or Eed Rocks, on 
the White Breast fork of the Des Moines river, for the term of 
three years." In consideration of the grant of lands, the United 
States agreed to pay these nations, yearly, an interest of five per 
cent on the sum of eight hundred thousand dollars, and pay all 
their debts which at that time amounted to two hundred and 
fifty- eight thousand, live hundred and sixty-six dollars and thirty- 
four cents. 

As soon as it was known that this treaty had been made, there 
was a great rush of immigration to Iowa, and large numbers 
marked out and made temporary settlements near the boundary 
line of the Indian country, so as to be ready on the first day of 
the next May to move into the new purchase, and select choice 
locations for their claims. The winter of 1842-3 was noted as 
the cold winter. Snow about a foot deep fell on the night 
of the 9th of November, most of which lay on the ground till the 
next April. During most of the winter the snow was from two 
to four feet deep, and a great portion of the time, the thermometer 
was about twenty degrees below zero. 

When the legislature met at Iowa City on the 6th of December, 
1841, the place had so far improved that the members and other 
visitors found very comfortable accommodations. There had 
been, during the summer, a large brick house put up on the south 
side of the capitol square called the "Globe House." The walls 
of the capitol had been carried up to the square, and all the 
mason work of the south gable completed. The roof was on, and 
the north gable boarded up with rough boards. The cupola was 
finished to the first contraction, and the top temporarily inclosed ; 
the two large rooms on the east side, and two small ones on the 

Administration of Gov. Chambers. 147 

west, in the second story, were so far finished, that they were oc- 
cupied by the legislature and officers of the territory. 

At the commencement of the year 1842, there was a great crisis 
in money matters. Most of the banks through the country had 
suspended specie payments in the fall of 1840, and many of 
them at this time were afraid to make their accustomed loans : 
money everywhere became scarce and property went down in 
value faster than it had gone up, and it was almost im.possible to i 
sell at any price. In addition to the general crisis all over the 
country, early in the year 1842, all the Illinois, Wisconsin, and a 
great portion of the Michigan and other western banks failed. 
The loss sustained by the failure of banks, and the hard 
times occasioned by the general panic in the money market, 
created a great prejudice against all banks, and the sentiment 
prevailed, to a great extent, in favor of a strictly hard currency ; 
and this was made, to a certain extent, in many parts of the coun- 
try, and particularly in the west, a political issue. 

The Miners' Bank at Dubuque, which was chartered by the 
legislature of Wisconsin, and the only one at this time in Iowa, 
suspended specie payment the last of March, 1841, and refused 
to redeem its bills with specie till the first of July, 1842. As 
soon as the bank resumed specie payment the demand for specie 
was so great that, in about a week, it again suspended, and the 
result was, that the value of the notes of the bank became 
greatly below par. The course pursued by this bank was such, 
that the legislature, which met on the first Monday in December, 
1842, thought proper to make an investigation of its affairs. 

This bank, like many others, had been started on fictitious 
capital. The stockholders, instead of paying their stock in money, 
when the bank commenced business, executed their notes, and 
among the number was a man by the name of St. John, who re- 
sided in St. Louis. This person had become a stockholder to the 
amount of forty thousand dollars by executing his notes to the 
bank, and afterwards became indebted to it by borrowing money 
to the amount of fifty-seven thousand dollars, and before he had 
paid any of this indebtedness, failed and took the benefit of the 
bankrupt act, and the whole of his indebtedness was a loss to the 

148 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

Thos. Eodgers, a member from Dubuque, in the early part 
of the session, gave notice of his intention to introduce a bill 
to repeal the charter of the bank and provide for winding up the 
affairs of the same, which was afterwards done, and the mat- 
ter referred to a joint committee, which committee subsequently 
brought in two lengthy reports ; the majority reported in favor of 
repealing the charter and winding up the affairs of the bank ; the 
minority report recommended milder, measures, and did not 
meet with much favor. The bill finally passed the house by a 
nearly unanimous vote, and was sent to the council for concur- 
rence. In that body, it was delayed by the friends of the bank, 
so that the council adjourned without taking any action on its 
merits ; and thus, for a while, the existence of the bank was pro- 



Collecting Debts by Force — Sheriffs Employed — The Sunday Law : Re- 
vision of the Statute — The Legislature of 1844 — Public Debt — Con- 
stitutional Convention. 

At the commencement of the year 1843, there was one of 
the hardest times in the money market that had ever been known 
in the west. All the Illinois, and a great portion of the other 
western bank notes had gone out of circulation ; land and every- 
thing else had gone down in value to almost nominal prices ; corn 
and oats could be bought at from six to ten cents per bushel, 
pork at a dollar a hundred, and the best kind of horses the 
farmer could raise would only bring from fifty to sixty dollars. 
Almost everybody was in debt, and the sheriff and the constable, 
with a legal process, trying to collect a debt, were frequent visit- 
ors at every man's door, and much property was sold on execu- 
tion at very reduced rates. To try to alleviate the general finan- 
cial distress of the territory was the principal subject which occu- 
pied the attention of the legislature at that time. To accomplish 
this, there was passed what was commonly known as the " valua- 
tion law." This law provided that, when an execution was issued, 
the officer should levy upon such property as the defendant 
might direct. If the defendant turned out real estate, the officer 
was required to call an inquest of three disinterested men, having 
the qualifications of jurors, who were to value the land under 
oath, and if the land did not sell for two-thirds of its appraised 
value, then the sheriff was to offer it to the plaintiff, and if he 
would not take it at this valuation, then there was to be no sale, 
and the land could not be offered again for twelve months, only 
at the cost of the plaintiff, unless, when offered, it should bring 

Hard Times. 151 

more than two-thirds of its value. In relation to personal prop- 
erty, the officer was to select two disinterested persons who, with 
himself, were to appraise the property, and if it did not sell for 
two-thirds of its valuation, then he was to offer it to the plaintiff, 
and if he did not take it at two-thirds of its value, there was to 
be no sale, and the property could not be offered again for six 
months, unless at the cost of the plaintiff. This law worked a 
relief to the debtor, and but few debts were collected by distress 
of property. 

At this session of the legislature there was a law passed called, 
"an act to prevent certain immoral practices," which was com- 
monly known as the Sunday law. This act provided that, if any 
one should be found on the first day of the week, commonly 
called Sunday, rioting, quarreling, fishing, shouting, or at com- 
mon labor; or if any grocery keeper should sell any spirituous 
liquor on that day ; or if any person should curse, damn, or pro- 
fanely swear in anj' court of justice, or within the hearing of any 
religious assembly, he should be fined for the same. This law, 
among the early settlers of Iowa, met with a good deal of opposi- 
tion, and was much discussed among the people, and in some 
places was a political issue at the next election. This act, though 
it remained as the law for years, was a dead letter on the statute 
book, for no one thought proper to enforce it. 

This winter the legislature undertook a revision of the stat- 
utes, and got up a code of laws generally known as the " Blue 
Book." They made some material changes in the laws, and most 
of the laws provided that they should take effect from and after 
their passage. Mr. Stull, who was then secretary, undertook the 
work, but before he had completed it, was removed from office, 
and S. J. Barr appointed in his place. Mr. Stull being very 
much incensed at being deprived of his office, immediately aban- 
doned the superintendency of publishing and distributing the 
laws, and left the business in such a conditfon that it was very 
difficult to readily proceed with the work. On account of this 
interrujDtion, the laws were not ready for distribution till late 
in the fall, and the people were from six to nine months with 
scarcely any one knowing what the laws were. This delay 
caused to be inserted in the constitution soon after framed, a 

152 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

clause which provided that no laws of a public nature should 
take effect until the same were published and circulated in the 
several counties by authority. 

The sixth general assembly met on the first Monday of Decem- 
ber, 1843. No bills were enacted till January, 1844. In the 
senate, Thos. Cox was elected president, January 11, 1844, on 
the forty-first ballot, and B. F. Wallace, clerk ; and in the house, 
Jas. P. Carleton was chosen speaker, and Joseph T. Fales, chief 
clerk. One of the first acts was to change the time for holding 
the general election from the first Monday in Augur?t to the first 
Monday of October, but there was but one election held under 
this law, till it was repealed. The legislature also made provis 
ions for taking the census of the territory in May, and for an 
extra session of their bodj^ on the sixteenth of June ensuing, for 
the purpose of making a new apportionment of the representa- 
tives. Acts were also passed for organizing the counties of Keo- 
kuk, Mahaska, Wapello and Davis, making provision that after 
the first of March, 1844, these counties should have all the priv- 
ileges of other counties of the territory. 

Among other measures brought before this session, was a bill 
to repeal the charter of the Miners' Bank of Dubuque. Numer- 
ous petitions were sent from all parts of the territory, some for 
sustaining the bank, others for repealing its charter, and this in- 
stitution was the great question of the session. The bill passed 
the house and was sent to the council ; there it was amended by 
striking out all after the enacting clause, and providing among 
other things, that the bank should resume specie payment within 
thirty daj's after the passage of the act, and should make its notes 
redeemable in specie at Burlington, St. Louis and New York, 
and the cashier was required to make out, under oath, every 
ninety days, a statement of the financial condition of the bank, 
and publish the same in some paper ; and in case the bank re- 
fused to comply with the provisions of this act, or at any time 
refused to pay any of its liabilities in specie, at any of the places 
where its bills were made redeemable when demanded, then the 
district attorney of the third judicial district was required to sue 
out a writ of quo warranto and prosecute the same to final judg- 
ment, in accordance with the provisions of the laws of the terri- 

Hard Times. 153 

tory. The bill as amended was passed by the council with dis- 
sentient votes, and sent to the house for their concurrence. The 
house refused to concur, and sent the bill back to the council, 
when on motion, the bill was laid upon the table until the 
fourth of July ensuing ; and thus ended the contest for that ses- 
sion of the legislature about the Miners' Bank of Dubuque. On 
the 12th of February, the legislature passed an act for the pur- 
pose of letting the people have another opportunity to vote on 
the question of becoming a state. This act made provision, that 
at the eledtion to be held in April, the judges of the election 
should ask each qualified elector as he approached the polls, 
whether he was " in favor or against a convention to form a state 
constitution," to which the elector was to answer, "convention," 
or " no convention ;" and if it was found that there was a major- 
ity of all the voters in the territory in favor of a convention, then 
at the next August election, delegates were to be chosen. This 
act made provision for seventy members, but the legislature, at 
their extra session in June, added three more to the number, 
who were to be citizens of the United States, and to have resided 
six months in the territory previous to the election. 

The convention was to meet at Iowa City on the first Monday 
of the next October, and form a constitution which was to be sub- 
mitted to the vote of the people at the next April election, for 
them to ratify or reject. The vote at the April election was 
largely in favor of a convention, and a proclamation was issued 
for electing members at the August election. 

At this time the expenses of the territory had been more than 
the appropriations made by congress, and there was quite a large 
debt hanging over the territorial government, with no means to 
pay. At the extra session of the legislature in June, there was 
an act passed, making provisions that if congress would transfer 
the appropriations made for defraying the expenses of the legisla- 
ture for the ensuing year, so that it might be applied to the pay- 
ment of debts already accrued, and the overplus, if any, to the 
paj'ment of the expenses of the convention which was to form the 
constitution, that the annual election for the ensuing year for 
members of the legislature was to be suspended ; but if congress 
should not transfer the appropriation, then the election for mem- 

154 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

bers was to be held on the first Monday of the next April, and 
the legislature was to hold its annual session on the first Monday 
of the following May ; so that, by the provisions of this act, the 
legislature was not in session during the winter after the forma- 
tion of the first constitution. The members of the convention 
were elected at the August election, and convened at Iowa City 
at the stated time, October 7, and were organized by electing Shep- 
perd Leffier, president, and Geo. S. Hampton, secretary ; and on 
the first of November closed their labors. 

This constitution fixed the boundaries of the state as " begin- 
ning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river 
opposite the mouth of Des Moines river, thence up the Des Moines 
river to a point where it is intei'sected by the old Indian boundary 
between Missouri and the Indian country, thence west on a paral- 
lel of said line to the Missouri river, thence up that river to the 
mouth of the Sioux river, thence on a direct line to the St, Peters 
river where the Watonwan intersects the same, thence down the 
St. Peters river to the Mississippi, thence down the Mississippi 
to the place of beginning." 

This constitution made provisions for biennial sessions of the 
legislature, and for the election by the people, of a governor, sec- 
retary of state, auditor, and superintendent of public instruction, 
who were to hold their offices for the term of two years. The 
judicial department was to consist of a supreme and district courts, 
and such other courts as might be established by law. The su- 
preme court was to consist of three judges to be elected by the 
legislature ; and the district court of one judge, to be elected by 
the voters of his district, and the judges of both courts were to 
hold their offices for the term of four years. The state was pro- 
hibited from incurring a debt over one hundred thousand dollars, 
unless by a vote of the people. 

This constitution was formed just after the people had suffered 
severely from worthless bank and fraudulent corporations, and a 
war against banks and incorporated institutions was a leading 
principle with the democratic party, and the democrats having a 
large majority in the convention, made the constitution a little 
more democratic than pleased the people, as was shown by their 
subsequent vote. The convention did not wait to see if the people 

156 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

would ratify their work, but immediately sent the constitution to 
congress to be admitted as a state. 

As provided by the previous legislature, in contemplation of 
the adoption of the constitution, there was no session of the legis- 
lature the winter after the convention. 



Tlie Indian Girl Haxta — Her Fate — Bill Johnson — His History — Peck's 
Kevenge — Indian Murders — Murder of Miller — Execution — Murder 
of Davenport. 

In 1838, while die Sioux occupied the northwest part of Iowa, 
and the Pawnees lived on the west bank of the Missouri, on the 
river about one hundred and fifty miles above Council Bluffs, 
there happened an incident quite revolting to civilization. 

The Pawnees have been noted as a warlike and cruel people, 
and had long been at variance with the Sioux, and at that time 
were engaged in a fierce and sanguinary war. 

In the month of February of this year, the Pawnees captured a 
Sioux girl about fourteen years old, named Haxta. She was 
taken to their village where she was kept as a prisoner and treated 
as one of their own tribe. Her situation being known to the In- 
dian traders in that vicinity, they made efforts to purchase her lib- 
erty that she might be restored to her parents ; but these efforts 
proved unsuccessful, and she was kept as a prisoner, and treated 
kindly for several months. 

About the time the Indians commenced to plant their corn, the 
chiefs and warriors, about eighty in number, held a council at 
which they determined to offer her " to the spirit of fecundity in 
a new corn crop which they were about to plant." At the close 
of the council, she was taken from her lodging and, accompanied 
by the whole council, was led from wigwam to wigwam through 
the whole village, at each of which she was presented with a gift. 

On the 22d of April, two days after she had been presented 
with these gifts, she was led to the place of her sacrifice ; and not 
until she arrived at this place, was she informed of the doom 
which awaited her. The place selected was between two trees 


158 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

which stood about five feet apart. Three bars of wood were fas- 
tened to the tree as a platform for her to stand upon. A fire was 
kindled under the bars and supplied with dry fuel till the flames 
should reach the platform. Two stout warriors then raised the 
girl by the arms, mounted the platform and caused her to stand 
directly over the flames. Two small fagots of dry wood were 
ignited and placed under her arm-pits. While she was thus suffer- 
ing torture, the assembled population of the village stood around, 
at a short distance from their victim to witness the scene. 
After she had suffered till exhausted nature had nearly sur- 
rendered life, all the warriors who were standing by with 
their bows and arrows, at a given signal, let fly their arrows, 
and every vital part of the body was pierced with these missiles. 
As soon as life was extinct, their arrows were pulled out from the 
quivering flesh, and while her body was still warm, her flesh was 
cut in small pieces from her bones, and placed in baskets. 

The baskets of flesh were taken to a newly prepared corn field ; 
here the principal chief first took a piece of flesh from the bas- 
ket, and squeezed from it a drop of blood upon the deposited 
grain of corn ; this example was followed by the others, till every 
hill had been bathed with blood, when the corn was covered with 
earth ; and thus closed the fate of the Sioux Indian girl Haxta. 

About the year 1843, there was a man in Iowa who attracted 
much attention, and who was known by the name of "Bill John- 
son." There was a man in Canada who had been prominent in 
the troubles that took place there a short time previous, and had 
taken an active part in some of the political movements then go- 
ing on, and had carried his measures to such an extent, that he 
was charged with treason, and, to elude the grasp of the civil 
authorities, secreted himself among the islands of the St. Law- 
rence. Here, with a party of his associates, for some months he 
managed his enterprise for political reformation, and baffled all 
efforts of the civil authorities to arrest him, frequently makino- 
sallies upon the shipping which went up and down the river, to 
obtain his supplies. 

This man and his exploits were subjects of many newspaper 
comments, and the people of the United States to a great extent 
sympathized with him in his political undertakings, and he was 

CiiiME. 159 

commonly st3-]ed the " Canadian patriot, or the hero of a thous- 
and exploits." 

An individual, pretending to be the Canadian patriot, came 
into Iowa with a young girl, whom he represented to be his 
daughter, and settled in Clayton county, which at that time was 
very sparsely settled, and was attached to Dubuque county for 
judicial purposes. Johnson had not been in this location very 
long before, for some reason, he became very obnoxious to his 
neighbors, and some eight or ten white persons, accompanied by 
a party of Indians, went, one cold night, to his house, and he 
represented that they took him from his bed, forced him out of 
doors and tied him to a tree, and, after giving him about fifty lashes 
on his bare back, ordered him and his daughter Kate to pack up 
their things and leave the neighborhood within two hours, and 
never to return again, at the peril of their lives. 

Johnson and his daughter, after being thus dealt with, started 
in the night, and traveled a distance of twenty-Sve miles over a 
prairie country, when it was so cold that one of the rioters was 
reported to have frozen to death, another froze his feet, and sev- 
eral others were more or less frost bitten before they could get to 
their homes. When Johnson and his daughter rehearsed, in Du- 
buque, the treatment they had received, and the old man repre- 
senting himself to be the Canadian patriot, they elicited much 
sympathy in their behalf. The newspapers published their wrongs 
to the world, and the citizens of Dubuque interested themselves 
in bringing the offenders to justice. The rioters were arrested, 
and four of the number, by the names of Evans, Spencer, Par- 
rish and Rawley, were convicted, and one was sentenced to the 
penitentiary for two years, and the others fined two hundred dol- 
lars each. 

After this transaction, Johnson left Dubuque, and, coming to 
the southern part of the territory with his daughter, he stopped 
and made a claim in Mahaska county. Johnson was a large, 
stout man, well built, bold and resolute in his manner, and his 
whole bearing of such a character as was calculated to inspire 
fear and dread in those who might chance to meet with his dis- 

He had not been in Mahaska county long, before a young man 

160 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

by the name of Peck, who had made a claim near to Johnson's, 
became enamored with Miss Kate, and the young twain wished 
to be joined as husband and wife. The old man, being informed 
of their wishes, became violently opposed to it, and ordered Peck 
to stay away from his house. But Peck, not willing to give up 
the object of his affections, watched an opportunity when the old 
man was away from home, took the girl and came to Benjamin 
McClary's, a special friend of his in Jefferson county, where they 
were married. 

The old man coming home and finding his daughter gone, soon 
learned the cause of her absence, got on their trail and followed 
in hot pursuit. The young couple had been married, and had 
just retired to bed, when the old man arrived at McClary's. He 
entered the house with a drawn pistol, ascended the ladder to the 
loft of the cabin, where his daughter and her spouse had retired ; 
made her get up and dress herself and hurry down the ladder, put 
her on a horse and rode away, while the husband stood by, a 
silent spectator, and dared not move a finger, or say a word in her 

Young Peck, though he showed no resistance at the time, did 
not, as it is presumed from the sequel, quietly brook the insult 
offered, or forget the injury received, in being thus deprived of 
his wife ; for, a few evenings after Johnson returned with his 
daughter to his home in Mahaska county, some person, just after 
dark, approached his house, which was occupied by himself and 
daughter, pointed a rifle through a hole in the cabin, and sent a 
leaden bullet through his heart, and the old man fell on the floor 
and died without speaking a word. 

Peck was arrested for the murder, and lodged in the jail of 
Washington county, which then had judicial jurisdiction over all 
the territory west of it He subsequently had his trial, and was 
acquitted, though there was little doubt in the mind of the public 
that he was the murderer of this bold and daring man. 

These transactions made Johnson so notorious a character in 
Iowa, that means were taken to ascertain if the history he had 
given of himself was correct, and it was satisfactorily found that 
he was an impostor ; a man of low repute, and not the distin- 
guished ''Bill Johnson," the Canadian patriot; and on an investi- 

162 TuTTLFfs History of Iowa. 

gation of the circumstances attending his troubles in Clayton 
county, it was very evident that he and Miss Kate had perjured 
themselves on the trial of those charged with abusing them, so 
much so, that the governor thought proper to pardon these con- 
victs; and these individuals upon being pardoned, immediate- 
ly took measures to arrest Miss Kate for perjury ; but the friends 
of Peck, at his request, interposed, and sent her off out of the 
territory, and she thus escaped a legal investigation. Thus ended 
the career of this man and his daughter, much to the chagnn of 
those who were instrumental in helping to convict those who, as 
thev supposed, had inflicted a flagrant wrong upon " Bill Johnson," 
the Canadian patriot, the celebrated hero of the " thousand islands." 

About this time the Winnebago Indians who lived in the 
northern part of Iowa, on the neutral grounds, were very trouble- 
some. Some unprincipled whites were in the habit of selling them 
whisky, and prompting them to commit depredations by stealing 
and robbing. While under the influence of whisky, some of the 
tribe murdered Messrs. Tegardner and Atwood, traders in tie 
Indian country, and severely wounded the son of the former. 
These murders were committed at their trading house, which the 
Indians set on fire, and the house and the dead bodies were 
burned to ashes. 

Some of the Indians, supposed to have been engaged in these 
murders, were taken prisoners, brought to Dubuque and lodged 
in jail. They remained in prison a long while before they were 
brought to trial, and, while confined, one of them named Wah- 
con-chaw-kaw (big Indian) killed one of his companions, and 
when interrogated why he did it, the only answer was, that " so 
great a liar ought not to live." The others had their trial and 
were all acquitted ; but Wah-con-chaw-kaw was convicted and 
sentenced to the penitentiary for life. 

While waiting for a trial, some of the Indians escaped, and 
after being absent some time, very unexpectedly to everybody, 
came back. The reason of their return was, probably, because 
their comrades would not receive them as belonging to their na- 
tion till they had answered to the penalties of their crime, or had 
been honorably discharged ; supposing, if they protected them 
that their nation would be held responsible for their crimes. 

Crime. 163 

On the 25th of April, 1845, John Miller, with his son-in-law, 
by the name of Liecj, with their families, emigrated from Ohio, 
and stopped in Lee county, where they offered to pay cash for a 
good farm ; and, from this circumstance, it was soon reported 
through the neighborhood, that he had a large amount of money 
in his possession. Miller, Liecy, and another man, were the only 
male inmates of the house. On the night of the 10th of May, 
the family as usual retired to bed for the night. About twelve 
o'clock at night, they were aroused from their slumbers by three 
men entering the house with a dark lantern, and demanding their 
money. The old man and his son-in-law, not being disposed to 
quietly give up the money, did not readily comply with their de- 
mands, but undertook to drive the robbers from the house, while 
the third man, being frightened, hid himself under the bed- 
clothes. There was a desperate struggle between the robbers and 
the old man and his son-in-law. Miller was stabbed in the heart 
and immediately breathed his last. Liecy being first shot with a 
pistol, and then receiving several deep gashes upon the head and 
back from a bowie-knife, fell, helpless, on the floor. The assas- 
sins, being disheartened at the bold resistance with which they 
had been received, and probably fearing that the disturbance 
which they had made might raise the neighbors, made a hasty re 
treat, without securing their booty. 

The news of this bloody tragedy spread rapidly through the 
settlement, and the whole neighborhood became alarmed for their 
own safety. Every imaginable effort was made to discover the 
perpetrators, but for a long time nothing could be ascertained 
which threw any light on the dark transaction. A cup was 
found near the house, which was supposed to belong to one of 
the murderers, which he had probably dropped in the hurry to 
get away from the scene of carnage. A man, by the name of 
Edward Bonney, who resided at Montrose, and was well calculated 
for finding out dark deeds, having heard of the cup, undertook 
to ascertain the owner, and by stratagem and a system of ma- 
noeuvering, found th.Tt two young men by the name of William and 
Stephen Hodges, and a Thomas Brown, who resided at Nauvoo, 
must be the men who had committed the murder. Brown made 
his escape ; but the two Hodges were arrested and taken before 

164 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

Liecy, who was still living, though he died soon after from his 
wounds, and they were identified by him as being two of the 
men who entered the house. 

The district court of Lee county, at this time, was then in ses- 
sion, and the Hodges were indicted and arraigned for a trial, but 
they succeeded in delaying their sentence for a few weeks, by 
taking a change of venue from that county to Des Moines county. 
They were tried at Burlington, found guilty, and on the 15th day 
of July, publicly executed ; they being the first persons who ever 
suffered capital punishment in the southern part of the state. 

On the fourth of July, 18-45, on Rock Island opposite Daven- 
port, there was a most daring murder committed on the person of 
Col. Geo. Davenport. This gentleman was an Englishman by birth 
and was born in 1783. In his younger days he followed the sea, 
and as a sailor came to New York in 1804. While his vessel lay 
at New York, in attempting to save a fellow-sailor from a watery 
grave, he broke his leg, which rendered him unfit for duty, and 
he was left at that city in the hospital. Soon after recovering 
from this accident, he entered into the United States service as a 
soldier, and was appointed a sergeant. In the spring of 1806, his 
regiment was ordered to the west, and put under the command of 
Gen. Wilkinson. He served as a soldier in the army of the 
United States for ten years. After he was discharged, he went 
into the employment of Col. Wm. Morrison of Kentucky, as gov- 
ernment contractor, as his agent for furnishing the troops with 
provisions. In the spring of 1816, he came up the Mississippi 
river with a body of United States troops under the command of 
Col. Lawrence. They came up to the mouth of Rock river, where 
they stopped and made an examination for a suitable place to 
build a fort, and selected the lower end of Rock Island as the 
most suitable point. The troops landed upon the island the 10th 
day of May, 1816, and as soon as their encampment was completed, 
Davenport " employed the soldiers to cut logs and build a store 
for the provisions." This was the first building ever erected on 
the island. The soldiers) immediately went to work to build a 
fortification, which was called Fort Armstrong. Soon after arriv- 
ing at Rock Island, Davenport commenced trading with the Indians. 
In the fall of 1826, he became a member of the American Fur 

Crime. 165 

Company and stopped trading with the Indians in a private ca- 
pacity. In the Black Hawk war he took an active part, and 
received from the governor the appointment of acting quarter- 
master general, with the rank of colonel. Of his further life it is 
only necessary to state, that he assisted Gov. Chambers in making 
a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes for the purchase of their lands 
in Iowa, retired from the fur company, and gave up the Indian 
trade in which he had been engaged over twenty years. As an 
Indian trader he had acquired wealth, and became extensively 
known, and highly respected in the west. 

On the 4th of July, 1845, there was a celebration on the Illi- 
nois side of the river, to which all the family had gone, and left 
the colonel at home to take care of the house. It was generally 
supposed that he kept a considerable amount of money about 
him, which attracted the attention of the desparadoes of the 
west, and a party of them laid their plans to get his money in 
their possession. After the family had gone, the old gentleman 
sat down in his parlor, and was engaged in reading a newspaper. 
Hearing some noise at the well, he arose to see what occasioned 
it. As he advanced toward the door which led the way to the 
well, it was suddenly opened and three men stood before him. 
Before a word was spoken the foremost one discharged a pistol at 
him, and the ball passed through the left thigh. As he turned 
to get his cane to defend himself, the three men rushed upon 
him, threw him upon the floor, blindfolded him, and tied his 
arms and legs with hickory bark, so that he was helpless. In 
this condition they dragged him through the hall and up stairs to 
a closet, where was kept an iron safe. The robbers, not know- 
ing how to open it themselves, compelled him to unlock it, and 
appropriated to their own use all the money it contained. But 
not getting as much money as they expected, and thinking there 
was more about the premises, they then put him on a bed and 
demanded of him to show them where his other money was 
kept. He pointed to a drawer in a dressing bureau. The rob- 
bers in their haste opened the wrong drawer, and not finding any 
money, renewed their assaults upon his person, and carried them 
to such an extent that he fainted and became senseless. They 
revived him by dashing cold water in his face, and as soon as he 

166 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

became sensible, they again demanded of him to tell them where 
his money was kept. He again pointed to the drawer ; but the 
robbers again opened the wrong drawer and finding no money, 
they renewed their assaults and choked him till he again fainted. 
They again attempted to revive him. and threatened if he did 
not tell them where his money was kept, they would set fire to 
the house and leave him in his helpless condition to perish in the 
flames. The robbers discovering that their victim was unable to 
answer their inquiries, now took their leave, taking with them 
between seven and eight hundred dollars in money, a gold watch 
and chain, a double barreled gun and a pistol, leaving the vener- 
able old pioneer tied so that he could not help himself, and near- 
ly exhausted from their abuse. 

He was first discovered in this condition by a Mr. Cole who, 
with two others, had been out on a fishing excursion, and return- 
ing home in a skiff, passed down near the island, and when oppo- 
site the house, they heard the cry of murder. They immediately 
landed and went to the house. On entering the door they found 
the floor besmeared with blood, and heard a cry for help coming 
from up stairs. Cole immediately ascended the stairs and made 
his way to the room from which the cry came, and here he found 
the old gentleman in a most perilous condition. He released 
him from the hickory bands, leaving him in charge of his two 
companions, gave an alarm, and as quickly as possible procured 
medical aid. The physician and his friends rendered all the 
assistance they could to restore his strength and alleviate his suf- 
ferings, and so far succeeded in restoring him that he was enabled 
to give a minute account of the whole transaction ; but he had 
received so much injury that his physical strength gave wav, and 
he expired between nine and ten o'clock that evening. 

The murdering of so prominent a man as Col. Davenport 
caused a great deal of feeling through the whole west, and great 
anxiety was felt to find out the perpetrators of this bloody deed. 
A reward of fifteen hundred dollars was offered by the family for 
the arrest of the murderers, and the whole community became in- 
terested, and were on the look out, and trying to ferret out the 
assassins that they might be brought to justice ; but days and 
weeks passed off and not the slightest information could be ob- 

168 Tuttlk's History of Iowa. 

tained of those concerned in the robbery. The success of Edward 
Bonney, in detecting the murderers of Miller and Liecy in Lee 
county, and bringing Hodges to punishment, had given him quite 
a distinguished reputation for such undertakings, and the friends 
of Col. Davenport applied to him for aid. Bonney undertook the 
task, and by representing himself as a man of dark deeds, got into 
the confidence of the desperadoes, and after several months exer- 
tions in laying plans, etc., ascertained that the persons who enter- 
ed the house were generally known by the names of William Fox, 
Robert Birch and John Long, and that another man by the name 
of Aaron Long was on the outside standing sentinel, while the 
others did the work inside the house. He also ascertained that a 
man by the name of John Baxter, who had been living in the family 
of Col. Davenport, gave the other parties the information of the 
money, and how to obtain it. He also learned that a man by the 
name of Granville Young and several others were accessory to 
the robbery. These parties were arrested and lodged in prison ; 
Baxter repenting of his acts informed on the others. The two 
Longs and Young were executed ; Fox and Birch broke prison 
and got away ; Baxter was sentenced to be hung, but his sentence 
was commuted to imprisonment for life ; while some others were 
sent to the penitentiary for a shorter time. 

The arrest and conviction of some of the prominent ones of the 
desperadoes deterred others, so that the community were some- 
what relieved from the fear of further depredations. 



Events of 1845 — Boimdary Difficulties — A. C. Dodge and the Boundary — 
The Miners' Bank of Dubuque — How it was Closed Up — The Mor- 

About the same time that Iowa sought to become a state, 
Florida formed a constitution, and made application for admission 
to the union, and on the third of March, 1845, congress passed an 
act admitting Florida and Iowa into the union as sovereign states ; 
but the act curtailed the boundaries of Iowa, and instead of adopt- 
ing the boundaries as defined in her constitution, enacted that they 
should " begin at the mouth of St. Peters river, thence up that 
river to the parallel of latitude, passing through the mouth of the 
Wakaton or Blue Earth river, thence west, along said parallel to 
a point where it is intersected by a meridian line seventeen and a 
half degrees west of Washington, thence due south to the state of 
Missouri, thence to the north line of that state till it strikes the 
Des Moines river, thence down that stream to the Mississippi, 
thence up the Mississippi to the place of beginning — making the 
western boundary of Iowa on a line with the western boundary of 
Missouri, and cutting off nearly all the western slope of the state, 
as the boundaries were subsequently established. The opponents 
of the constitution offered this curtailing of the state as a reason 
why the people should not adopt the constitution. This argu- 
ment seemed to have much force, especially with the whig pai'ty ; 
and to counteract this opposition, brought to bear against adopt- 
ing the constitution, Hon. Aug. C. Dodge, who was then the del- 
egate oi the territory in congress, prepared a circular and had it 
sent all over the territory, in which he gave it as his opinion, that 
Iowa could never get a better boundary than the one which had 
been given her by congress ; but the constitution, contrarv to the 


170 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

expectation of most of the leading democrats, was voted down at 
the election, August 4, 1845 ; the vote was : for the constitution, 
7.235 ; against the constitution, 7,656. The defeat of the consti- 
tuiion was attributed by those favorable to its adoption, to the act 
of congress curtailing the boundaries of the state. 

Mr. Dodge was candidate for reelection as a delegate, but his 
circular in reference to the boundary of the state injured his pop- 
ularity, as the citizens were very much opposed to the boundaries 
which he had given his opinion as not being likely to be changed. 
There being a large democratic majority in the territory, he was 
again returned to congress. 

At the April election of 1845, there was an election of members 
of the general assembly, which convened at Iowa City on the 5th 
of the following May. At this seventh session, S. C. Hastings 
was president of the senate, and Jas. M. Morgan, speaker of the 
house. One of the first things which claimed the attention of the 
legislature, was the defeated constitution. The leading politicians 
among the democrats being anxious for a state government, and 
claiming that the constitution had been defeated on account of 
the change of boundaries by congress, used every exertion in 
tlieir power with the members of the legislature to have it again 
submitted to a vote of the people, with the boundaries as defined 
by the convention ; and the legislature passed a law providing 
that the constitution, with the boundaries as adopted by the con- 
vention, should, at the next August election be again submitted 
to the voters for their ratification or rejection. This law especially 
provided, if there was a majority in favor of the constitution so 
submitted, it was not to be considered as accepting the bounda- 
ries fixed by congress, and there was to be no election of state 
officers, and the admission was not to be deemed as complete, un- 
til whatever conditions might be imposed by congress should be 
ratified by the popular vote. This bill, from the whig portion of 
the legislature, met with a strenuous opposition, every whig using 
all his exertions to defeat the measure ; but it was carried by a 
strict party vote. The whig members of the house, not being sat- 
isfied with voting against the bill, after it had passed, probably to 
have efifect before the people, drew up a lengthy protest, and had 
it entered upon the journals, which was published in all the whig 

Administration of Gov. Clark. 171 

newspapers throughout the territory. When the bill was sub- 
mitted to the governor he returned it with his veto ; but the 
democrats having, in both branches of the legislature, a ma- 
jority of two-thirds, passed the bill by the requisite majority over 
the veto, and it became a law. 

Though the whig members of the legislature and the governor 
were not able to defeat the passage of the law, yet when the con- 
stitution was again submitted to the people, it was voted down by 
a much larger majority than at the first time of voting, so that 
the labors of the convention proved to be of no avail, much to 
the chagrin of some of the leading politicians. 

Owing to the probability that the territory might become a 
state, the election for members of the legislature was postponed 
from August to the first Monday of April ensuing. 

At this session of the legislature, acts were passed for organiz- 
ing the counties of Iowa, Kiskekosh (now Monroe) and Marion. 
The two former counties were organized on the first day of July, 
1845, and the latter on the first day of August of that year, and 
all the country west of the organized counties was attached to 
them for civil and judicial purposes. 

The affairs of the Miners' Bank of Dubuque again came up 
for consideration, and the legislature, for the first time, undertook 
to make some arrangements for paying the debts which were due 
the bank from the territory ; and, on the 10th of June, they 
passed an act requiring the territorial treasurer to sell enough of 
the unsold lands of Iowa City, belonging to the territory, to pay 
the bank debt, and apply the proceeds of the sale for that pur- 
pose. This was the first step taken by the legislature to pay a 
just debt which had been contracted more than four years previ- 
ous, and had been due over three years, and no part of the prin- 
cipal or interest had been paid ; and, during this time, the legis- 
lature had been carrying on a warfare against this institution for 
not redeeming its notes. But, before the legislature had done 
this act of justice, they had taken steps to give the institution its 
death blow, for, on the 14th of May, they passed a bill repealing 
its charter, and provided for winding up the business of the bank. 
The law made it the duty of the district court to appoint two 
trustees, who were authorized to settle the affairs of the bank, to 

172 TvTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

sell its personal and real estate, collect money and pay debts, and 
manage the whole business as an administrator would the assets 
of an insolvent estate. The bill was presented to the governor, 
but he did not approve it, nor return it to the legislature, doubt- 
less thinking, if he should veto it, that it would be passed by a 
two-thirds majority, and, after it had remained with him three 
days, it became, the law of the territory by the law of congress. 
The owners of the bank did not feel disposed to submit to this 
summary proceeding without being heard in their defense, and re- 
sisted the enforcement of the law. Judicial proceedings were 
commenced, and the right of the legislature to repeal the charter 
and close up the business of the bank was resisted until the ques- 
tion was decided by the supreme court. 

The act creating the bank had a provision " that if such cor- 
poration should fail to go into operation, or should abuse or mis- 
use this charter, it should be in the power of the legislature of 
the territory, at any time, to annul, vacate and make void this 
charter." The bank contended that, in thus disposing of its 
charter, it had not had any chance to defend itself, and that, before 
the charter could be taken away or repealed, it should be decided 
by some judicial tribunal, after due investigation, that it had 
abused or misused its privileges guarantied to it by the charter. 
But the supreme court decided the act of the legislature repealing 
the charter to be a valid act, and the institution was closed up. 

On the 5th of June, 1846, the Pottawattomie Indians who occu- 
pied the western slope of Iowa, sold their lands to the United 
States. Up to that time but little was known of the western part. 

The Sacs and Foxes, by the provisions of the treaty of 1842, 
had the right to the possession of the lands, they had sold, which 
lay west of Red Rock, till the iirst of May, 1846. and the Potta- 
wattomies in their sale, reserved the right to occupy the country 
on the western slope for a period of two years ; but by a train of 
circumstances, not anticipated, these lands were taken possession 
of by the whites, and settlements made some time before the 
Indians left the ceded territory. 

The Mormons, a religious sect who had built up a town at 
Nauvoo, in Illinois, numbering about twenty thousand persons, 
on account of some difficulties which they had had with the citi- 


zens of that state, were under the necessity of leaving that place 
and seeking a new location for building up the " Church of Latter 
Day Saints." After these troubles in Illinois, many of this 
religious denomination crossed over the Mississippi into Iowa, and 
started west. They had a party whose business it was to go in 
advance of the main company to explore the route and make 
fords and bridges by which the streams could be crossed. They 
came up the Des Moines valley till they reached the western part 
of Van Buren county ; they then took their course through the 
northern part of Davis and Appanoose counties. When they 
arrived at this point, their company divided, a party taking the 
high lands on each side of Chariton river, but their trains came 
together again in Clark county. As soon as they got into the 
Indian country, selecting the most eligible spots, they commenced 
establishing colonies at such distances from each other as would 
be likely to afford comfort, and facilitate the travel of those who 
might follow in their trail after them. Several families stopped 
at Garden Grove in Decatur county, another party made a loca- 
tion in Lucas county, at a place now known as Chariton ; some 
four or five families stopped at a point called Lost Camp. In the 
spring of 1849, the Mormons receiving favorable reports from 
their pioneers, most of those who had the means to emigrate, 
started west for Salt Lake to establish a colony : yet a large num- 
ber remained ; they built up quite a village at Kanesville. This 
point was the great business mart of the Mormons (Council Bluffs), 
and became the principal crossing point of the Missouri for the 
emigration across the mountains. For several years this part of 
the state was occupied almost entirely by Mormons, who at that 
time held a prominent position in the affairs of Iowa, particularly 
in political matters. 

The business at this point became of such importance on ac- 
count of the overland emigration, that in 1850 several business 
men not of the Mormon faith, settled here and opened stores ; but 
the Mormons gradually leaving for the west, and others supplying 
their places, this religious sect soon ceased to attract attention in 



Legislation of 1845 — Move for a Constitutional Convention — Convention at 
Iowa City in 1846 — Its Labors; Forming a State Government. 

The eighth general assembly met on the first of December, 
1845, and adjourned January 19, 18-16. Stephen Hemstead was 
elected president of the council, and G. W. McCrary, speaker of 
the house. It passed no act until after the first of the following 
February. The then recent depression in business had been felt all 
over the country, and thousands had been reduced from opulence 
to poverty and want. Many, who had married fortunes, had not 
only lost their own property, but the means obtained by their 
wives had been taken to the last cent to pay the debts of their 
misfortunes, and their wives and children left penniless. A great 
many persons of this character came to Iowa, for the purpose of 
retrieving their fortunes. Owing to these circumstances, " wo- 
man's rights " was a popular question, and this legislature, for 
the first time in Iowa, passed an act concerning the rights of mar- 
ried women. This act provided that if any married woman " be- 
came seized or possessed of any real estate in her own name, and 
as of her own property," unless she obtained it through her hus- 
band, it " should in no case be liable for the debts of the hus- 

There was an act passed at this session, defining the boundaries 
of the counties of Wayne, Lucas, Warren, Polk, Marshall, Jas- 
per, Story, Boone, Dallas, Madison. Clarke and Decatur ; also 
acts making provisions for organizing the counties of Appanoose, 
Benton, Jasper and Polk — the last three to be organized and 
have all the privileges of other organized counties after the first 
of the March following, and the first twelve after the first of the 
next August. 


176 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

But the most important measure of the session was a law pro- 
viding for a convention for the purpose of making another con- 
stitution. The law provided that the convention should consist 
of thirty-two members — only about one-half of the number 
composing the first convention. The delegates to be elected at 
the April election, and meet at Iowa City on the first of the 
month of May ensuing. The constitution, when formed, was to 
be submitted to the vote of the people at the next August elec- 
tion, for their rejection or ratification ; and if ratified, it was then 
to be sent to congress to be admitted into the union as a sover- 
eign state. This constitution varied in some respects from the 
first constitution, particularly on banking. 

The delegates met at Iowa City on the fourth of May, 1846, 
and organized their body by electing Enos Lowe, president, and 
William Thompson, secretary, and closed their labors on the sev- 
enteenth of the same month, having been in session a little ii\-er 
two weeks. 

The only questions which elicited much debate, or met with 
strong opposition, were the boundary question and that portion 
of the constitution in relation to corporations. The boundary, 
after being fully discussed, was settled by adopting the boundary 
of the first constitution, except north and northwest. The par- 
allel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, north latitude, was 
made the northern boundary of the state, and instead of starting 
in the northwest from the mouth of the Sioux river, " thence ia 
a direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peters 
river, where the Waton-wan enters the same," it ran up the main 
channel of the Sioux until it reached the parallel of the northern 

Certain provisions in the constitution entirely prohibited bank- 
ing. The provisions on corporations met with much opposition 
from the people, especially those on banking, and the opponents 
used the first and every opportunity they had to change the 
clause on banking, until the same was accomplished. Probably 
this constitution would have remained the supreme law of the 
state for many years, had it not been for this prohibition ; for, in- 
stead of producing a sound metallic circulating medium for busi- 
ness, as was the design of those who favored it, the paper of the 

Clark's Administration. 177 

banks whose solvency was doubtful at home found its way to 
Iowa, and probably no state in the union had in circulation a 
more worthless and irresponsible currency than was found here 
during the time of the entire prohibition of banks. There was 
much opposition to the constitution, and its opponents thought it 
would be defeated ; but there was a strong feeling in favor of a 
state government; many of those who were opposed to the provis- 
ion on corporations, voted in favor of it, claiming that these ob- 
jections could easily be amended. 

At the August election there were polled eighteen thousand five 
hundred and twenty-eight votes ; of this vote 9,492 were for the 
constitution, and 9,036 against ; a majority of four hundred and 
fifty-six in favor of adopting the constitution. In the month of 
September, as soon as the vote was officially known. Gov. 
Clark issued his proclamation for an election of state officers and 
members of the legislature, which was held on the twenty-sixth 
of the following October. 

As the territory was about to assume a state government, there 
was a great struggle among the politicians to secure for themselves, 
the offices of the new government. Besides the officers to be 
elected by the people, there were two United States senators and 
three supreme court judges to be elected by the legislature, and 
it became quite an object to the politicians of both parties to se- 
cure the legislature. The democrats and whigs both thoroughly 
organized their parties, held conventions and made nominations 
for the several offices. The democrats nominated Ansel Briggs, 
of Jackson county, for governor; Elisha Cutler, of Van Buren 
county, for secretary ; Joseph T. Sales, of Dubuque county, for 
auditor ; Morgan Keno, of Johnson county, for treasurer, and the 
whigs nominated Thos. McKuight, of Dubuque county, for gov- 
ernor ; Jas. H. Coles, of Van Buren county, for secretary ; Easton 
Morris, of Johnson county, for auditor ; and E. T. Smith for trea- 

This election was carried on with a great deal of spirit on both 
sides, but the democrats succeeded in electing all the state officers 
and a majority of the representatives in the senate, but were not so 
fortunate in electing members to the house. For governor, Ansel 
Briggs received 7,626 votes, and Thos. McKnight 7,379 votes. 



State Governmen I— Events of 1847 — Organization of tlie State Legislature 
— Bribery — Exciting Election Contest in the Legislature— Adjoiirn- 
nient — No United States Senators — Liquor Question —Education — Hard 
Times — Land Grants — Uncle Sam appoints Judges. 

The first session of the general assembly of Iowa after the 
adoption of the constitution convened on the 30th of November, 
1846, and adjourned January 25, 1847. The house was organized 
by electing Jesse B. Brown, an active whig of Lee county, speak- 
er, and the senate by electing Thos. Baker, a democrat of Polk 
county, president of the senate, and John B. Russell, secretary. 
These elections indicated that the whigs in joint convention, would 
have two majority. Under these circumstances, there were great 
eSorts made to secure the votes of one or two of those who acted 
with the whigs in organizing the legislature, to vote with the 
democrats in electing judges and senators, for one vote would 
make a tie and prevent the election, and two would enable the 
democrats to elect their men. Charges of bribery were made ; 
one member stated " that since he had presented his credentials 
and taken his seat as a member of the house, he had been ap- 
proached by several persons, and that several distinct propositions 
of money and other rewards had been offered him if he would 
vote for a certain person for United States senator." The matter 
was referred to a committee who subsequently made a report, 
consisting of the testimony taken, without any recommendation, 
which was laid upon the table and this ended the whole affair. 
The excitement about bribing members of the legislature having 
subsided, the members commenced to think about having an elec- 
tion for senators ; both parties thinking they could manage to se- 
cure the election of their own candidate. After the exchanging of 

180 TuTTLE'g History of Iuua. 

several messages between the house and senate as to the time, they 
finally agreed to go into joint convention on the eighteenth of 
December. This agreement was consummated without there hav- 
ing been made any arrangement between the two houses for con- 
ducting the business of the convention. When the senate went 
into the representative's hall, Baker the presiding officer of the 
senate, who was an unassuming man, had held several territorial 
offices, and had accustomed himself to be polite to everybody, 
walked up to the stand for the purpose of taking the chair, to pre- 
side over the joint convention. Brown, who had been a military 
man and accustomed to give command, already being in the chair, 
sternly refused to give it up. It being quite an object with each par- 
ty to have the presiding officer, the difference in opinion as to who 
was the proper officer to preside over the joint convention called 
forth much feeling and a spirited debate. Brown having posses- 
sion of the chair, and being sustained by the whigs, retained his 
position, and he and the clerk of the house acted as the officers of 
the joinl convention. When this question was decided, Mr. T. H. 
Benton of Dubuque, and G. W. Bowie of Des Moines county, were 
appointed tellers and the call of the roll commenced. The hall, 
though crowded with spectators, was as still as death, and the most 
intense anxiety was depicted in the countenances of each indi- 
vidual. The members of the convention and those in the lobby, 
all being anxious to learn how each man voted, were held in 
breathless silence, and nothing disturbed the quiet but the calling 
of the roll by the clerk and the responses of the metnbers. As 
soon as the vote was over, it was announced that Jona. McCarty 
had received twenty-nine votes, Thomas Wilson twenty-eight 
votes, and G. C. E. Mitchell one vote ; there was no choice, and 
that the convention would proceed to another ballot. Immediate- 
ly the democrats moved an adjournment. On this motion, twenty- 
eight voted in the affirmative and thirty in the negative. This 
motion in different shapes was repeated by the democrats six 
times without there being any opportunity for any other business, 
and during these votes there was the greatest confusion and tu- 
mult. On the sixth ballot, two votes were added to the demo- 
cratic vote and an adjournment was carried until the 5th of Jan- 
uary, 18i7. 

Administration of Gor. Bbiggs. 181 

On the 19th of December, the legislature adjourned till the 5th 
of January. During the adjournment one member was taken 
sick and died, so that the whigs could now expect only one ma- 
jority on joint ballot. On the 5th of January the house appointed 
a committee of two to act with a like committee on the part of the 
senate, to prepare rules for the government of the joint conven- 
tion. The senate referred this proposition of the house to a 
special committee, with instructions to report at some future 
day. At two o'clock in the afternoon, the house informed the 
senate that they were ready to receive them in joint conven- 
tion for the election of senators. The senate upon receiving 
this message adjourned, and the democratic members imme- 
diately dispersed, so that all prospects of an election on that day 

Subsequently there were several efforts on the part of the house, 
and the whigs of the senate to elect supreme court judges, but the 
democrats of the senate voted against going into joint convention, 
and having a majority in that body, the legislature, after sitting 
until the 25th of February, adjourned without electing either 
judges or senators, and the state of Iowa, for the first two years 
after being organized as a state government, was not represented 
in the United States senate. The members of the legislature 
were so much engaged in the controversy about electing senators 
and supreme judges, that the real wants of the people received 
but little attention until the close of the session. 

The state auditor reported that the receipts from counties and 
other sources, from April 24, 1847, to March 17, 1848, were 
$72,216.72, and the amount of warrants paid, $41,550.22. 

One of the first and most important considerations to the mem- 
bers of the legislature was to provide the means to compensate 
themselves for their services. The territory had become a state, 
with a debt of about twenty thousand dollars hanging over it. 
The members of the constitutional convention had not been paid, 
and there was no money in the treasury with which to meet the 
expenses of the present legislature. To meet these emergencies, 
the legislature passed an act authorizing a loan of fifty thousand 
dollars to be made to the state, and appointed W. F. Ooolbaugh. 
of Burlington, to negotiate the loan; so the first state legislatur'' 

182 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

imposed a debt on the state of one-half the amount to which it 
was limited by the constitution. 

About this time there were great efforts being made through- 
out the state for a temperance reform. Previous to this time, ever 
since Iowa had sustained a government, the county authorities 
had been authorized to grant licenses for the retailing of liquors. 
Petitions were sent from every part of the state, asking the legis- 
lature to take some steps for the suppression of intemperance, and 
at this session there was an act passed requiring the citizens of 
each county, at the April election, to give an expression of public 
sentiment on the question of licensing the retailers of intoxicating 
liquors. The law required that there should be a poll opened for 
the electors to vote "license," or "no license," and if a majority 
of the votes east in any county were against a license, then there 
was to be no liquor sold in that county. The result showed that 
there was a majority in every countv in the state, except two, op- 
posed to the selling of intoxicating liquors. But this law did not 
have the effect that was desired by its friends ; for, notwithstand- 
ing there was a large majority of the electors in the state who 
voted against a license, the law was very unpopular, and but very 
little regarded, and intemperance seemed to increase, rather than 

At this session of the legislature, the state was divided into two 
congressional and four judicial districts. The first congressional 
district embraced the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Jefferson, 
Wapello, Davis, Appanoose, Henry, Mahaska, Monroe, Marion, 
Jasper, Polk and Keokuk, and all the territory lying directly 
west of these counties ; and the second district embraced the bal- 
ance of the state. 

On the 24th of February, 1847, in pursuance of the provisions 
of the constitution, there was an act passed creating the office of 
superintendent of public instruction, and also of fund commission- 
ers of the several counties, and defining the duties of these office"rs, 
who were to be elected on the first Monday of the next April — 
the superintendent for three years, and the fund commissioner for 
two years. To the superintendent was given the general man- 
agement of the educational interests of the state; and to the 
c.iunty fund commissioners were entrusted the sellins? of the 


Administration of Gov. Briggs. 183 

school lands within the county for which each was elected, and 
the loaning and managing of the funds arising therefrom. In 
the same law provisions were also made for the election of all 
school officers, and their several duties defined. 

At this time the financial affairs of the country were very 
much embarrassed, and it was very difficult for the settlers on 
the public lands to procure the means to pay for the lands on 
which they had settled. There were many hard-working, indus- 
trious citizens of the new state who had made large improvements 
on the public domain, but had not the means to buy the govern- 
ment title, and were liable at any time to have their improve- 
ments taken away from them by land speculators. With a view 
to benefit the settlers, and to create a school fund at an early day, 
the legislature made provision for selecting the five hundred 
thousand acres of land given by congress to the state for school 
purposes, by authorizing any person capable of contracting, who 
had settled upon any of the public lands which, in the opinion of 
the fund commissioners, would be a safe and profitable selection, 
to signify to the fund commissioner of the county where the 
lands were located, his desire to have the same recognized as 
school lands ; and the land so designated, which was not to ex- 
ceed three hundred and twenty acres for one individual, should 
be returned by the fund commissioner to the superintendent, to 
be by him registered as lands selected for the state under the 
gi'ant of congress. Then the superintendent was to contract 
with the settler for the sale of the land so selected — the pur- 
chaser to pay one-fifth in advance, with the privilege, if desired, 
of ten years' time in which to pay the remainder of the consid- 
eration, by paying an annual interest of ten per cent. 

This, at that time, was considered as a very beneficial provision 
for the settler, and the entire five hundred thousand acres would 
probably have been speedily taken up, had there been no doubt 
about the validity of the law regulating the selection of the land, 
and there would have been a large school fund immediately cre- 
ated. The act provided for the taking effect of the law from and 
after its publication, and it was published in a newspaper at Iowa 
City ; but there was nothing in the act providing for its publica- 
tion in any newspaper, although it was evidently the design of 

184 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

the legislature to have the law take effect immediately, and both 
parties, by their actions, showed that they understood that the 
law was in force as soon as it was published in the newspaper, for 
both parties brought out their candidates for the several offices to 
be filled at the April election. For superintendent of public in- 
struction, the democrats nominated Charles Mason, who had been 
chief justice of the territory ever since it was organized, and was 
considered as one of the best qualified men of the state for the 
position. The whigs nominated, for their candidate, James Har 
Ian, who was a young Methodist preacher, having just left col- 
lege and come to the state to take charge of a literary institution 
at Iowa City. Harlan was a forcible speaker, and, as soon as he 
received the nomination, commenced canvassing the state, mak- 
ing speeches wherever he could get an audience, and, belonging 
to the Methodist Church, many of the members of that body 
took a deep interest in his election. Mason, still retaining his 
position on the bench, owing to the failure of the legislature to 
elect judges, never left his judicial business, and made no effort 
to secure his election ; and the result was that Harlan was elected. 
This was very mortifying to the democrats, and, soon after it was 
officially known, Elisha Cutler, the secretary of state, promul 
gated that the election was of no effect from the fact that the 
law creating the office of superintendent of public instruction and 
other school officers was not in force at the time of the election, 
because the law itself did not provide for its publication in news- 
papers, as required by the constitution. The objection raised by 
Cutler was seized hold of by the democrats ; the leaders took 
sides with Cutler, and most of the democrats elected as fund com- 
missioners refused to act, while, on the other hand, most of the 
whigs who had been elected undertook to discharge the duties of 
their several offices. The whigs charged the democrats with rais- 
ing this objection merely for the purpose of depriving Harlan of 
his office, claiming that, if Mason had been elected, there never 
would have been any objections to his exercising the duties of 
superintendent. Cutler, as secretary of state, refused to give 
Harlan a certificate of his election, although the returns showed 
when officially counted that he had a majority of all the votes 
cast. Harlan obtained from Cutler a certified statement of the 

186 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

vote, and prepared his bonds, as required by law, and laid them 
before the governor, who approved of the bond, but refused to 
give him a commission on the ground that he had no authority to 
do so. 

During the summer there were writs of quo wai-ranio issued 
against Harlan and some of the other school officers, requiring 
them to show by what authority they undertook to discharge the du- 
ties of their respective offices. In Johnson county, there was a suit 
brought against Asa Calkins, who had been elected a director of 
school district, contesting his authority to exercise the duties of 
the office. The case was decided against Calkins by the district 
court, and he appealed to the supreme court. He set up, as a de- 
fense, his election by the people at the April election, to which 
the plaintiff demurred, and the demurrer was sustained, on the 
ground that the statute under which the election was held had 
not been published at the time of the election, as required by 
the constitution, and therefore had not become a law. It was ad- 
mitted, on the trial, that, previous to the iirst of April, the law 
had been published in the public newspaper, -printed at Iowa 
City, under and by the direction of the secretary of state, who, by 
the laws of the state, had supervision of the publication and dis- 
tribution of the laws, and copies of it were sent by him into every 
county in the state ; and the law was received and acted upon by 
the people at large as being in full force. It was also admitted 
that the act was not, in pamphlet form, " published and circulated 
in the several counties of the state, by authority, until the first 
day of May, 1849 ; " and that the election for school directors 
was held on the first Tuesday of April, the day after the election 
of superintendent and fund commissioners. The constitution pro- 
vided that " no law of the general assembly of a public nature, 
shall take effect until the same shall be published and circulated 
in the several counties of the state, by authority. If the general 
assembly shall deem any law of immediate importance, they may 
provide that the same shall take effect by publication in a news- 
paper in the state." This law provided that it should " take effect 
and be in force from and after its publication," but made no pro- 
vision for publishing it in newspapers. And the supreme court 
held that inasmuch as the act itself did not provide for its publi- 

Administration of Gov. Bbiggs. 187 

cation in the newspapers, notwithstanding the act had. been pub- 
lished in the newspapers at Iowa City, by the direction of the 
secretary of state, and by him circulated in the several counties, 
still it was not published in the manner required by the constitu- 
tion, and was not in force at the time of the April election ; and, 
consequently. Calkins and the other officers elected at that time 
had no right to hold their oifices. The same questions were in- 
volved in this case as in the superintendent's, but Harlan suc- 
ceeded in delaying the trial of his case until after the meeting of 
the legislature. 

There were nearly fifty thousand acres of land selected under 
the provisions of this law, and the first payment of ten per cent, 
made : but the United States land officers refused to recognize 
the acts of the state officers as being valid, and a great portion of 
the lands so selected were entered at the land offices, and the 
claimants were deprived of their homes, and not until after much 
delay did they get back their money. 

About the time this question was settled, there was a large 
quantity of land warrants issued to Mexican soldiers, which were 
in market at low prices, and on long credit. This was a new and 
easy method for settlers to secure their homes ; so that, before the 
provisions of this law could be carried into effect, the inducement 
at first held out to settlers to avail themselves of the benefits of 
this act had ceased, and but very few felt disposed to select land 
under its provisions ; and the result was that this method of se- 
lecting the five hundred thousand acres of land was abandoned, 
although it was very probable that, had the law gone into effect 
at the time it was the intention to have it, in less than one year the 
whole quantity of land would have been selected, and there would 
have been at once created a large fund for educational purposes. 

During the session of the legislature, acts were passed defining 
the boundaries of Ringgold, Taylor, Fremont, Marion, Clavton, 
Fayette, Allamakee, and Winneshiek counties, and organizing 
Dallas county : and also an act providing that all that tract of 
country on the Missouri river, purchased from the Pottawatomie 
Indians might be temporarily organized into a county to be called 
Fottawattomie, whenever in the opinion of the judge of the fourth 
judicial district, the public good should require it. 

188 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

The legislature having adjourned without electing United 
Slates senators and judges, the state was without representation 
in the senate. The old territorial judges resigned, and it became 
the duty of the governor to appoint others to fill their places, who 
were entitled to hold their offices until the adjournment of the 
next legislature, if others were not elected previous to that time. 
Joseph Williams, associate justice under the territorial govern- 
ment, was appointed chief justice ; and George Green, of Dubuque 
county, and John F. Kinney, of Lee county, associate justices. 
The legislature having divided the state into four judicial districts, 
at the April election of 1847, Geo. W. Williams, James Grant, 
Cyrus Olney and J. P. Carleton were elected judges. 



Commissioners on Permanent Seat of Government — Extra Session of the 
Legislature — The School Laws — Railroads — School Officers Disquali- 
fied — The Mormon Vote — Election. 

On the 22d of February, 1847, there was an act passed mak- 
ing provisions for the location of the permanent seat of govern- 
ment of the state ; and John Brown of Lee county, Joseph D. 
Hoag, of Henry county, and John Taylor, of Jones county, were 
appointed CDmmissioners. The law, appointing commissioners, 
pi'ovided that they should meet on or before the first day of the 
next May, and should proceed to examine the state, or so much 
of it, as they might think expedident, for the purpose of deter- 
mining upon a judicious site for the permanent seat of govern- 
ment of the state. The commissioners, when they had located the 
site, were to lay o££ a portion of the lands so selected, not exceed- 
ing one section, into lots, and, when laid off, they were authorized 
to make a sale of lots, not exceeding two lots in any one block 
for the first two years after the town should be laid out. Under 
the provisions of this law, the commissioners, after traveling over 
a great portion of the state, selected, as a site for the new seat of 
government sections, four, five, eight and nine, and the west half 
of sections three and ten, in township seventy-eight north, in 
range twenty west of the fifth principal meridian, and called it 
Monroe City. The commissioners then proceeded to lay off a por- 
tion of it into lots, and on the 8th of October of that year, had a 
sale, and sold, to different individuals, between three and four 
hundred lots, the proceeds amounting to $6,189.72, one fourth of 
which was paid at the time of purchase, and the balance was to 
be paid in two, four and six years. The monev realized by the 


190 TUTTLlfs HiSTOBT OF loWA. 

commissioners was not enough to pay the expenses of selecting 
the site and laying it off into lots, as most of them were sold at 
very low prices ; some selling as low as one dollar. The commis- 
sioners, though they received from the proceeds but a small compen- 
sation for their services, supposed they had amply remunerated 
themselves by securing large interests in and about the proposed 
capital town. Monroe City, for a while, attracted considerable atten- 
tion and there were great efforts made to secure property in that 
section of the state, speculators anticipating that fortunes would be 
made in the future by the increase of the value of real estate ; but 
these anticipated fortunes soon vanished, for at the next election 
the changing of the seat of government became a political ques- 
tion, and a majority of the new members of the legislature were 
opposed to the contemplated change, and the act was repealed. 
Monroe City was vacated, and an appropriation was made, and the 
treasurer was directed to refund the money to all who had pur- 
chased lots, except the commissioners themselves. Hoag had be- 
come a large purchaser, and by the vacation of the town, he was 
left with but a very small compensation for his labors, and his pe- 
tition for relief was before the legislature for several years before 
he was remunerated for his services in locating and laying out 
Monroe City. The doubt concerning the right of the officers 
elected at the April election of 1847, to discharge the duties of 
their offices, had in a great measure, rendered ineffectual the school 
law, and there seemed to be some occasion for a special session of 
the legislature and the governor was induced to issue his proclama- 
tion convening the legislature in an extra session on the 1st Mon- 
day, the third of January, 1848. The principal reasons assigned 
by the governor for convening the legislature were to remedy the 
defects in school laws, occasioned by the law not taking effect at 
the time it was designed to have it ; of this session Jesse B. Brown 
was speaker of assembly and J. Scott Richman, clerk. The legis- 
lature passed no law which materially affected the school interest, 
or made the condition of things much, if any, better than they 
would have been, had there been no session. The whites intro- 
duced a bill to legalize the acts of Harlan, authorizing him to 
hold the office for three years, the time for which he was supposed 
to have been elected ; but the democrats opposed the bill and it 

192 Tuttlb's History of Iowa. 

was defeated. The real cause for convening the legislature ap- 
pears to have been the election of United States senators and su- 
preme court judges, but the whigs, with the vote of a Mr. Clifton, 
prevented a joint convention, and these offices were not filled. 
There was an act passed at this session providing for a revision of 
the laws of the state ; and Charles Mason, of Des Moines county 
Wm. G. Woodward, of Muscatine county and Stephen Hempstead, 
of Dubuque county, were appointed commissioners to revise and 
prepare a code of laws. 

During the winter of 1848, the propriety of taking some meas- 
ures for the construction of railroads in the state was agitated in 
the northern part of the state, and interest enough taicen to have 
a convention called, which was held at Iowa City, and was very 
fully attended. The projects were conceived of building two 
roads — one from Davenport via Iowa City to Des Moines, and 
thence to some point on the Missouri river near Council Bluffs; 
and another running north and south from Dubuque, via Iowa 
City to Keokuk. To aid in these enterprises, it was determined 
to ask help of the general government, and the legislature was re- 
quested to memorialize congress for a grant of lands, consisting of 
every alternate section for a distance of five miles on each side of 
the projected roads. Those who first moved in this matter were 
actuated more by the hopes of making some political capital out 
of it, than by any idea that it would ever amount to anything 
real ; but the labors of this convention attracted considerable at- 
tention, and the public mind soon began to regard the proposed 
projects as practical undertakings, and the future proved that this 
convention was not without beneficial results. 

The su premie court having decided that the school ofiicers 
elected at the previous April election had no authority to dis- 
charge the various trusts for which they were elected, and no law 
authorizing them to discharge the duties of their several offices 
having been passed at the called session, it became necessary to 
have another election for superintendent and other officers. The 
democratic candidate, Thos. H. Benton, was elected by a majority 
of seventeen over his competitor, Mr. Harlan. After the adjourn- 
ment of the legislature, which took place January 25, 1848, the 
commissions of the supreme judges expired, and it became the 

Admixistratiox of Gov. Beiggs. 193 

duty of the governor to make other appointments. Judges Kin- 
ney and Greene were reappointed associate judges, and S. Clinton 
Hastings, of Muscatine, received the appointment of chief justice 
in place of Williams. 

In 1848 there were two elections — one in August, at which 
there were to be elected two members of congress, the state offi- 
cers and members of the legislature — and in November, for the 
first time, the electors of Iowa had an opportunity to take a part 
in the presedential election. Lewis Cass was the democratic, and 
Zachary Taylor the whig candidate; and from the importance of 
the election greater exertions were made than there ever had been 
before in Iowa. For the August election, the democrats renomi- 
nated all the old state officers with the exception of Cutler, the 
secretary of state, who had for some reason become unpopular 
with the people, and Josiah Bonney, of Van Buren county, was 
nominated in his place. A. C. Dodge, Lincoln Clark, John Sel- 
mon and Joseph Williams were nominated for presidential elect- 
ors by the democrats ; and Fitz Henry Warren, Wm. H. Wallace, 
Jesse Bowen and Thos. J. McKean were the whig electors. The 
Mormons who had settled on the western slope of the state, had 
become so numerous that their votes were a matter of great con- 
sideration to both political parties. When in Illinois, they nearly 
all voted the same way, and generally with the democrats ; but in 
voting they were mostly governed by their leader, and their votes 
were cast for those persons who they thought would be most 
likely to favor the Mormon interest. Orson Hyde, who was the 
presiding elder over the Mormons in Iowa, and had the superin- 
tendence of this part of the church, visited Burlington early in 
the season, had a long interview with Mr. F. H. Warren, one of 
the presidential electors, and it was currently circulated that he 
had received some personal favor from him, and had pledged him- 
self to Warren that the Mormon vote should be cast for the whigs 
at the coming election, if they were permitted to vote ; at this 
time it was supposed there were from eight to ten thousand Mor- 
mons in the western part of the state, and that they would at least 
cast eight hundred or a thousand votes if they were all brought to 
the polls, a vote which would probably carry the election in the first 
congressional district, if not the state, and elect the whig candidates 

194 TuTii^a HisiOBY of Iowa. 

in the western districts to the legislature. Whea it became un- 
derstood that the Mormons at the coming election would vote 
with the whigs, there was great anxiety on the part of the leading 
democrats to counteract the influence of this vote. Judge Carleton, 
whose duty it had been by law to appoint a sheriff for the pur- 
pose of organizing Pottawattomie county, whenever he should 
think the public good required it, had appointed Win. S. Town- 
send, a democrat, organizing sheriff, and had ordered that an elec- 
tion should take place on the first Monday of April, 1848 ; but 
when it was ascertained that the Mormons would probably vote 
with the whigs, Townsend declined to act, and consequently the 
county was not organized, and without an organization of some 
kind they could not vote at the coming election. After the Mor- 
mons found out that Townsend was not going to organize the 
county, they petitioned the county commissioners of Monroe 
county to "grant them a township for the purpose of electing two 
justices of the peace and constables, as they labored under much 
disadvantage for the want of legal authority among them, and 
that the election might be held at the council house in Kanes- 
ville" (now Council Bluffs city). On the third of July the board 
of commissioners of Monroe county ordered " that that portion of 
the country called Pottawattomie county, which lies directly west 
of Monroe county (at that time it was supposed that Kanesville 
was due west of Monroe county) be organized into a township, 
and that the boundaries of said township extend east as far as 
East Nishnabonta; " and they also ordered " that that portion of 
the country called Clarke county, lying immediately west of Lucas 
county, to what is called East Nishnabonta, be organized into a 
precinct for election and judicial purposes." 

The organization of these precincts became a matter of much 
concern to the democrats; and the securing or defeating the Mor- 
mon vote was a matter of much interest to both parties. After 
the election was over, about the time it was supposed the poll 
books would be returned to the clerk's ofi&ce in Monroe county 
from the Kanesville precinct, quite a number of active politicians 
from both parties assembled at Albia, the county seat of Monroe 
county. The poll books were brought to Albia, when there arose 
quite a spirited discussion about the clerk's receiving those from 

Administration of Gov. Briggs. 195 

Kanesville. It was contended on one side that they ought to be 
received and counted by the clerk, and was opposed by those on 
the other side. The clerk decided to refuse receiving the Kanes- 
ville poll book, on the ground that the county commissioners of 
Monroe county had no right to organize the township, and conse- 
quently the Mormon vote was not counted in canvassing the 
votes. Of the votes that were counted and officially returned 
for congressman in the first congressional district, Wm. Thomp- 
son, the democratic candidate,*received six thousand, four hun- 
dred and seventy-seven votes ; and Daniel F. Miller, the whig 
candidate, received six thousand and ninety-one votes. In the 
Kanesville precinct. Miller received four hundred and ninety- 
three votes, while Thompson only received thirty votes. The 
votes for the other candidates were about the same. If the Mor- 
mon vote hafi been counted, Miller would have received the cer- 
tificate of election. 

When the whigs ascertained how the Mormons voted at the 
August election, they thought if all he settlements on the west- 
ern slope were organized into precincts, so that all could get to 
the polls, that with the Mormon vote, they would be able to 
carry the state at the November election, and there was a great 
anxiety on the part of the whigs to have Pottawattomie county 
organized, and efforts were made to accomplish this end. The 
law, however, authorizing the appointment of an organizing sher- 
iff, required that the person appointed, before he should be quali- 
fied to enter upon the discharge of the duties of his office, should 
file his bond and oath of office in the clerk's office of the district 
court of Polk county, and in order to circumvent the plans of the 
whigs who were engaged in having the county of Pottawatto- 
mie organized, the democrats succeeded in getting the clerk of 
the district to resign, so that the appointed organizing sheriff 
could not qualify. In consequence of this action, the sheriff 
could find no qualified person to receive his bond and administer 
the oath of office, and by this maneuver, Pottawattomie county 
was not organized in time for those settlers on the western slope 
to vote at the presidential election. 

It will be seen by what has been written, that the politicians of 
the state of Iowa were wide awake in their endeavors to defeat 

196 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

their political opponents, and will compare favorably with the 
politicians of the present time. The democrats seemed to have 
had the advantage in the early history of the state in the politi- 
cal contests against their whig opponents. 

The democrats this year were triumphant, both at the August 
and November elections, and elected the congressional, state and 
electoral ticket by a decided majority, and also had the ascend- 
ancy in both branches of the legislature, and on joint ballot a 
majority of nineteen. It was thus known that the democrats 
could elect United States senators and supreme judges, and those 
offices elicited much interest among the politicians ; and at the 
convening of the legislature, December 4, 1848, there were a 
great number of the leading democrats from all parts of the state 
assembled at Iowa City, each using his best exertions to get him- 
self or his particular friend elected United States senator or su- 
preme court judge. 



Election ofUnited States Senators — Second Meeting of the State Legislature 
— Aid to Railroads — Legislation— State University — Hungarian Set- 

The second general assembly of the state convened on the 
fourth day of December, 1848. John H. Selman was elected 
president of the senate, and Smiley H. Bonham, speaker of the 
house. Soon after the organization of the legislature, the demo- 
crats held a caucus and nominated candidates for senators, and 
adjourned till the next night to nominate candidates for supreme 
court judges. At this caucus Augustus C. Dodge and Geo. W. 
Jones were nominated for senators ; Joseph Williams, chief jus- 
tice ; George Greene and John F. Kinney, associate judges. The 
caucus having selected the candidates, the contest for places was 
over, and the legislature only had to go through with the form of 
an election to complete the work. 

The memorials sent to congress by the previous legislature, 
asking for a grant of land to aid in the building of railroads in 
Iowa, were referred to the appropriate committee, but the com- 
mittee reported against the prayer of the memorials, on the ground 
that the proposed routes had not been surveyed, and there were 
no data before the committee by which they could judge of the 
distance or practicability of the proposed routes. When these 
objections were ascertained, the friends of the Dubuque and Keo- 
kuk route immediately went to work to get stock taken in their 
proposed road, and to organize a company ; and the organizing 
of the company was completed in the month of December, 1848, 
at Iowa City. A cursory survey of the road was made, and was 
laid before the legislature, which was accepted and adopted by 
that body ; and another memorial, asking for a grant of land, was 

Briggs' Administration. 199 

passed and, with the engineer's report, sent to the senators and 
representatives from Iowa, for them to present to congress. There 
was also another memorial passed by the legislature, asking for a 
grant of lands to aid in constructing a road " from Davenport by 
Muscatine, Iowa City, and Fort Des Moines, to some suitable 
point near Council Bluffs on the Missouri river." These proposed 
routes now begun to assume a character of j importance, particu- 
larly the one from Dubuque to Keokuk, and there appeared to be 
a fair prospect of those roads being built at an early date. 

The prospect of congress making a grant of lands for railroad 
purposes stirred up much feeling along the proposed routes, and 
there arose a spirited contest between the different towns and 
counties about the location of the proposed roads. Davenport 
and Iowa City wished to have a road run on a straight line, and 
not towards Muscatine, and this created much ill feeling and pro- 
duced many harsh words between the citizens of the two places. 
On the Dubuque and Keokuk line, in the north. Cedar and Linn 
were rivals, and in the south Henry and Jefferson counties spirit- 
edly contended for the location of this road through their county 

Among the bills passed at this session were : an act to create the 
office of state printer, and define his duties ; an act concerning 
claimants on the half-breed tract in Lee county ; to complete work 
on the state penitentiary ; to establish normal schools; to estab- 
lish a system of common schools ; for the reorganization of the 
board of public works ; to provide for the instruction of the deaf, 
dumb and blind ; to reapportion the state into senate and repre- 
sentative districts ; to exempt a homestead from a forced sale ; 
and a large number of bills relative to state and plank roads, fer- 
ries, bridges, etc. 

Soon after the meeting of the legislature in 1850, the Dubuque 
and Keokuk road attracted special attention, and a large number 
of prominent men from along the line of this road assembled at 
the capital and effected a new organization, with two sets of offi- 
cers ; one set were to control the business south and the other 
north of Iowa city, and were known as the north and south 
divisions. In the articles of incorporation, and in the memorial 
passed by the legislature that winter, asking for a grant of land, 

200 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

the towns of Cascade, Anamosa, Marion, Cedar Eapids, Iowa 
City, Washington, Fairfield, Glasgow, Salem and West Point 
were made points on the road ; at that time this had every appear- 
ance of being the first road that would be built in Iowa, and if 
the proper efforts had been made, probably would have been. 
Along the line of the road, and particularly in Jefiferson county, 
there were liberal subscriptions made and sanguine hopes were 
entertained of obtaining a grant of land at the next congress. At 
that time there had not any railroad reached the Mississippi from 
the east, and nearly all the trade from Iowa sought an eastern 
outlet by going down the river. The citizens of Keokuk who, 
as a matter of fact, were to be benefited the most by the under- 
taking, thinking they were by their location " The Gate " through 
which most of the trade of the back country must pass, whether 
the road was built or not, took very little interest in the enterprise, 
and without the aid of those at Keokuk, where the road was to 
commence, those places at the north did not feel like engaging in 
the undertaking, and in consequence of their unwillingness to 
assist in the matter, a great change in the public sentiment took 
place, and all those who lived in the vicinity of Fairfield, turned 
their whole attention to the opening up of a thoroughfare to Bur- 
lington. Congress refused the grant of land to this company, and 
all hopes of building the proposed road were given up for the time. 
There is every reason to think that if Keokuk had exerted herself, 
as she might, at the proper time, the necessary grant of land 
might have been obtained from the general government, and that 
this would have been the first road built in the state, which in 
all probability would have made Keokuk the largest town in the 
state. Sometimes, as in this case, small things are attended with 
great results. 

In January, 1849, the fifth judicial district was established, 
and William McKay was elected judge. 

The question of establishing a state university and of disposing 
of the two townships of land given by congress for that purpose, 
came up before the legislature at this session ; and acts were 
passed establishing the main institution at Iowa City, one branch 
at Dubuque, and another at Fairfield : and also providing for 
normal schools at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mount Pleasant ; and 

Bbiggs' Administration. 201 

for the purpose of getting these insututions in operation at an 
early period, the citizens in some of these localities expended 
large sums of money in erecting buildings for educational pur- 
poses ; but the state authorities subsequently changed their pol- 
icy in relation to the state university, and those acts establishing 
the several branches were repealed, and all the funds were ap- 
plied to the institution at Iowa City. 

At this session of the legislature, laws were passed for organiz- 
ing the counties of Allamakee and Lucas, which made provisions 
for locating their county seats. 

When senators Dodge and Jones took their seats in the United 
States senate, it became incumbent on them to be classified, and 
in their drawing for terms, the former fell into that class of sena- 
tors whose terms of office expired the coming March. When 
this result was made known at Iowa City, the legislature immedi- 
ately met in joint convention, and Gen. Dodge was reelected for 
another term, without any opposition in his own party. 

Previous to 1849, there had been a civil war within the juris- 
diction of the Austrian government in Europe, in the province of 
Hungary, headed by Louis Kossuth. As is well known, Austria, 
with the aid of Russia, succeeded in subduing their rebellious 
subjects, and many of the Hungarians were compelled to flee 
from that country. Among the prominent refugees was Gov- 
Uzhzy, who, at the time of the breaking out of the rabellion, was 
governor of one of the provinces of Hungary. In order to save 
himself from the vengeance of the Austrian government, the gov- 
ernor fled from his country, and with a large number of his 
countrymen settled in Iowa, on Grand river, in the southern part 
of Decatur county. From the number who stopped here, it was 
supposed they would build up a large town at this point, and 
have around it an extensive settlement of Hungarians. To show 
the good feeling which existed towards these emigrants, who were 
compelled to leave their native country, the legislature passed a 
memorial to congress in which they instructed the senators and 
requested the representatives to use their influence to secure 
to the Hungarian settlement in Iowa, a donation of the pub- 
lic lands. The influence which was brought to bear in their 
behalf was such that the president did not have the lands on 

202 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

which they were settled ofEered for sale at the time the other 
l.inds around them were brought into the market, and probably 
congress would have passed an act donating these lands to them, 
had they continued to occupy the locality which they first se- 
lected. In their native country, they had been engaged in the 
culture of the grape, and made preparations to engage in the 
same business here, but finding the winters much more severe 
than in their native land, they came to the conclusion that the 
climate would not be favorable for this business, and they aban- 
doned their settlement at this place and moved to Texas, and 
other parties entered their lands. 

The state auditor reported that the amount of revenue received 
from the several counties, from April 5, 1848, to February 22, 
1849, was $26,161.89, and received for keeping United States 
prisoner, $34.05: total, $26,195.94; and the disbursements, by 
warrants paid, $22,854.62; balance on hand, $3,341.32. 

At the election for presidential electors, in 1852, the whig 
electors received 15,856 votes, and the democratic electors, 
17,762, a majority of 1,906. The latter cast their vote for Frank- 
lin Pierce for president. 


Statistics — Legislation — The Wet Season — Floods — Incidents and Anec- 
dotes of the Deluge in Iowa — Curious Remains — Wind and Rain. 

The thied session of the general assembly was held at Des 
Moines, and commenced on the second day of December, 1850, 
and adjourned February 5, 1851. 

The senate was organized by the president, Enos Lowe taking 
the chair, and the election of Philip B. Bradley, as secretary, and 
in the assembly by the election of George Temple, speaker, and 
C. C. Rockwell, chief clerk. 

The governor in his message says, " that notwithstanding the 
prevalence of a malignant disease in some parts of the state, Iowa 
has steadily increased in population and wealth; her energies 
have been strengthened ; her resources are being constantly de- 
veloped ; emigration is rapidly pouring in upon and spreading 
over her broad and fertile domain, and the evidence of enterprise 
and prosperity can be seen on every hand." He gives the fol- 
lowing financial statement of the afiairs of the state as reported by 
the treasurer, viz : amount on hand and received into the treasury 
from October 31, 1848, to November 4, 1850, $90,444.33, and the 
disbursements during the same period, $90,442.94, leaving a bal- 
ance of $1.39 in the treasury ; that the liabilities of the state on 
putstanding warrants on the 4th of December, 1848, amounted to 
$22,651.62, and from that period to November 30, 1850, the re- 
ceipts of the treasury as before stated, were $90,444.33, and the 
expenditures, $90,442.91 This latter sum embraced the interest 
paid on the state loan, and $11,685.75 of the habilities on the 4th 
of December, 1858 ; thus decreasing the liabilities on out- 
standing warrants on the 30th of November, 1850, to $10,965.87. 
The resources to discharge these liabilities, and to meet the expenses 
(204) ^ 

Administsation oe Gov. Hempstead. 205 

of the coming year were $24,154.83 due from counties prior to the 
year 1850, and the revenue assessed in 1850, amounting to $56,- 

He stated that by an act approved January 16, 1847, he was 
authorized to agree with the state of Missouri for the commence- 
ment and termination of such suit as might be necessary to pro- 
cure a final decision by the supreme court of the United States 
in regard to the southern boundary line of the state ; and that in 
pursuance of the authority thus granted, he, on the following 
February, appointed Hon. Chas. Mason to act as counsel in behalf 
of the state, and a notice of such aj^pointment was given to the 
governor of Missouri. The case came on for argument in Feb- 
ruary, 1849, and a decision made by the court determining the 
rights of the two states, giving the state of Iowa all the territory 
lying between the line run by Missouri in 1837 us her northern 
boundary line, from the river Des Moines, due west to the Missoui 
river, and the line established by the decree. The governor con- 
gratulated the general assembly on the settlement of this vexa- 
tious question concerning the southern boundary. 

He also called attention to perfecting the system of common 
school education — the formation of agricultural societies, and to 
the subject of normal schools, and expressed the hope that the 
three schools established in the state would receive the fostering 
care of the legislature. 

On the 4th of December, the legislature met in joint convention 
for the purpose of opening and publishing the votes given for 
governor at the previous general election,, August 5, 1850, at 
which time the votes were duly canvassed and it appeared that 
Stephen Hempstead received 13,486 votes ; James L. Thompson, 
11,408; Wm. P. Clark, 575, and 11 votes, scattering; whereupon 
Stephen Hempstead was declared duly elected governor. A com- 
mittee was appointed to inform the governor elect that the two 
houses were ready to receive him in joint convention, in order 
that he might receive the oath prescribed by the constitution, 
which duty having been performed by the committee, the gover- 
nor elect, accompanied by the governor, the judges of the supreme 
court and the officers of state, entered the hall of the house, and 
having been duly announced, the governor elect delivered his in- 

206 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

augural message, after which the oath was administered by the 
chief justice of the supreme court 

The following are some of the important acts passed at this 
session : To establish new counties and to define their boundaries 
(the counties formed were Adair, Union, Adams, Cass, Mont- 
gomery, Mills, Pottawattomie, Bremer, Butler, Grundy, Hardin, 
Franklin, Wright, Eisley, Yell, Greene, Guthrie, Carroll, Fox, 
Sac, Crawford, Shelby, Harrison, Monona, Ida, Waukau, Hum- 
boldt, Pocahontas, Buena Vista, Fayette, Cherokee, Plymouth, 
Allamakee, Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Kossuth, 
Palo Alto, Clay, O'Brien, Sioux, Howard, Mitchell, Worth, 
Winnebago, Winneshiek, Bancroft, Emmett, Dickinson, Oceola, 
and Buncombe) ; to provide for the seat of justice of the several 
counties therein named ; authorizing the governor to procure a 
title to certain'ground for a penitentiary ; to provide for a medi- 
cal department of the university of Iowa ; to provide for a loan 
from the school fund to pay expenses for running the boundary 
line between the states of Iowa and Missouri ; to provide for the 
prosecution of the Des Moines river improvement ; to reappor- 
tion the state into senate and assembly districts ; to provide for 
the completion of the penitentiary ; to appropriate $2,500 toward 
the completion of the state house at Iowa City ; to dispose of the 
saline lands belonging to the state, and a number of bills incor- 
porating cities, towns and villages, changing the names of towns 
and counties, granting the right of way to various rail and plank 
road companies ; to locate and establish state roads, and appropri- 
ations for the support- of the government of the state. 

The legislature was composed of a large majority favoring 
stringent corporation laws, and the liability of individual stock- 
holders for corporate debts. This sentiment on account of the 
agitation of railroad enterprises then beginning, brought a large 
number of prominent men to the capitol. To have an effect 
upon the legislature, they organized a "lobby legislature," in 
which these questions were ably discussed. They elected as gov- 
ernor, Verplank Van Antwerp, who delivered to this self-consti- 
tuted body, a lengthy message, in which he sharply criticised the 
regular general assembly. Some of the members of the latter 
body were in the habit of making long and useless speeches, 

Admjxistratiox of Gov. Hempstead. 207 

much to the hindrance of business. To these he especially referred, 
charging them with speaking for " Buncombe," and recom- 
mended that as their lasting memorial, a county should be called 
by that name. This suggestion was readily seized upon by the 
legislature, and the county of " Buncombe " was created with few 
dissenting voices. By act of the general assembly, approved 
September, 11, 1862, the name was changed to " Lyon," in honor 
of Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, who was killed in the civil war. 

The year 1851 is noted as the wet season. A great portion of 
the country which nature designed to be arid, was, for several 
weeks, deep lakes of, water. It commenced to be wet weather 
the early part of May, and the heavens were almost daily black- 
ened with angry clouds, and the rain poured down in torrents, 
frequently accompanied with violent winds and loud pealing 
thunder, till July ; and for the most of this time the public high- 
ways, where they crossed streams, could not be traveled by 
teams. In almost every ravine, there was a good sized rivulet, 
so that the finny tribes left their accustomed haunts, and swam 
up to, and had their sports on the highlands in the grassy prairies, 
and large numbers were found in the sink holes after the flood 
had subsided. In the cultivated low lands, the places where the 
farmer was accustomed to see the golden harvest, instead of rich 
fields of grain, were pools of muddy water ; but very little was 
raised this season, and scarcity and want were hovering around 
the homes of the cultivators of the soil. 

This great flood was most severely felt in the valley of the 
Des Moines. The fences which protected the growing crops 
were nearly all swept away by the angry flood, carried to other 
premises than the owners', and the material mostly imbedded in 
common piles of drift, so that it cost more than it was worth to 
restore it to its proper place. 

All the towns on the banks of the river from Des Moines to the 
Mississippi were more or less covered with water, and injured by 
the flood, and where had been the busy tramp of business, swam 
the finny fish. At Des Moines, the river at one time was twenty 
two and a half feet above low water mark. East Des Moines was 
under water to the second bank, and the citizens, instead of trav- 
eling the streets with carnages, paddled their way in canoes. The 

208 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

town of Eddyville was for many days entirely submerged in deep 
water, and the citizens were forced to leave their well furnished 
homes, and seek shelter in hastily constructed tents, made with 
quilts and blankets on the hillside. 

At Ottumba, the flood ran so high that all the bottom lands 
were many feet under water, and a long log about two feet in 
diameter was floated up into the town and lodged against a sign 
post on the main traveled street in the place, which prevented 
teams from passing till it was removed. The water rose several 
inches over the floor of the principal hotel, and the guests sought 
egress and ingress by means of boats. The commonly traveled 
road from Ottumba to Agency City, for several weeks was ob- 
structed with deep water. About the time the river overflowed 
its banks, the stage undertook to make its usual trips, and in 
attempting to pass a low place in the road, before he was aware 
of danger, the driver found his horses swamped in deep water, 
and to save them from being drowned had to cut their harness 
and abandon the coach, and the passengers with much difficulty 
saved themselves from a watery grave. The water continued to 
rise, till the coach was several feet under water, and the current 
washed over it so large a quantity of driftwood, that when the 
water went down, the drift settling upon the coach crushed it to 

At lowaville, the wide, beautiful bottom prairies were one vast 
sheet of water ; the flood reached from bluff to bluff; the river 
was a mile wide ; all the buildings which stood near the banks of 
the river were raised from their foundations and floated down the 
stream, and several families, when the flood abated, found them- 
selves without a home. The waters of the river, when they 
were at their highest stage, as they rushed along in their mad 
career, presented a most singular appearance. The surface of the 
river was oval ; being several feet higher in the middle of the cur- 
rent than at the banks ; so much so, that a person of ordinary 
height standing at the water's edge, could not see the bank on 
the opposite side. 

This flood surpassed anything that had ever been known in the 
history of the country, within the memory of the oldest inhabi- 
tant, or that of the native who resided here before the country 

210 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

was settled by the whites ; nor did any traditional account of the 
Indians give any evidence of a like flood in all past time, and it 
is to be hoped the citizens of Iowa will never see the like again. 

After the rains had ceased to pour down their torrents, the re- 
mainder of the season was very hot and dry, and the vegetation, 
which in the fore part of the season had been excessively moist- 
ened, in the latter part was parched up with heat and drouth, 
and the valley of the Des Moines stripped of its fencing, and 
covered here and there with piles of sand and debris, appeared 
like one vast desolated waste. Near lowaville there was a large 
inclosed field, which had been under cultivation many years, and 
while the husbandmen were tilling the soil they did not dream 
they were walking about and that the luxuriant harvest was 
waiving over the graves of the departed dead, and little did they 
consider that many beings of their own race had trod on those 
grounds many years in the past. This flood disclosed mysterious 
information that was not known before. The waters in their mad 
career, being swollen out of their natural channel, rushed with 
force and violence over this inclosed field, and like as in other 
cultivated lands, the flood washed out deep excavations ; it i"e- 
moved earth which had been dug out and replaced by human 
hands ; it had developed the resting place of the dead, the graves 
of those who had lived and died at unknown times in the past ; 
and as the waters had subsided, in these excavations were found 
the remains of human beings ; bones which had been clothed with 
flesh in the past, skeletons of a gigantic race, trinkets and orna- 
ments and badges of distinction. These discoveries at the time 
attracted much attention and much speculation. Dr. Peter 
Walker, who lived near by, made a careful examination of some 
of these remains, and found them of an enormous size ; from the 
bones of one which he examined, he judged that the individual 
when living, must have been from eight to twelve feet high. 
The jaw bone, which was in a perfect state of preservation, was 
so large, that the doctor, though a large man himself, could easily 
put over his own face, and in this position the extremities ex- 
tended past his own ears, and some of the teeth measured an inch 
and a quarter across the face. 

There were quite a number of articles found with the bones 

Administration of Gov. Hempstead. 211 

which had been washed up, which gave evidence that those per- 
sons who had been buried there were in possession of the arts of 
civilization. The large skeleton, which was particularly exam- 
ined by Dr. Walker, was probably a noted character in his time, 
not only for his size, but doubtless held some important station 
among his people, for, among other things, there were found sev- 
eral of what were supposed to have been badges of distinction. 
Around his thighs were steel bands, and on his arms silver brace- j 
lets, which were neatly wrought and nearly two inches wide. 

On the bluffs back of lowaville, about a mile from this burial 
ground, on the land of Joel F. Avery, there is a vein of coal 
about four feet in thickness, which crops out on the surface. In 
December, 1873, Benjamin F. Bryan was employed to work this 
mine. In drifting an entrance into the bank, twenty-three feet 
from the surface, embedded in a solid vein of coal, about a foot 
from the bottom, he found a bone about seven inches long, and 
an inch in diameter, of a reddish color, which, from examination 
by those familiar with anatomy, was supposed to be bone from 
the arm of a human being. From the solid manner in which it 
was imbedded in the coal, it is evident it must have been deposited 
there at or before the coal formation, which would indicate that 
this locality had been inhabited by human beings many hundred 
years in the past. 

This season was also noted for several severe storms of wind, 
one of which passed through Jefferson county, broke down 
nearly all the timber within its reach, leveled the fences even 
with the ground, and destroyed several houses. During the fore 
part of the summer of this year, the terrible scourge, cholera, 
prevailed along the river Des Moines and in most of the thickly 
settled parts of the state, and large numbers were swept away by 
the fatal malady. The most healthy and robust persons, while 
feeling no symptoms of disease, would suddenly be taken with 
vomiting and purging, and, in a few hours, large and fleshy per- 
sons would be reduced to mere skeletons and the skin become 
loose and shriveled like that of some very old persons; then 
cramping would set in which convulsed the whole body with the 
most excrutiating pains, till death released the sufferer. Persons, 
not apprehending any danger, would frequently be attacked, and 

212 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

in a few hours would breathe their last. When one of a family 
became sick, another and another would be attacked, till often 
whole families in a few hours would be taken away. Neighbor- 
hoods became alarmed, and many left their homes, and frequentlj^ 
it was difficult to get any one to take care of the sick or bury the 

The flood, the failure of the crops and the sickness in Iowa, 
made many dissatisfied and anxious to leave the country, and 
those of them who could, disposed of their farms and left the 
state. The working of the gold mines in California increased the 
discontent, for some had gone from the state to California as early 
as 1849, and quite a large number in the spring of 1850, and the 
most wonderful accounts of the rapid accumulation of fortunes 
were constantly being sent home to the states. The prospects of 
rapidly accumulating great wealth west of the Eocky mountains, 
and almost a famine in Iowa from the wet season, had such 
an effect on the citizens, that the future prospects of the state 
were very gloomy and unpropitions. Business became stagnant, 
many houses and farms were tenantless, many sold their posses- 
sions at reduced prices, and it seemed, for a while, as if every 
body was bound to leave Iowa. 

On account of the failure of the crops and the large emigra- 
tion which passed through Iowa to California and Oregon, all the 
provisions which could be bought were consumed by the emi- 
grants, and much more was wanted. There was also a great de- 
mand for horses, mules, oxen and cows to take west to the moun- 
tains, and any farmer who had anything to sell found a ready 
market at his own door. Corn went up from ten cents to a dollar 
a bushel, and everything else in the same proportion, except real 
estate, which declmed in value as fast as other things increased. 



Camp Des Moiues — Adventures — Battles — Encounters with the Indians — 
General Mason — Fort Dodge. 

The territory north of Fort Des Moines, and east of the Des 
Moines river, was included in the treaty or purchase made by 
Gov. Chambers in 1842 ; also that lying on the west side of said 
river as far north as the correction line at a point about one mile and 
three-quarters above where Fort Dodge is situated. West of the 
Des Moines river from the correction line north, and from that 
point west to the Missouri river, still belonged to the Sioux In- 
dians when Fort Dodge was established, and up till the ratifica- 
tion of the last treaty made with the Sioux Indians in Minnesota, 
when the Indian title to all lands within the limits of the state of 
Iowa was extinguished. Fort Des Moines was established at the 
junction of Des Moines and Raccoon rivers, as the extreme out- 
post on the northern frontier in the year 1843, and garrisoned by 
United States dragoons commanded by Captain James Allen of 
the U. S. army. This post was abandoned in the year 1846. At 
that time the country lying north of Raccoon Fort (or Fort Des 
Moines) was comparatively an unexplored region, the habitation 
of the wild Sioux Indians, buffalo, and elk, etc. The only ex- 
ploration of the country attempted previous to the establish- 
ment of Fort Des Moines, was by Capt. N. Boon of the U. S. 
dragoons, who by order of the secretary of war, marched with bis 
company of dragoons from old camp Des Moines formerly a station 
of the U. S. dragoons, situated on the Mississippi river (now 
Montrose). His route was up the Des Moines river, to the fork 
or mouth of Raccoon river ; from thence up the river of the 
Sioux (which was the name of the river above the junction of 


214 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

Eaccoon river and Des Moines), to the junction of the east and 
west forks of the river, twelve miles north of Fort Dodge ; thence 
up the west side of the east branch (which he named " Brother 
river " ) to a point at or near Chain Lakes, near the present state 
line. There the Sioux Indians, after closely watching his move- 
ments all the way up, met him in force and gave battle. After a 
severe brush with the Indians there, he turned his course east- 
ward to Lake Albert Lee (which was named after Lieut Albert 
Lee of his company), and from thence to Dubuque, and down the 
Mississippi river, back to camp Des Moines. 

In 1848 surveys of the lands purchased north of Eaccoon forks 
were commenced. Mr. Marsh of Dubuque, in the employment of 
the government, set out with his company from Dubuque to run 
and establish the correction line, from a point on the Mississippi 
to the Missouri river. He progressed with the work without 
molestation until he crossed the river of the Sioux (or Des 
Moines), when he was met by a body of Sioux Indians headed by 
Sidom-ina-do-tah, a chief. They ordered him to puc-achee (clear 
out, be off), pulled up his stakes and tore down his mounds, and 
gave him to understand they claimed the country, and refused to 
let him proceed further. Giving these positive orders, they left 
him a short distance from the west bank of the river. After some 
hesitation, Mr. Marsh concluded to proceed with his work. He 
had not proceeded more than three-fourths of a mile, to a point 
about half a mile south of the town plat of Fort Dodge, on the 
bench of land at the head of a large ravine, when the Indians sur- 
rounded them in force, and robbed them of everything, taking 
their horses, breaking up their wagons and instruments and 
forced them back across the river to find their way home the best 
way they could. In the fall and winter of the same year, these 
Indians attacked Henry Lott, Jacob Mericle, L. Mericle, and one 
or two others who had ventured up to the Boon forks, and rob- 
bed them, and were constantly committing depredations on set- 
tlers who ventured up north or northwest of Fort Des Moines, 
becoming more bold after the troops left Fort Des Moines. The 
depredations and outrages committed by the Indians being repre- 
sented to the government, it was determined to establish a military 
post at some point on the northern frontier, for the purpose of 

216 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

keeping these Indians in check and protecting the frontier settlers 
that might come into this section of country. 

Early in 1849, Brevet-Gen. Mason, colonel of the sixth regi- 
ment of United States infantry, was directed to select a site for a 
fort as near as practicable to the northwest corner of the neutral 
ground established by treaty between the Sac, Fox and Pottawat- 
tomie and the Sioux Indians, a strip of country reaching from 
the Des Moines river to the Mississippi. The north line of this 
ground is marked about three miles above Fort Dodge, where the 
post stands marking the northwest corner on the east bank of the 
Des Moines river. The site where Fort Dodge now stands was 
selected on the east bank of the river, a short distance below the 
mouth of the Lizard river, which empties into the Des Moines on 
the west side. At the same time great excitement prevailed 
among the citizens of Iowa, Tama and Benton counties, owing to 
a large body of Sac and Fox Indians, seven or eight hundred in 
number, under the lead of the chiefs, Powseschiek, Shamonie and 
Petacotah, having returned from the lands allotted to them west 
of the Missouri river and taken possession of the country lying 
north of Marengo, on the Iowa river, their chief village being at 
at what is since called Indian Town. Three companies of troops, 
as follows : Company E, United States dragoons, were ordered 
from Fort Snelling to remove these Indians and deliver them to 
the commanding officer at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. After at- 
tending to that duty, company B, 2d dragoons, commanded by 
Lieut. Gardner, and company 0, Lieut. Johnson, returned to Fort 
Snelling, and company E, U. S. 6th infantry, were ordered, under 
command of Brevet-Maj. Samuel Woods, to march to the Des 
Moines, to build and garrison the fort on the site selected by Gen. 
Mason. They took up the line of march from Gamp Buck- 
ner, on the Iowa river, on the last day of July, 1850. Most of 
the officers and men of the detachment had served in Florida and 
Mexico ; and when they started for the Des Moines, all believed, 
from the character given of the country they were ordered to, 
that they were again to be stationed in a country similar to Flori- 
da — a country destitute of timber and covered with lakes, ponds 
and swamps, but they were very agreeably disappointed. After a 
tedious march, having to bridge streams and sloughs and pass a 

Forts Des Moines and Dodge. 217 

heavily-loaded train of wagons through an uninhabited country, 
they arrived at the Des Moines, at the point designated, on the 
evening of the 23d of August, 1850, and encamped on the ground 
now lying between the public square and Walnut street, and be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets in Fort Dodge. Upon their arrival, 
all the Indians fled from the east to the west side of the Des 
Moines, and something like nine months elapsed before any of 
them ventured to come near them or to communicate with them. 

A co-Timencement was made immediately to prepare the neces- 
sary materials for building and preparing for winter quarters. In 
the latter part of November, the buildings were up, and generally 
so far finished as to enable troops to move into them, when they 
struck their tents and took possession of them. In honor of Gren. 
Clarke, then colonel of the 6th regiment, U. S. infantry, to which 
the troops belonged, the post was name "Fort Clarke." 

In the fall of 1851, by order of the secretary of war, the name 
of the fort was changed to that of Fort Dodge, in honor of Gen. 
Henry Dodge, of Wisconsin, then U. S. senator from that 
state. The change of name was made in consequence of a por- 
tion of the 6th regiment having built a fort further west, and also 
named it Fort Clarke, which caused confusion in mail matters 
and in forwarding supplies. The military reservation intended 
for Fort Dodge was four miles south and four miles north of the 
fort, along the Des Moines river, and two miles on each side of 
said river, making a strip of land eight miles long by four miles 
wide, but before it was distinctly surveyed and laid out, the de- 
cision was made that the Des Moines river grant extended above 
Eaccoon fork to the source of the Des Moines river, giving every- 
odd section to the state of Iowa, for the improvement of the river 
up to the Raccoon fork. This decision interfered with the United 
States making such reservation, and when the lands were section- 
ized, it was found that the buildings and improvements were 
erected on a river section, viz.: Section number 19, township 89, 
range 28 west. At this post, during the time they were stationed 
here, the troops were kept very busy in checking the Indians, and 
preventing them from committing depredations on frontier set- 
tlers. They had in charge all the north, northeastern and north- 
western frontiers, from the eastern part of the state to the Mis- 

218 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

souri river. An outfit of thirty men, mounted, was constantly 
kept in readiness, to pursue the savages, when an alarm was given, 
and a great part of the time kept men on the scout to watch their 

In 1853 the troops stationed at Fort Dodge were ordered to 
move one hundred and fifty miles north in Minnesota, to build a 
new fort on the north line of the then new purchase made from 
the Sioux Indians which has been built and named Fort Ridge- 
ley. In the latter part of September, 1853, the last division of 
the troops left, when the fort was abandoned. Maj. Wm. Wil- 
liams quit the service with the view of purchasing the post site 
and adjoining lands. On the 27th of March 1854, the first town 
plat was surveyed on the premises known as the fort site, the 
property, having become the property of Maj. Williams, who 
made the purchase iu January, 1854 ; a post ofiice was estab- 
lished the same year and a government land office located and 
the lands in the vicinity were soon taken up. Of the further 
history of the town it is unnecessary to speak. 



Fourth Session of the State Legislature — Statistics — Election — Immigra- 
tion — Progress of Settlements. 

The fourth session of the general assembly convened at 
Iowa City on the 6th day of December 1852, and adjourned Jan- 
uary 24, 1853. The senate was organized by the election of 
Hon. James Grant as president and J. Smith Hooton as secretary, 
and in the assembly by the election of W. E. Leflingwell as 
speaker, and T. B. Cuming as chief clerk. On the day following. 
Gov. S. Hempstead sent to each house a copy of his message 
which was read by the secretary of the senate and chief clerk of 
the assembly. The governor refers at the beginning of the mes- 
sage, to the death of Hons. John C. Calhoun, Levi Woodbury and 
Daniel Webster, and to the loss sustained by the decease of these 
eminent statesmen. He states that at the organization of the 
state government, the number of inhabitants amounted to seventy- 
eight thousand nine hundred and eighty-eight. By the census 
taken by the United States in 1850, the state has a population of 
one hundred and ninety-two thousand two hundred and fourteen, 
and by the returns of the state census, for the present year, an in- 
crease of thirty-seven thousand seven hundred and eighty-six. 
Of the financial affairs of the state, he says, the report of the state 
treasurer shows that there has been received into the treasury 
from the second day of December, 1850, to the thirty-first day of 
October, 1852, the sum of $139,681.69; balance received from 
former treasurer, one dollar and thirty-nine cents, making an ag- 
gregate of $139,683.08. The disbursements for the same period 
are $131,631.49, leaving a balance in the treasury at the latter 
date of $8,051.59. The auditor of state states the funded debt of 
the state amounts to $81,795.75, of which amount $26,795.75, 


220 TuTTLifs His TOE Y of Iowa. 

are payable at the option of the state. The estimated expenses 
for the two years to come, amount to $103,918.90. The estimated 
resources for the same period with the balance in the treasury, 
amount to $149,119.47, an amount which after deducting ten per 
cent, for delinquencies and assessments as unavailable, will leave 
a balance of receipts over expenditures fully sufficient to extin- 
guish all that part of the funded debt of the state which is paya- 
ble at its option ; and the governer recommends that provision 
be made to pay the same as rapidly as any surplus means may 
come into the treasury. 

The governor recommended the establishing of the office of at- 
torney general, and also a state land office for the supervision and 
sale of lands which have been or may hereafter be granted to the 
state. He reports that of the $10,000 appropriated by the last 
general assembly for the state penitentiury, $8,736.56, have been 
expended upon the building, and freehold improvements. 

The attention of the legislature is directed to the importance 
of proper organization of the militia laws of the state, also to the 
affairs of the Des Moines river improvement, and recommended 
decisive action in relation to the same. He gives his views at 
length on the subject of banking and is decidedly opposed to any 
movement toward amending the constitution of the state author- 
izing the establishment of banks or banking corporations in the 
state. In conclusion he says : " The state of Iowa is in a prosper- 
ous condition — rapidly increasing in population — owing, perhaps, 
the smallest public debt of any state in the union; all industrial 
employments finding encouragement under the regular adminis- 
tration of the laws, and warm in her attachment to the union, and 
to the just rights of each state composing it." 

On the 21st of December the general assembly in joint conven- 
tion elected George W. Jones United States senator for the state 
of Iowa for six years from the fourth of March ensuing. 

The following are some of the important acts passed at this 
session : to dispose of the swamp and overflowed lands in the 
state, granted by act of congress ; to establish an asylum for the 
blind ; to regulate the interest on money ; fixing the boundaries 
of the judicial circuits of the state; to reapportion the state into 
senate and assembly districts ; to dispose of the saline lands of the 

222 TvTTLhfs History of Iowa. 

state ; to provide for work on the state capitol at Iowa City ; 
and a number of acts organizing new counties, granting the 
right of way to rail and plank roads, and to secure the vig- 
orous prosecution of the improvements at Des Moines, and to 
provide for the election of an attorney general and defining his 

At the general election held August 7, 1854, Jas. W. Grimcn 
received 23,312 votes for governor, and Curtiss Bates 21,192 votes ; 
the former was elected ; and at the presidential election held in 
November, the whig electors received 45,196 votes, and the dem- 
ocratic electors received 37,668. The whig candidates, who were 
elected, at a meeting of the electoral college, cast the vote of the 
state for John C. Fremont for president. 

In the years 1854 and 1855, the stream of emigration began to^ 
pour into Iowa from the eastern states to an extent that was aston- 
ishing and unprecedented. For miles and miles, day after day, 
the prairies of Illinois were lined with cattle and wagons, pushing 
on towards Iowa. At Peoria, one gentleman says that during a 
single month, seventeen hundred and forty-three wagons had passed 
through that place, and all for Iowa. Allowing five persons to a 
wagon, which is a fair average, we have 8,715 souls added to the 
population. The Chicago Press says : " Most of the passenger 
trains came in last week with two locomotives, and the reason of 
this great increase of power will be understood when it is known 
that twelve thousand passengers arrived from the east by the Mich- 
igan Southern Kailroad during the last week." The Burlington 
Telegraph says : " Twenty thousand emigrants have passed through 
the city within the last thirty days, and they are still crossing the 
Mississippi at the rate of six and seven hundred a day." These 
figures were furnirhed by the ferryman, who keeps a sort of run- 
ning calendar ; and the editor of the Dubuque Reporter writes : 
" Never before in the history of this northwestern region has there 
been a more gratifying spectacle than that now presented to those 
who take an interest in its progress and welfare. Viewing the 
almost countless throng of immigrants that crowd our streets, and 
learning that a similar scene is visible at every other point along 
the Mississippi border of Iowa, the spectator is naturally led to 
infer that a general exodus is taking place in the eastern states of 

Administhation of Gov. Hempstead. 223 

the Union, as well as in those that, a few years ago, were denom- 
inated the west. 

'• Day by day the endless procession moves on — a mighty army 
of invasion, which, were its objects other than peace, and a frater- 
nal, cordial league with its predecessors, their joint aim to con- 
quer this fair and alluring domain from the wild dominion of 
nature, would strike terror in the boldest hearts. They come by 
hundreds and thousands from the hills and valleys of New En- 
gland, bringing with them that same untiring, indomitable energy 
and perseverance that have made their native states the admira- 
tion of the world, and whose influence is felt wherever enterprise 
has a votary, or commerce spreads a sail ; with intellects sharp- 
ened to the keenest edge, and brawny arms to execute the firm 
resolves of their iron will, and gathering fresh accessions as they 
swept across the intermediate country from the no less thrifty and 
hardy population of New York, Ohio, and Indiana. Tarrying no 
longer among us than to select their future homes, away they hie 
to the capacious and inviting plains, that spread themselves inter- 
minably, ready to yield, almost without preparation, their rich, 
latent treasures. 

" In reply to the question that may be asked, to what is the 
high tide setting into Iowa to be ascribed ? we take it on our- 
selves to answer, that the unanimous consent of those who have 
investigated her claims accords her a climate of unequaled salu- 
brity, a soil of the most generous fertility and a geographical 
position unsurpassed by that of any other western state ; in a 
word, that naturally she contains within her limits all the ele- 
ments, which properly availed of by man, will secure his highest 
temporal prosperity and happiness. Whilst the contiguous states, 
and many of those more remote, have yielded harvests diminished 
by drought in the ratio of from a fourth to a half, hers has been, 
at least, equal to an average one. She is thus able to supply not 
only her producers, but likewise all who have since come, and 
yet to arrive this year. When we take into account the central 
position of Iowa in the confederacy, and the fact of the rapid 
development of her resources, we can easily believe that she is 
destined to become, at no distant day, all that the most sanguine 
hope for. Her salubrious climate, and abundance of water, and 

22i Tvttle's HisToer of Iowa. 

the favorable distribution of timber, and mineral resources, all 
contribute to give Iowa preeminence among the western states 
in the minds of those who are exchanging a residence in the east, 
for one in the west. 

" Such are the inducements Iowa holds out to the agriculturist, 
coupled with a promise to return him for immeasurably less 
labor than would be required at the east, an unsurpassable 
abundance of any and every article which the zone we live in is 
capable of producing." 


Fifth Session of tlie State Legislature — Indian Outbreals — Governor's Mes- 
sages — Special Session — Its Work — Events of 1854r-5. 

The fifth general assembly of the state of Iowa met at Iowa 
City and commenced its regular session on the fourth day of 
December, 1854, and was organized in the senate by the election 
of S. Gr. McAchran, president pro tempore, and Philip B. Bradley, 
secretary pro tempore. On the seventh of January, Maturin L. 
Fisher was, on the seventeenth ballot, elected president, and on 
the eighth, P. B. Rankin was elected secretary on the twenty- 
first ballot. In the house of representatives, P. Gad Bryan was 
elected speaker, and P. B. Bradley, chief clerk. On the eighth 
Gov. Hempstead sent to the general assembly his annual message, 
from which the following information is derived relating to the 
administration of the government for the two preceding years : 
The funded debt of the state, for which bonds have been issued, 
amounts to the sum of $79,795.75 ; of this amount the sum of 
$16,442.05 became due on the first day of May, 1854, and the 
others will be payable in 1856, 1857 and 1859. The treasurer's 
report shows, that from the first day of November, 1852, up to 
the thirty-first day of October, 1854, there has been received 
into the treasury, $125,462.57, of which sum $10,515.70 was 
received on the sale of the saline lands. During that time there 
has been paid out on auditor's warrants, $118,542.90. The 
amount of money in the treasury, on the thirty-first day of 
October last, was $15,522.22, including the sum of $8,602.88, 
which was in the treasury on the first day of November, 1852. 

A change in the manner of the assessment of taxes is recom- 
mended so as to require the election of a county assessor for 
each county. The school laws of the state, the governor regards 
15 (235^ 

226 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

as too complicated, and recommends that the duties then per- 
formed by the school fund commissioners be transferred and 
discharged by the county treasurer. The establishment and 
endowment of an asylum for lunatics, he recommended to the 
favorable consideration of the general assembly. Reference is 
made to the improvement of the Des Moines river, and it is stated, 
that under the provisions of law, a contract has been made with 
Henry O'Reilley and others for the completion of the improve- 
ment — a portion of the old debts have been paid, and the im- 
provement is said to be progressing. He calls attention to the 
militia laws of the state, and recommends a militia organization 
such as will enable the state, in case of emergency, to defend itself 
and protect the citizens from depredation of the Indians. He 
further states, that he received information in July, 1854, from 
certain counties in the west and northwest portions of the state, 
that a large body of Indians, well armed and equipped, had 
made demonstrations of hostility by fortifying themselves in 
various places, killing stock and plundering houses, and that 
many of the inhabitants had entirely forsaken their homes and 
left a large portion of their property at the mercy of the enemy ; 
and praying that a military force be sent to protect them and 
their settlements. Upon the receipt of this information an order 
was immediately issued to Gen. J. G. Shields, directing him to 
call out the City Guards of Dubuque, and such other force as 
might be necessary, not exceeding two companies, to remove the 
Indians from the state. This order was promptly obeyed, and 
the company were ready for service, when information was re- 
ceived that the Indians had dispersed, that the citizens were 
returning to their homes and quiet had been restored. Authority 
was also given to Maj. Williams of Fort Dodge, to raise a volun- 
teer company, should it be necessary to remove any Indians who 
should be found disturbing any of the inhabitants of the county 
of Franklin or the adjoining counties. 

The appointment of a commissioner of emigration for the state 
of Iowa, to reside in the city of New York, whose duty it should 
be to give immigrants the necessary information as to soil, climate 
and the branches of business to be pursued with advantage in 
the state, is strongly urge 1. He recommended that a memorial 

2-28 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

be passed, urging upon'congress the justice of making a grant of 
lands for railroad purposes to the state, and that such application 
be concentrated upon one road, to run from the Mississippi to the 
Missouri river through the central portion of the state ; and, in 
conclusion, reiterates his views, expressed in previous communi- 
cations, on the subject of banking, of state indebtedness, and of 
exclusive privileges, and is decidedly opposed to any amendment 
of the constitution that will authorize their introduction in the 

On the 9th of December, the two houses met in joint conven- 
tion for the purpose of canvassing the vote cast at the last general 
election. The speaker of the assembly then proceeded to open 
the official returns in the presence of both houses, and, after can- 
vassing, announced that James W. Grimes had received 23,312, 
Curtis Bates, 21,192, and 10 votes scattering; whereupon the 
president of the convention announced that James W. Grimes, 
having received a majority of the votes cast for governor, was de- 
clared elected for the ensuing gubernatorial term. A committee 
was then appointed to wait upon the governor elect to inform him 
that the general assembly was ready to receive him in joint con- 
vention, and to administer the oath of office prescribed by law. 
The governor soon after appeared with the other state officers, 
and delivered his inaugural address. In his address, he recom- 
mends that the public schools of the state should be supported 
by taxation of property, and that the present rate system should 
be abolished, and suggests the propriety of establishing in every 
school district a school library. He recommends a state constitu- 
tional convention, and that the question be submitted to a vote of 
the people at an early day. He refers at some length to the ac- 
tion of congress on the repeal of the Missouri compromise, and 
takes strong gronnds against this action, and to the extension of 
slavery into the territories. 

On the 13th of December, the general assembly again met m 
joint convention for the purpose of electing a United States 
senator and judges of the supreme court, on which no choice was 
made by the convention, and no deSnite result had. On the 
5th of January, 1855, Hon. George G. Wright was elected chief 
justice of the supreme court; William G. Woodward, associate 

Administration of Gov. Grimes. 229 

judge ; and, on the 6th, Norman W. Isbell was elected an associ- 
ate judge of the supreme court, and Hon. James Harlan was 
elected United States senator on the ninth ballot. The general 
assembly adjourned January 26, 1855. 

On |the 3d of June, 1856, Gov. Grimes issued his procla- 
mation convening the general assembly in special session, on the 
the 2d day of July, 1856, on which day the two houses convened 
at the capitol. Hon. M. L. Fisher, president of the senate, and i 
P. B. Bradley, secretary. The governor sent to the general as- 
sembly his message, from which the following information is 
taken : He states that, by an act of congress, approved May 15, 
1856, there was "granted to the state, for the purpose of aiding 
in the construction of railroads from Burlington, on the Missis- 
sippi, to a point on the Missoui'i river near the mouth of the 
Platte river ; from the city of Davenport via Iowa City and Fort 
des Moines to Council Bluffs; from Lyons City, northwesterly to 
a point of intersection with the main line, running as near as 
practicable to the 42d parallel, across the said state, to the Mis- 
souri river, near Sioux City, with a branch from the mouth of 
the Tete des Morts to the nearest point on said road, to be com- 
pleted as soon as the main road is completed to that point, every 
alternate section of laud designated by odd numbers, for six sec- 
tions in width on each side o£ said roads." The governor states 
that he had convened the general assembly at that time so that 
the following points should be determined upon : 1st. Whether 
or not the state shall accept the grant made under the act of 15th 
of May last; and, if so. 2d. Whether the lands shall be trans- 
ferred to any specific companies; and, if so, to what companies 
they shall be transferred ; and 3d. Upon what terms shall the 
transfer be made, and expresses the hope that, whatever action 
may be had, " the protection of the people against the sometimes 
oppressive monopolizing tendencies of powerful corporations," 
will not be lost sight of. 

The governor refers to the destruction, by fire, of the work 
shops attached to the state penitentiary, and recommends the en- 
largement of the building for the increased wants of that institu- 
tion. The extra session adjourned, July 16, 1856. 

The following are a few of the important laws enacted at the two 

230 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

sessions of the general assembly : an act for the observance of the 
Sabbath; for the suppression of intemperance; to relocate the 
seat of government; to amend the law in relation to divorce; 
to provide for the revision or amendment of the constitution of the 
state ; to provide for the prosecution of the geological survey of 
the state ; to establish a state institution for the deaf and dumb ; 
to establish a state insane asylum ; to apportion the state into 
senate and assembly districts; to establish a state land ofiB.ce; 
to accept of the grant and carry into execution the trust conferred 
upon the state by act of congress granting lands in alternate sec- 
tions to aid in the construction of railroads in the state, and a large 
number of acts locating state roads, incorporating and amending 
acts of incorporation of towns, villages and cities, and joint 
resolutions and memorials asking congress for grants of land for 
railroad purposes. The act which was passed at the regular 
session for a revision or amendment to the constitution of the 
state, provided for an election on the first Monday in August, in 
the year 1856, for taking a vote of the people for or against a 
constitution. The election resulted in a majority of 18,628 in 
favor of holding the convention, and in carrying out the law. An 
election for delegates was held in November. 1856, and the con- 
vention met at Iowa City on the 19th of January, 1857, and elected 
Francis Springer, president, and Thos. J. Saunders, secretary. 
The convention struck out the clause in the old constitution 
limiting the state indebtedness, and also the one prohibiting bank- 
ing. A state board of education was created, the ofi&ce of lieu- 
tenant governor and a grant of the privileges of banking to cor- 
porations. The constitution was subsequently submitted to the 
voice of the people at an election held on the third day of August, 
1857, at which election there were iO,311 votes cast for the con- 
stitution, and 38,681 votes against it, and the same was adopted 
and took effect by proclamation of the governor on the third of 
September, 1857. 


Sixth Session of the State Legislature — Statistics — Legislation. 

The sixth general assembly of the state convened at Iowa 
City, on the first day of December, 1856, and was organized in 
the senate by the election of W. W. Hamilton as president, and 
C. C. Nourse, secretary ; and in the house by the election of 
Sumuel McFarland, speaker, and J. W. Logan, chief clerk. The 
general assembly adjourned on the 29th of January, 1857. 

On the 3d of December, the governor sent to each house his 
biennial message, which was read by the secretary and chief clerk 
of the senate and house of representatives. A synopsis of this 
document will be given as affording the best condensed account 
of the affairs of the state at that time. The progress of the state 
is reported during the past two years to have been extraordinary, 
and in many respects unexampled; "in population, in produc- 
tive power, in educational facilities, the advance has been such as 
to astound the doubtful and to surprise the most sanguine." 

An enumeration of the inhabitants of the state, and her pro- 
ductive resources, was taken in June, 1856. The reports show 
that the state has increased in population from June, 1854, to 
June, 1856, from 326,014, to 503,625. The vote polled on the 
4th of November last, reached 92,644, showing that the population 
at the present date is not far from 600,000. The assessed value 
of property is reported at $164,194,413: number of acres of im- 
proved land, 2,343,958, unimproved, 6,443,871. 

" The amount in the treasury on the 31st of October, 1854, was 
$10,106.86: paid into the treasury from the first date to October 
31, 1856, $250,399.45; amount paid out upon auditor's warrants 
during the same period, $249,149.85, leaving a balance in the 


232 TuTTLffs History of Iowa. 

treasury, October 31, 1856, of IlljlSe-ie. The total available 
revenue is $246,380.21, of which there will be due taxes from the 
several counties on January 1, 1857, $205,243.02 ; from counties 
in arrears, $30,880.73, and $11,256.46, now in the treasury. There 
is also in the treasury of the United States as the proceeds of the 
sales of the public lands within the limits of the state, from Janu- 
ary 1, to December 31, 1855, $185,785.32. The governor recom- 
mends the passage of a registry law, and an investigation into the 
affairs of the Des Moines Improvement Company." 

On the 17th of January, 1857, the two houses in joint conven- 
tion elected Hon. James Harlan United States senator for the un- 
expired term, ending from and after the 4th day of March, 1855. 

The following are some of the important acts passed at this 
session : to provide for the payment of the state bonds due on the 
first day of January, 1857 ($57,500) ; transferring the school fund 
of the state from the hands of the superintendent of public instruc- 
tion to the state treasurer ; providing for improvements in the 
Iowa penitentiary, and $20,000 appropriated ; appropriating 
$10,000 for the further prosecution of the state geological survey ; 
to amend the law in relation to the assessment of property ; an act 
in relation to insurance companies doing business in the state ; 
appropriating $40,000 for the further completion of the state in- 
sane asylum at Mount Pleasant; for the suppression of intemper- 
ance; to authorize the Burlington and Missouri Kiver Eailroad to 
construct a bridge across the Mississippi river at Burlington ; to 
provide for the distribution of the five per cent, fund ; to provide 
for an annual appropriation for the state historical society and 
$250 appropriated ; to license and regulate the sale of malt, spirit- 
uous and vinous liquors in the state ; providing for the education 
of the blind and for the institution for the deaf and dumb, and a 
large number of bills incorporating counties, towns ^nd cities: for 
the change of name of towns and counties, and various local meas- 

By an act of the legislature approved January 25, 1855, com- 
missioners were appointed to relocate the state capitol, " within 
two miles of the junction of the Des Moines and Raccoon rivers in 
Polk county," and the provisions of the subsequent law fixing the 
seat of government at Des Moines were incorporated into the new 

234 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

constitution of 1857. In the fall of this year/the furniture and 
effects of the capitol at Iowa City were removed to Des Moines, 
the point selected by the commissioners. The removal of the seat 
of government, as was reasonably expected, produced some feeling 
at Iowa City. No doubt existed in the mind of any one, that at 
some future time the public interest would require a relocation of 
the seat of government ; but that this step was called for by any 
considerable portion of the inhabitants of the state at that time 
was denied ; and with the exception of those in the immediate vi- 
cinity of the new capitol and a few speculators, the movement was 
looked upon by many as premature and entirely uncalled for ; 
and although the proceeding was strongly opposed by the citizens 
of Johnson county and adjoining counties, yet subsequent events 
have demonstrated that by exchanging the seat of government for 
the "state university," that section of the country has been vastly 
and permanently benefited, proving that those things the most 
far seeing looked upon as evils, often result in our greatest good. 



Seventh Session of the State Legislature — Gov. Grimes' Last Message — State 
Institutions — Indian Troubles ^ Slavery. 

The seventh regular session of the general assembly of the 
state convened at Des Moines on the 11th day of January, 1858, 
and was organized in the senate by the election of Daniel Ander- 
son of Monroe county as president pro tern., and Geo. E. Spencer 
as permanent secretary ; and in the house by the election of 
Stephen B. Shelledy as speaker, and Benj. R Jones as chief 
clerk ; and adjourned March 23, 1858. The message of Gov. 
Grimes to the legislature was read in each house by the chief 
clerk and secretary on the 12th. He congratulates the legisla- 
ture on the continued prosperity of the state, and says they are 
convened under the provisions of a new organic law, and expected 
to provide proper methods for carrying the same into effect. He 
refers to the subject of special legislation, and recommends that 
the laws on this subject shall be full and specific. He recom- 
mends a registry law ; a revision of the revenue law ; the taking 
of the census of 1859 by persons appointed by the census board 
instead of by county assessors. He calls attention to the revision 
of the school laws as prepared and submitted by Messrs. Horace 
Mann ami Amos Dean, and recommends that the same be enacted 
into a law. He states that the capitol building at Iowa City has 
been surrendered to the trustees of the state university; that the 
building is out of repair, and requires considerable change in its 
internal arrangements, to adapt it to the purposes for which it is 
to be used, and recommends the general assembly to appropriate 
a sum sufficient to put it in complete order for the uses for which 
it is now designed. 


236 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

The deaf and dumb and blind asylums are in a prosperous 
condition, and the former only lacks the proper accommodations 
to answer all the reasonable desires of the friends of the institu- 
tion, and of the children in charge, and recommends that this in- 
stitution be permanently established at some point in the state, 
and that steps be taken to erect a proper asylum building. The 
pupils at the blind asylum are so few that, in his opinion, it does 
not seem necessary to maintain an institution for their instruc- 
tion, and they can be educated by the state in similar institutions 
elsewhere, at less expense than is now annually appropriated for 
this purpose. The hospital for the insane, at Mount Pleasant, 
he says, has advanced rapidly towards completion, and can be 
made ready for occupancy during the present year. The amount 
already expended, including labor, materials of various descrip- 
tions on hand, glass, sash and window frames for the entire build- 
ing, stock, etc., is $138,548.01. The estimates of amount that 
may be necessary to complete the building, out-buildings, etc., 
are referred to in the reports of the commissioners herewith sent 
to the legislature. 

He also states that he has caused the report of the geological 
survey of the state to be printed under the supervision of Prof. 
Jas. Hall, LL. D., of Albany, N. Y. The governor recommends 
a military organization of the state, as there is no law under 
which companies can be organized, or that would strictly author- 
ize the executive authority to call them into the field, in cases 
requiring their services. He gives the following summary of the 
financial condition of the state : 

Amount in the treasury Oct. 31, 1856 $11,254 91 

Paid into the treasury during the fiscal year 231, 284 42 

Making a total of $242,489 33 

Disbursements from the treasury 228,806 23 

Leaving a balance in the treasury of $13,683 10 

There is in arrears from county treasurers 62, 401 94 

Due from counties upon the assessment of 1857 418, 709 59 

The auditor of the state estimates the ta.xes for the vear 1858 
at $500,000, and for 1859 at $575,000. 

Administration of Gov. Lowe. 237 

The total resources of the state to January, 1860, when the next 

general assembly convenes $1, 569 ,794 63 

The auditor estimates the expenses of the state 
during the same period |523,412 90 

Outstanding auditor's warrants 155 ,003 56 

678,416 46 

Leaving an excess of retwurces $891,378 17 

The expenses of the state during the past two years have been 
greatly increased by the extra session of the general assembly in 
July, 1855, rendered necessary by the grant of land to the state 
for railroad purposes, by the recent constitutional convention, 
and by the erection of a hospital for the insane. The amount 
expended for these three last purposes exceeds the sum of two 
hundred thousand dollars. 

The governor recommends the borrowing, upon the bonds of 
the state, the amount allowed by the constitution. By so doing, 
the present liabilities of the state can be immediately discharged, 
the charitable institutions can be carried forward to completion, 
and the rate of taxation for the years 1858 and 1859 can be re- 
duced at least one-third. Referring to the Des Moines river im- 
provement, he says : '' It is reported that the company have en- 
gaged in practices calculated to deceive and defraud innocent 
and unsuspecting persons, both at home and abroad," and sug- 
gests that " the attorney general be directed to institute proceed- 
ings to vacate the charter of said company, and thus prevent it 
from perpetrating any further wrongs under the authority of the 
state." He also refers to the act of congress admitting Iowa into 
the union, where it is declared '■ that five per cent, of the net 
proceeds of sales of all public lands lying within the state, which 
have been or shall be sold by congress shall (after deducting neces- 
sary expenses) be appropriated for making public roads and canals 
within the state, as the legislature may direct;" and also "to 
appropriate the five per cent, of the net proceeds of lands which 
have been or shall he sold by congress from and after the admis- 
sion of said state, to the support of common schools." He com- 
plains that immense quantities of land have been entered by mil- 
itary land warrants, and the government receives a consideration 

238 Tuttle's Bistort of Iowa. 

for the lana thus entered, and that it is unjust to the state for the 
government to destroy the fund which it holds in trust for the 
state. Between private persons the same state of facts would 
justify a recovery in a court of law. and it seems to him that the 
same principle should prevail between the two governments. 
The military land warrants located in Iowa up to the 30th of 
June, 1856, covered 10,929,692.30 acres. The percentage due 
to the state thereon is $682,980.20, and probably the aggregate 
percentage to June 30, 1857, approaches very near $1,000,000. 
He recommends that congress be memorialized on this subject, 
and that suit be authorized to be instituted against the United 
States for the recovery of the amount due, in the court of claims. 

He also states that during the past three years his attention 
had been frequently called to the probability of a collision be- 
tween the Indians and the settlers in the west and northwestern 
counties of the state, and that he had addressed the president of 
the United States, the secretary of war, and the commissioner of 
Indian affairs on the subject. Fearing that some exigency might 
arise that would require prompt and energetic action, he had in 
January, 1855, requested Maj . Wm. Williams, of Fort Dodge, 
to assume a general charge of this subject, and authorized him as 
far as he (the governor) had power to do so, to act in his behalf 
in any contingency that might arise in connection with the Indians. 

In February last, 1857, Ink-pa-du-tah's band of Sioux Indians 
made a hostile incursion into the state, and perpetrated most hor- 
rible atrocities in Dickinson county. When intelligence of this 
event reached Fort Dodge, Maj. Williams at once enrolled three 
companies of men under Capts. Richards and Duncomb and pro- 
ceeded to the scene of difficulty. These heroic men left their 
homes in the most inclement season of the year, and endured 
almost unheard of sufferings and privations ; crossing swollen 
streams flooded with ice, and traversing uninhabited prairies in 
the most tempestuous weather, that they might save their fellow 
creatures from a savage butchery, or rescue them from a captivity 
worse than death. Two of their number, Capt. J. C. Johnson, of 
Hamilton county, and William Burkholder, of Webster county, 
perished on the march, others returned frozen and maimed. The 
expedition did not overtake the Indians ; but they reached the 

2'40 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

scene of their barbarities, gave to the dead a Christian burial, and 
brought back with them two children, the sole survivors of the 
slaughtered settlement. The men who thus gallantly and hu- 
manely perilled their lives, have received no compensation for the 
time employed in the expedition, or for their outfit. The federal 
government is in equity bound for their compensation, and the 
governor recommended that a memorial be addressed to the con 
gress of the United States, and that the state assume the payment 
and reserve the same from any appropriation that may be made. 

The expenses of the state prison he reports for the past year as 

The governor gives his views at length on the subject of slavery, 
and says : " I trust that as the representatives of the freedom lov- 
ing citizens of Iowa, you will explicitly declare that you will 
never consent that this state shall become an integral part of a 
great slave republic by assenting to the abhorrent doctrines con- 
tained in the Dred Scott decision, let the consequences of dissent 
be what they may;" and closes by saying, "the liberties of the 
people can only be preserved by maintaining the integrity of the 
state governments against the corrupting influence of federal 
patronage and power." 

On the 14th of January, 1858, the two houses af the legislature 
met in joint convention for the purpose of hearing the result of 
the votes for the offices of governor and lieutenant governor, the 
president of the senate acting as president of the joint convention. 
The tellers announced, after duly canvassing the said votes, it 
appeared that there had been cast at the election in October, 1857, 
for the office of governor, 75,592 votes, of which number Ralph 
P. Lowe had received 38,498 ; Benj. M. Samuels 86,088, and 
T. F. Henry, 1,006, whereupon Ralph P. Lowe having received 
a majority of all the votes cast for said office, was declared duly 
elected governor of Iowa for the ensuing gubernatorial term. The 
tellers further announced that there had been cast at said election 
for the office of lieutenant governor, 74,953 votes, of which num- 
ber Oran Faville, had received 37,633 ; George Gillaspy 35,310, 
and Easton Morris 1,010 votes; whereupon it appearing that Mr. 
Faville had received a majority of all the votes cast at the elec- 
tion of October, 1857, for the office of lieutenant governor, was 

Administration of Gov. Lowe. 241 

declared elected to that office for the term of two years, or until 
his successor is elected and qualified. 

At a later hour of the day the joint convention reassembled, 
when the governor and lieutenant governor appeared before them. 
The oath of office was then administered by Chief Justice Wright, 
of the supreme court, after which the governor elect delivered his 
inaugural address, after which the joint convention adjourned sine 

ExGov. Jas. W. Grimes, was elected United States senator for 
six years, from March 4, 1859. 

The legislature adjourned on the 23d of March. The follow- 
ing are some of the most important bills passed at this session : 
To provide for issuing state bonds, and procuring a loan for the 
state ($200,000); to authorize the governor to arm and equip a 
company for the defense of the frontier ; providing for the public 
instruction of the state an elaborate school code of ninety-six sec- 
tions ; to reapportion the state into senate and assembly districts; 
to incorporate the State Bank of Iowa ; to provide for the estab- 
lishment of an agricultural college ; to authorize the business of 
banking ; for the government of the Iowa insane hospital at Mt. 
Pleasant ; for the management of the school fund, and the school 
lands of the state ; for a revision of the laws of the state, and for 
a code of civil and criminal procedure ; disposing of the land 
grant made by congress to the Des Moines Valley Eailroad ; 
to provide for the erection of an institution for the education of 
the blind at the town of Vinton, Benton county ; to provide for 
taking the state census ; for the government of the Iowa insane 


In the preceding chapters reference has been made to the Des 
Moines river, its improvement and the grant of lands bestowed by 
congress upon the state, to aid in making the river a navigable 
stream. The record of this river improvement is prominent in 
Iowa history. For many years it entered largely into politics, 
and called forth much legislation. The late Hon. Charles Negus. 
in 1873, prepared a valuable paper on this subject, which was 
published in the "Annals of Iowa," a periodical issued by the 
state historical society. From this paper we have compiled the 
following account of the subject: 

On the first settlement of Iowa, the building of railroads had 
just commenced, and but few in the west knew anything about 
this mode of conveyance for travel and commerce. At that time 
steamboats for these purposes were the great absorbing idea. The 
Des Moines river, in high stages of water, was thought to be sus- 
ceptible of steamboat navigation far into the interior of the state, 
and those who first settled in the vicinity of this river eagerly 
looked forward to the day when steamboats would move up and 
down these waters in large numbers, and for long distances from 
its banks, travel and commerce would seek a conveyance through 
this channel. These expectations were apparently well founded. 
In 1836 the Sacs and Foxes, having disposed of their reservation 
on the Iowa river, where they had their villages, moved west, and 
settled in the valley of the river Des Moines, in what is now 
called Wapello county, and as a natural consequence, trading 
posts were established in this vicinity, which had to be supplied 
with goods, and in the fall of 1837, the few settlers along the 
banks of this river were, for the first time, gladdened with the 
sound of tlie whistle of a steamboat making its way up the river 

Des Moikes River Improvement. 343 

with supplies for these trading posts. This boat was the " Sci- 
ence," commanded by Capt. Clark, which, by forcing her way 
against the swift current, passed safely over the concealed sand 
bars and hidden rocks, demonstrated that the waters of this river 
at high stages were navigable, much to the joy and satisfaction of 
those who lived in the vicinity, and afforded a theme of pleasant 
conversation for days and months. 

By the treaty of 1842 by which the Sacs and Foxes sold all 
their lands in Iowa, they were permitted to retain possession of 
that portion which lay west of Eed Rock for three years, and the 
Indians moved up the river, and located themselves near the Rac- 
coon Fork, and the government thought proper to locate a body 
of troops at this point ; and for the conveyance of soldiers and 
their equipages to that place, the little steamer lone was employed 
and laden with stores, and a detachment of troops landed upon 
the site where is now the city of Des Moines, on the 9th of May, 
1843. This was the first steamboat that ever ventured to disturb 
the waters of this river so far from its mouth. The lone having 
made a successful trip, added greatly to the expectation of the 
estimated importance and value of this thoroughfare — which was 
brought to the attention of congress — and on the 8th of August, 
1846, congress enacted a law giving to Iowa, for the purpose of 
aiding to improve the navigation of the Des Moines from its mouth 
to the Raccoon Fork, an equal moiety in alternate sections of the 
public lands remaining unsold, on a strip five miles wide on each 
side of the river, to be selected within the territory of Iowa by an 
agent or agents, to be appointed by the governor of the territory, 
subject to the approval of the secretary of the United States treas- 
ury. When this grant was first made, it was not supposed by 
any one that it extended above Raccoon Fork, and Gov. Clarke, 
in communicating the intelligence to the legislature, estimated the 
grant to amount to about three hundred thousand acres. This 
part of the governor's message was referred to a select committee 
for them to take into consideration whether it was advisable for 
the state to accept the grant, and if so, to devise the method of 
disposing of the lands, and the mode of improving the river. 

The committee, after having the matter under consideration 
several weeks, through their chairman. Dr. Jas. Davis, of Wapello 

244 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

county, made a lengthy report, in which they took the ground 
that the grant was not limited to lands below the Raccoon fork, 
but extended to every alternate section for five miles on each side 
of the river to the northern boundary of the state, if not to the 
source of the river; and they estimated the grant to contain tour 
hundred thousand acres below the Raccoon fork, and five hun- 
dred and sixty-thousand above, making nine hundred and sixty 
thousand acres of land. The report of the committee at first was 
looked upon as visionary, and but very little calculation was 
made on getting any land above the fork of the river ; but a 
matter of this much importance was not passed over without ex- 
amination and full discussion. 

From this time on, for several years, the improvement of the 
river Des Moines entered largely into the politics of the state. 
Politicians became interested in it ; the construction put upon the 
grant by the committee was the popular side and found many ad- 
vocates, and scarcely any one opposed it. The committee re- 
ported in favor of receiving the grant, with provisos, and a bill 
for creating a board of public works. On this report, the legis- 
lature passed an act accepting the grant, with the proviso, that it 
was not to form a part of the five hundred thousand acres which 
the state was entitled to by an act of congress of 1841, giving to 
each new state that amount of land for internal improvements. 
This was conceded by the general government, and it also per- 
mitted the state to divert the five hundred thousand acres from 
works of internal improvement to the purposes of education. 
The legislature, on the 5th of February, 1847, also passed an act 
creating a board of public works, and providing for the improve- 
ment of the river. The board consisted of a president, secretary 
and treasurer, who were to be elected by the qualified electors of 
the state, on the first Monday of the following August. The 
president was to be the active agent of the work, and was re- 
quired to make monthly reports of his doings and of the progress 
of the work to the board. The secretary was to record the pro- 
ceedings of the board and sell the lands. The treasurer was to 
receive and disburse the moneys. The officers were required to 
commence the work on the Mississippi, near Keokuk, at the 
mouth of the Dead Slough, or of the Nassaw Slough, and then 

246 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

up the slough to the river ; and subsequently the work was com- 
n)enced by undertaking to dig a canal from the mouth of Nas- 
saw Slough to St. Francisville, the first place on the river, where 
it was thought practicable to build a dam. 

About one hundred and fifty thousand dollars were expended 
in the effort, but the attempt proved to be an impracticable un- 
dertaking, and, after expending this amount of money, the work 
of digging a canal was abandoned. At the August election, 
Hugh W. Sample, of Jefferson county, was elected president; 
Charles Corckery, of Dubuque county, secretary, and Paul Bra- 
ton, of Van Buren county, treasurer. The officers elected were 
qualified, and at first opened their offices at Fairfield. Samuel 
Curtiss, from Ohio, was selected by the board as chief engineer; 
but there was very little done this season towards improving the 
river, further than to make surveys. The necessary surveys hav- 
ing been completed, early in the spring of 1848 the work was 
commenced, the canal and three dams were put under contract, 
and about five hundred hands were put upon the work. On the 
21st of August, the building of ten more dams was contracted 
for, and there seemed to be a fair prospect for the speedy comple- 
tion of the entire improvement. 

There was, at this time, but very little known of the resources 
of the upper valley of the river Des Moines. This year, by au- 
thority of the government, provisions were made for a geological 
survey in Iowa, and a party was sent up the river, who explored 
it to its source. The report made by this exploring party was 
very flattering. They reported that "coal was found for two hun- 
dred miles on the river, and, from indications, heavy deposits of 
iron ore are supposed to exist." That "gypsum in abundance, 
forming cliffs for miles, was encountered," and "limestone, that 
makes a superior hydraulic lime, exists in abundance ; " " lime- 
stone suitable for lime, clay suitable for brick, rock suitable for 
polishing, for grindstones, whetstones, and for building purposes 
(some of superior quality) are found in abundance along the Des 
Moines," and Col. Curtiss, in speculating upon the future, in his 
report to the legislature, led the people to anticipate great results 
from this improvement. He said " no country can afford like 
ace mmodations to manufacturers; no country cau produce 

Des Moines Biter Improvement. 2¥i 

more agricultural wealth than that within sixty miles on either 
side of the river. That, taking all things into consideration, the 
matter is mathematically certain (except in times of high water 
in the Missouri) the trade of Council Bluffs will incline to follow 
the improvement. But it is not this point alone that is reached; 
we enter the great valley of Nebraska and the upper branches of 
the Missouri, and offer to the commerce of these valleys the 
cheapest and most expeditious route for their products. A coun- 
try, of a thousand miles extent, capable of furnishing vast and 
unknown agricultural and mineral products, may, by wise and 
discreet energy in the prosecution of this work, become tributary 
to the improvement now in progress on the Des Moines." 

These glowing reports of the country, and of the advantages to 
be derived from the improvement of the river, excited the public 
mind to the highest expectations, and the people became very 
anxious to secure as much of the public lands as possible, that 
this great undertaking might be speedily completed. And, to 
ascertain the construction put upon the grant by the general gov- 
ernment, application was made to the land department for a de- 
cision. Eichard M. Young, the commissioner of the general land 
office, on the 23d day of February, 1848, in a letter addressed to 
the board of public works, gave it as his opinion, that the state 
was "entitled to the alternate sections within Sve miles of the 
Des Moines river, through the whole extent of Iowa." This de- 
cision gave assurances that the amount of land claimed would be 
secured. The board of improvement made great preparations for 
rapidly pushing on the work, and the public mind was exhilarated 
with the greatest hope of speedily realizing the vast advantages 
represented to be derived from the undertaking. 

But as it is the lot of man to meet with disappointment, such 
seems to have been the result in this case ; for it was found that 
lands could not be sold fast enough to meet the expenses of so 
extensive a work as had been undertaken. To remedy this diffi- 
culty, the board of public works, recommended to the legislature 
" that bonds, bearing the sanction of the supreme power of the state 
should be issued by the board and pledging the proceeds of the 
sales of lands, as well as the tolls of the improvement for their re- 
demption." But this policy did not meet with the sanction of 

248 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

some of the leading democrats of the state, who regarded such a 
measure as not being in accordance with democratic principles, 
among whom was Verplank Van Antwerp. This gentlemen hav- 
ing held the office of receiver in the first land office established in 
southern Iowa, and then holding the same office at Fairfield, and 
also for a while editor of a paper, was extensively known, and at 
that time exerted much influence among the people, and he took 
a very active part against the proposition recommended by the 
board. He claimed that the measure was not only anti-demo- 
cratic, but impolitic, and went to Iowa city as a lobby member, 
and made himself very busy with the members to defeat it ; and 
the opposition with which it met from Van Antwerp and other 
private individuals had its effect with the members of the legisla- 
ture, and the measure was defeated, much to the discomfiture of 

This interference of Van Antwerp, with the recommendations of 
the board, created a coolness between these two persons, which 
caused some singular results in the future political matters of tlie 

During the summer of 1848, a portion of the lands above the 
Eaccoon Fork was brought into the market and offered for sale at 
the land office at Iowa Citj', and some of the lands, which it was 
supposed were embraced within the river grant, were sold by the 
general government. The failure of the board to obtain the con- 
sent of the legislature to authorize them to issue bonds, and the 
selling of these lands by the general government, greatly frustra- 
ted the plans of the board, and put a damper on the public ex- 
pectation. For the purpose of securing the full amount of land 
claimed, the legislature passed a memorial, asking congress to en- 
^ct an explanatory law, confirming to the state the quantity of 
land claimed ; but congress did not feel disposed to do this, and 
the extent of the grant was a disputed question for several years. 

At the August election in 1849, the officers of the board of 
public works and the old officers were desirous of holding on to 
their offices, and Sample made great efforts to have the old of- 
ficers renominated by the state convention for candidates before 
the people. Those who were in favor of issuing bonds for the 
speedy completion of the work, were in favor of reelecting the old 

Des Moines River Improtement. 249 

board, and those who were opposed to the measure were opposed 
to them. Among those who took an an active part against the old 
board was Van Antwerp, and his opposition was particularly 
made against Sample, which produced much ill-feeling between 
them. The former, to accomplish his ends, before the convening 
of the convention, prepared a stricture on Sample's political acts, 
which showed him up in no enviable light. Van Antwerp went 
to Iowa City, where the convention was to be held, a short time 
before it convened, and had his strictures printed in handbill form, 
and on the morning of the convention, circulated copies all over 
the city, so that a copy of it found its way into the hands of every 
delegate. This had the eSect to defeat Sample and the other of- 
ficers of the old board, and William Patterson, of Lee county, was 
nominated for president, Jesse Williams, of Johnson county, for 
secretary, and George Gillasby, of Wapello, for treasurer. 

These individuals were all elected, entered upon the duties of 
their trust, and with energy undertook to complete all the work 
which had been put under contract ; but they soon found they 
could not sell lands fast enough to meet their expenditures, and 
had to suspend a portion of the work; but they did not do this 
till they had contracted a large amount of debts, which they had 
not means to pay. The new board on making settlements with 
the contractors, not having the money to pay them, issued bonds 
or certificates of indebtedness, pledging the lands for their pay- 
ment, and binding the board to redeem them as soon as they had 
the means to do it. So the new board, without the sanction of 
law, did what the old board had tried to get the legislature to 
authorize them to do by law, and for which policy they were 
turned out of office and others put in their place. Those con- 
tractors who were stopped from going on with their work claimed 
damages, legal proceedings were had, and some of them recovered 
large amounts. 

The course pursued by the new board met with much censure 
from the public, and the newspapers, particularly the whig press, 
were very severe in their strictures. The course which had been 
pursued by the board of public works made the improvement of the 
river Des Moines a prominent matter before the legislature which 
convened in December 1850. The issuing of bonds did not meet 

250 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

with the approval of that body, and a law was passed abolish- 
ing the offices of president, secretary and treasurer, and the offices 
of "commissioner and register of the Des Moines river improve- 
ment," were created, which, instead of being elected by the peo- 
ple, were to be appointed by the governor, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the senate. 

As soon as the law abolishing the board of public works went 
into effect, the governor appointed Verplauk Van Antwerp com- 
missioner and George Gillaspy register of the improvement, who, 
on the 9th of June 1851, entered into a contract with Bangs 
Brothers & Co., of New York, in which they stipulated to com- 
plete the whole work, from the mouth of the river to Raccoon 
Fork in four years, from the time, when for the improvement of 
the river, a confirmation should be secured of the extension of the 
grant of land above that point. 

When the contract was closed, Bangs Bros. & Co., and officers 
of the improvement went to work and succeeded in getting the 
land department of the general government to reconsider the de- 
cision in which it had been held that the grant of land only 
extended to the Eaccoon Fork, and obtained a decision that it 
extended to the northern boundary of the state, which gave hopes 
that the river would soon be made navigable. On the first recep- 
tion of this news, there was much rejoicing, but when the details 
of the contract with Bangs Bros. & Co., were made public, it 
was found that the contract provided that the lands below the 
Fork were not to be sold for less than two dollars per acre, and 
those above for not less than five. This caused much dissatisfac- 
tion, for a great portion of these lands were occupied by claimants 
who expected to buy their claims at one dollar and twenty-five 
cents per acre, as others had done, who had settled upon govern- 
ment land. This provision stirred up much ill feeling among the 
settlers ; public meetings were held, and this part of the contract 
was condemned in the strongest terms ; and such were the feelings 
that there were apprehensions of serious difficulties if this part of 
the contract should be enforced. But when these excitements 
were at their highest, news came that Bangs Bros. & Co. had 
failed, and probably the contract would be annulled, and this 
allayed the public feeling. Bangs & Co. did not comply with 

252 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

their contract in furnishing means, and the work on the river did 
not go on, and the public expectation of a speedy completion of 
the proposed improvement vanished. The officers of the im- 
provement were appointed for only two years, and, at the expira- 
tion of their term of office, Van Antwerp was reappointed com- 
missioner, and Paul C. Jeffries was appointed register ; but these 
last appointed officers held their trust but a short time, for during 
the past two j-ears the work on the river had progressed slowly ; 
the contract with Bangs Bros. & Co. had been declared for- 
feited, and it was understood that other sources were to be looked 
to for going on with the work. 

The officers appointed by the governor not being successful in 
their undertaking, the legislature, on the first of January, 1853, 
repealed the law authorizing the governor to appoint, and made 
these officers again to be elected by the people, and on the first 
Monday of the following April, Josiah Bonney, of Van Buren 
county, was elected commissioner, and George Gillaspy, register; 
and for the purpose of aiding the commissioner in conducting and 
concluding any contract on the subject of improving the river, 
the legislature appointed Geo. G. Wright, of Van Buren county, 
and Uriah Briggs, of Wapello, his assistants, " with equal power 
of the commissioner in making and determining such contract." 

From past experience, it was not deemed advisable to parcel 
out the work to many individuals, and consequently these officers 
were required by the legislature not to make any contract, unless 
such contract stipulated for at least " thirteen hundred thou;?and 
dollars to be faithfully expended in the payment of the debts and 
liabilities of the improvement, and its completion to the greatest 
extent possible." 

To this end, if it was thought necessary, they were authorized 
" to sell and dispose of all and any lands " which had been, or there- 
after might be granted by congress for the improvement of the 
river, and if it was necessary to effect a contract, they were 
authorized to convey the right to tolls and water rents arising 
from the improvement, for the length of time, and upon such 
terms as they might deem expedient ; but in disposing of the 
lands they were not to contract them for less than one dollar and 
twenty-five cents per acre ; and if no contract of this character 

Des Moines River Improvement. 253 

should be made before the first of September, 1853, then the pay 
of all the officers connected with the work, except the register and 
and one engineer, was to cease, and all operations connected with 
the work, except such parts as were under contract, were to be 
suspended until further action by the legislature. The register 
was required to put all unfinished work then under contract in 
such a condition as to prevent it from injury, and to see that all 
property of the state, connected with the work, was carefully pre- 
served. If the " register at any time subsequent, should receive 
propositions which he deemed sufficient for consideration, he was 
to submit the same to the commissioner, and should a contract 
be made on the terms required by the legislature, then the pay 
of the officers should commence, and the work go on as though it 
had not been suspended." The new commissioner, being coiisci- 
entious about the expending of money, immediately after taking 
charge of the work, dismissed all the engineers except Guy Wells, 
the chief engineer, " and employed no officer or other person ex- 
cept where the necessity of the work imperatively demanded it." 
There were in several places in the river, snags and boulders which 
much obstructed the navigation, and had become a source of 
much inconvenience and complaint, but during the official term 
of Bonney, the river was " cleared of snags, boulders and other 
obstructions to such an extent as to make the navigation of the river 
at proper stages of the water, safe." 

The commissioner and his associates, after assuming the duties 
of their trust " entered into correspondence with such persons and 
companies as were thought likely to embark in such an enter- 
prise," and by this means they succeeded in eliciting the attention 
of capitalists to such an extent that a number of persons came to 
the state for the purpose of investigation. These persons, by an 
examination of the valley of the Des Moines personally, and mak- 
ing themselves familiar with the resources of the country, on their 
return east, imparted to others the undeveloped wealth and ad- 
vantages of the valley, which was the means of bringing many 
good and enterprising citizens to the state. Among others who 
visited Iowa for the purpose of investigation, was Henry O'Eeilly, 
a man who had acquired some considerable notoriety as a con- 
tractor, in putting up telegraph wires, and he proposed to under- 


take the work. Such was the well known reputation of Mr. O'- 
Reilly as a contractor, that the commissioner and his associates 
commenced the negotiation of a contract : and on the 17th of De- 
cember, that gentleman entered into a contract with the commis- 
sioners, in which, for the consideration of the unsold land belong- 
ing to the improvement, and tolls and water-rent, and other profits 
arising from the work, for the term of forty years, agreed to com- 
plete the entire work, within a period of four years from the first 
day of July, 1854, according to the original survey, and the speci- 
fications made by the engineers. Immediately upon entering into 
this contract, O'Reilly returned east and organized a company 
under the laws of Iowa, to be called the " Des Moines Navigation 
and Rail Road Company," to which company he assigned his 
contract, himself being one of the officers of the company. Oa 
the 9th of June, 1854, by the consent and request of O'Reilly, 
and with the approbation of the ofiicers of river improvement, the 
contract with O'Reilly was canceled, and another contract was made 
with the newly organized company. In this contract the company 
agreed to pay all outstanding debts against the improvement 
within ninety days from the date of said contract; to settle and 
pay all damages against the state of Iowa, on account of the 
prosecution of said work to mill owners, or others who have, or 
might thereafter, sustain damages on account of the same; to pay 
the salaries and expenses of the officers and engineers in charge 
of the work ; to complete the improvement from the mouth of 
the Des Moines river to Fort Des Moines, in accordance with the 
original plans and specifications of the chief engineer, by the first 
day of July, 1858 ; and to construct the whole work in such man- 
ner as to assure the navigation of the same for the longest period 
each year practicable, and to complete at least one fourth of the 
work each and every year, commencing on the 1st day of July, 

In consideration of this undertaking, the commissioners agreed 
to convey to the company all the unsold lands belonging to the 
improvement, the use of the work, the tolls and the water-rents, 
for a term of forty-one years ; and afterwards in consideration of 
the company enlarging the works and making some other im- 
provements in the navigation of the river, and also on account of 

Des Moines Eiver Improvement. 255 

there not being as large a quantity of land undisposed of below 
Fort Dodge, as was understood to be by the commissioners and 
the company at the time of making the contract, a majority of 
the commissioners — Bonney and Briggs — entered into an article 
of agreement with the company, in which they promised to ex- 
tend the time of the company's use and control of the work to 
seventy-five years. Under this contract the public expected that 
the work would be immediately commenced by the new con- 
tractors and speedily completed. The great expectations which 
had been raised by the contractors under the name of the Des 
Moines navigation and railroad company, soon after they under- 
took the work, began to diminish, for there soon arose misunder- 
standings and disagreements among themselves. This company 
had been organized under the general incorporation laws of the 
state of Iowa, and consequently was subject to the laws of Iowa. 
At the called session of the general assembly, in 1856, Donald 
Mann, a stockholder of the company memorialized that body to 
correct the " manifold abuses," of which he charged the directors 
of the company to have been guilty. In this memorial he 
charged that the mangers of the company had in various ways 
" corruptly and for corrupt purposes," violated the laws of the 
state, " greatly to the injury of the people thereof, and to the 
great loss and damage of the stockholders," and showed in detail 
wherein they had acted corruptly and violated the laws under 
which the company was incorporated ; and, among other thing.s, 
he stated, that for " the purpose of deceiving the people and in- 
dividuals in relation to their means," they had represented to the 
public and individuals that there had been paid into the treasury 
" enormous sums of money on account of stock sold, for much 
larger amounts than had been received." And the better to ac- 
complish and maintain such deceptions, the managers (or a major- 
ity of them) caused to be issued certificates of stock to the 
amount, nominally, of six hundred and thirty thousand dollars, 
or six thousand three hundred shares of one hundred dollars, for 
cash, of which shares they represented to the public and individ- 
uals, that the holder had paid the sum of one hundred dollars, 
amounting to six hundred and thirty thousand dollars, when, as 
a matter of fact, there was only five per cent, paid on the share, 

256 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

by which means the public and many individuals were deceived." 
Henry O'Eeilly, the individual with whom the contract was 
first made, a stockholder and one of the directors, also memorial- 
ized the legislature for an investigation of the affairs of the com- 
pany, in which he reasserted the charges made by Mann, and 
stated, " that he held himself ready, if the legislature would order 
an investigation of the doings of the company, to prove from the 
records of the company and other evidence, that there was 
scarcely an important provision in the code of Iowa (applicable 
to corporations) ; scarcely an important point in the Des -Moines 
improvement laws ; scarcely an important provision in the con- 
tract which the company agreed to fulfill ; scarcely an essential 
provision in its by-laws, or even in the charter which gave it 
legal existence — which had not been violated, with a reckless- 
ness that will form a memorable feature in the history of Iowa." 

A joint committee was appointed from both houses of the legis- 
lature at the called session, to investigate the alleged abuses, but 
owing to the short time in which they had to act, it was impossi- 
ble for them to make the necessary investigation. An attempt 
was made to create a committee for this purpose, to act after the 
legislature adjourned, but it failed, so that the alleged abuses 
passed by without an examination at that time. 

These memorials to the legislature, and the di.scussion of these 
matters by the newspapers, greatly prejudiced the public mind 
against the company ; and while these discussions were going on, 
W. C. Johnson, the president of the company, requested the gov- 
ernor to examine into the affairs of the company, in person or by 
a committee, and proposed to pay the expenses of such an exam- 
ination. The governor did not feel disposed to comply with this 
request, but referred the matter to the legislature which convened 
in the following December, and recommended " that a committee 
should be appointed, with power to administer oaths and to send 
for persons and papers, with instruction to inquire into the trans- 
actions of the former commissioners and registers of the improve- 

This part of the governor's message was referred to a commit- 
tee of twelve, consisting of members of both branches of the 
legislature, who immediately proceeded to the discharge of their 

268 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

duties. After a careful and tborougb examination, this commit- 
tee reported that thej did not consider the contract made by the 
commissioners with the company a valid contract on behalf of 
the state, for the law which authorized the commissioner and 
register to make contracts, required that any contract made by 
them, to be valid, must be approved by the governor, and that 
the subsequent law which created two assistant commissioners 
did not do away with the provision requiring the governor to 
approve of such contracts; and as the contract made with the 
company had never been approved by the governor, they did not 
regard it as binding upon the state. The committee also reported 
that the company had acted in bad faith, and violated their char- 
ter in many ways ; and among other things, they found " that 
over one million of dollars of full paid stock had been issued by 
the company, upon which had been received but one hundred 
and sixty-seven thousand dollars, leaving a deficit of eight hun- 
dred and thii'ty-three thousand dollars, for which certificates of 
full paid stock had been issued, for which not a farthing had 
been received by the company, which had been sold to innocent 
purchasers for a valuable consideration, who had purchased, be- 
lieving that its full value had been paid into the treasury of the 
company. The company bad come far shjrt of completing the 
amount of work that they were required to do under their con- 
tract, and their acts gave strong indications that their object was 
to expend money enough to get possession of all the available 
lands, and then abandon the work ; for more than one-half of the 
time which was given for completing the entire contract had ex- 
pired, and on a work which was estimated to cost about two mil- 
lions of dollars, they had only expended about one hundred and 
eighty-five thousand, nine hundred and fifty-seven dollars and 
forty-four cents, for an actual construction of the work, while the 
company claimed that they had expended one hundred and four 
thousand, one hundred and eight}^ dollars and seventy-four cents 
for incidental expenses, the most part of which did not in any 
manner benefit the improvement ; but the company claimed that 
they were entitled to land at one dollar and a quarter per acre in 
payment for the whole amount. 

On the second of April, 1855, Wm. McKay, of Polk county, 

Bes Moines Riveb Improvement. 259 

was elected commissioner, and John C. Lockwood, of Louisa 
county, register ; but in November, 1856, McKay resigned and 
Edward Manning, of Van Buren county, was appointed by the 
governor to fill his place. Manning bore the name of a good busi- 
ness man and close financier, and he was not willing to audit the 
claims for incidental expenses as one for which the company 
were entitled to receive land. This became a matter of dispute 
between the company and the commissioner, and, in order to 
have the matter adjusted, the president proposed to make an 
abatement of seventy-two thousand dollars, but Manning did not 
feel disposed to settle the matter himself, and referred the whole 
claim to the legislature. 

Manning, in his report to the legislature, showed that there 
had been sold by the state, through the board of public works, 
during the six years the state prosecuted the work, about four 
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars worth of land, and for 
this sum, only "three stone masonry locks and two dams had 
been completed ; " and there had been certified to the Des Moines 
navigation and railroad company, by Bonney and Gillaspy, 
eighty-eight thousand eight hundred and fifty-three and nineteen- 
hundredths acres of land, and by McKay and Lockwood, one 
hundred and sixteen thousand six hundred and thirty-six and 
four-hundredths acres, at one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
acre, making two hundred and fifty-six thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-one dollars and fifty-three cents worth of land which 
had been disposed of to the present company, or part of which 
amount was for old debts^which they had paid. 

The report of the committee and commissioner having been 
made to the legislature, that body, acting upon the premises that 
the contract which had been made by the commissioners with 
the company was not binding upon the state, on the 29th of Jan- 
uary, 1857, passed an act by which there was to be a commis- 
sioner appointed by the governor, who, with the regular com- 
missioner, were authorized to contract for speedy prosecution of 
the work, and it was made their duty to ascertain and pay off all 
just claims against the improvement, and they were authorized 
to contract with any company for the sale of all lands, tolls and 
water rents who would give satisfactory evidence and security 

260 Tuttle's History of iowa. 

for the completion of the improvemeut ; but they were not to 
bind the state by any contract further than the appropriation of 
lands and the income of the improvement, and no contract made 
by the commissioners was to be valid until approved by the gov- 
ernor ; and by this act the office of register and the office of 
assistant commissioners were abolished, and the register was 
required to deliver over to the state land office all books and 
papers in his office, and the register of the state land office was 
required to perform all the duties which the register of the 
improvement had done ; and by thus doing the legislature gave 
the Des Moines navigation and railroad company to understand, 
that they did not regard the contract made with them by the 
commissioner as binding upon the state, though by this act, they 
made arrangements for auditing their claims and paying them 
their just dues. 

About this time the question was again brought up in the 
land department at Washington, as to the extent of this grant of 
land, and the opinion was made public, that the original intention 
of congress was to only give the state the lands below Raccoon 
Fork ; but a disposition was manifested to compromise, by the 
department recognizing as being in the grant, all lands adjacent 
to the river within the state ; but assumptions had heretofore met 
with success, and now those interested in the land grant claimed 
and contended that this grant embraced all the lands to the source 
of the river. 

This difficulty about the extent of the land grant, together with 
the action of the legislature nearly suspended all operations on 
the river, and much was said by the company, about enforcing 
their claims by law. 

The commissiouei's appointed to audit and pay the claims 
against the improvement did not succeed in adjusting the claims 
of the company, and the matter was again referred to the legisla- 
ture ; and on the 22d of March, 1858, there was a joint resolution 
passed by the legislature, d'efining the basis on which the state 
would settle, and the company were given sixty days to consider 
whether they would accept and ratify this proposition, and if 
they did not, within that time, then it was made the duty of the 
governor to enjoin them from further proceeding with the work 

Des Moines River Improvement. 261 

of the improvement; and on the same day of adopting this reso- 
lution, there was an act passed giving all the lands which re- 
mained, after settling with the company " and also all the stone, 
timber and other materials turned over to the state by the com- 
pany to the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines, and Minnesota Railroad 
Company" for the purpose of constructing a railroad from Keokuk 
up the Des Moines valley to the northern line of the state, except 
the material which might be necessary to use for the completion 
of the locks and dams at Croton, Plymouth, Bentonsport and 
Keosauga, which the railroad company were to complete ; and 
also all debts which grew out of the improvement, which at that 
time remained unsatisfied, or in some manner provided for, but 
in this grant there was a provision made that it should not in any 
manner conflict with the lands which had, previous to that time 
been given to the state by congress for railroad purposes, which 
on the 15th of July 1856, had been given by the legislature to 
the companies formed to build the four roads designated in the 
grant. But it was understood that these lands having been do- 
nated by congress for the improvement of the navigation of the 
river Des Moines, could not be diverted to the building of a rail- 
road without the consent of congress, and measures were imme- 
diately taken to get congress to sanction the diversion ; but this 
attempt failed, so that the action of the Iowa legislature did not 
avail the railroad company anything that session. 

The railroad company determined to make another efifort at the 
next session of congress ; but before the time for this effort another, 
difficulty arose in the way of obtaining the lands for the Keokuk, 
Fort Des Moines and Minnesota Railroad Company. 

In settling up the claims that the grants for improving the river 
Des Moines extended above the Raccoon Fork, the citizens of 
Iowa were united until after the grant of lands by congress for 
railroad purposes was made. After this, the railroad companies 
became interested in the lands claimed for the river improvement, 
and claimed that the grant did not embrace any lands above the 
Raccoon Fork, on which the citizens of the state were now di- 
vided, and both sides of the question were represented. 

Upon this phase of the case, the officer of the land department 
at Washington had but very little hesitation in deciding against 

262 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

the claims of the river improvement. After this decision was 
made, the legal tribunals were resorted to, and a case was taken 
to the supreme court of the United States, where the same decis- 
ion was given as in the land oifice. 

On the 3d of March, 1860, an act was passed abolishing the 
office of commissioner of the Des Moines river improvement, 
and George G. Wright, Edward Johnson and Christian W. Slagle 
were appointed a board of commissioners for the purpose of as- 
certaining all the liabilities against the river improvement, and 
against the state of Iowa growing out of the improvement. They 
were required to meet at Keosauqua, and were clothed with 
power, similar to the district court, to hear and determine all 
claims growing out of the river improvement, and were author- 
ized to sell all the interest of the state and all dams and improve- 
ments, and the lands appertaining thereto. 

These commissioners proceeded with their duties, and, with 
their labors, closed all official acts, so far as the state was con- 
cerned, in applying ,the proceeds of this land grant towards the 
improvement of the navigation of the river. 

This was a most magnificent grant, embracing some of the best 
lands in the state; and, if the proceeds had been properly and 
judiciously expended, would have made a great thoroughfare for 
steamboats, besides affording an immense water power for driving 
machinery ; but through incompetency in the management of the 
means, and the intrigues of designing men, the whole of the lands 
below the Eaccoon fork, and a large quantity above were disposed 
oi, and but very little practical good accomplished towards im- 
proving the navigation of the river. 



Gov. Lowe's Last Message — Election of United States Senator — Extra 
Session in May 1861 — Gov. Kirliwood's Message — Tlie Civil War — 
War Measures. 

The eighth session of the general assembly of Iowa convened 
at Des Moines on the 9th day of January, 1860, and was organ- 
ized in the senate b^^ Lieut. Gov. Orin Faville taking the chair, 
and the election of J. H. Sanders as secretary ; and in the house, 
by the election of John Edwards, speaker, and Charles Aldrich, 
chief clerk. On the succeeding day. Gov. Lowe sent to both 
houses his biennial message respecting the affairs of the state for 
the previous two years. From this document, which is lengthy, 
the following abstract is made. 

He commences by saying " that the period that has elapsed 
since the last biennial session has been one of great disturbing 
causes, and of anxious solicitude to all cla sses of our fellow citi- 
zens. The first year of this period was visited with heavy and 
continuous rains which reduced the measure of our field crops 
below one half the usual product, whilst the financial revulsions 
which commenced upon the Atlantic in the fall of 1857, did not 
reach its climax for evil in our borders until the year just past. 
Of the disastrous efifects produced by these two causes upon the 
hopes and condition of our people you need not be informed, and 
you may reasonably expect that strong appeals will be made to 
you for remedial legislation ; and I doubt not the pecuniary con- 
dition of the people will prompt you to put forth, in your sover- 
eign capacity, such powers as you possess to secure to them in- 
demnity against unreasonable and unjust sacrifices, in a manner 
that shall guard and protect the rights of all parties interested." 

He referred at length to the claim of the state against the fed- 

Admixistsatiox of Gov. Kibkwood. 265 

eral government, and said that he had appealed in vain to the 
secretary of the interior for the payment of the five per cent, 
upon the military land warrants that the state is justly entitled 
to, which then approximated to a million of dollars. The pay- 
ment of this fund, he says, " is not a mere favor which is asked 
of the general government, but a subsisting right which could be 
enforced in a court of justice, 'was there a tribunal of this kind 
clothed with the requisite jurisdiction." 

The subject of the Des Moines Eiver Grant received from the 
governor special attention, and he gave a history of the operations 
of the state authorities in reference to obtaining the residue of the 
lands to which the state was entitled, and other information as to 
the progress of the work. He also remarked '• that under the act 
authorizing the governor to raise a company of mounted men for 
defense and protection of our frontier, approved February 9th, 
1858, a company of thirty such men, known as the Frontier 
Guards, armed and equipped as required were organized and mus- 
tered into service under the command of Capt. Henry B. Martin, 
of Webster City, about the first of March then following, and were 
divided into two companies, one stationed on the Little Sioux 
river, the other at Spirit Lake. Their presence afforded security 
and gave quiet to the settlements in that region, and after a ser- 
vice of four months, they were duly disbanded. 

" Late in the fall of the same year, however, great alarm and 
consternation was again felt in the region of Spirit Lake and 
Sioux Eiver settlements, produced, by the appearance of large 
numbers of Indians on the border, whose bearing was insolent 
and menacing, and who were charged with clandestinely running 
off the stock of the settlers. The most urgent appeals came from 
these settlers, invoking again the protection of the state. From 
the representations made of the imminence of their danger, and 
the losses already sustained, the governor summoned into the field 
once more the frontier guards. After a service of four of five 
months they were again discharged, and paid in the manner pre- 
scribed in the act under which they were called out. 

" It is believed that this company afforded the needed protection, 
and saved, it may be, our hardy border settlements from another 
inhuman butchery." 

266 Tuttle's Uistobt of Iowa. 

On the 11th of January, 1860, the two houses of the legislature 
met in joint convention for the purpose of canvassing the votes 
for governor and lieutenant governor, at the election in October, 
1859. After the canvass it was announced that the whole num- 
ber o[ votes cast for the office of governor was 110,047, of which 
S. J. Kirkwood received 56,505 votes, and A. C. Dodge 53,342 
votes; and for lieutenant governor, N. J. Eusch received 55,142 
votes ; L. W. Babbitt, 52,874 ; N. P. Rusch, 307 ; S. W. Babbitt, 
114, and 109 votes scattering. Whereupon the president an- 
nounced that S. J. Kirkwood and N. J. Rusch were duly elected 
governor and lieutenant governor of the state for the term of two 
years. The governor and lieutenant governor elect, accompanied 
by the other state officers, soon after appeared before the conven- 
tion and the governor read his inaugural message, after which the 
oath of ofHce was administered by Chief Justice Wright of the 
supreme court. 

A joint convention of the two houses was also held, on the 14th 
of January, for the election of a United States senator, at which 
time James Harlan received 73 votes, and Augustus C. Dodge 
received 52 votes. Mr. Harlan was declared duly elected senator 
for six years from and after the fourth day of March, 1861. The 
legislature adjourned April 3, 1860. The following special acts 
were passed at this session. The general laws passed were printed 
in the revised statutes : Appropriating money for furniture and 
improvements in the capitol building; same for the deaf and 
dumb, the blind, and the insane institutions, and the state peni- 
tentiary ; accepting and carrying into execution the trust con- 
ferred by congress for railroads in the state ; to reapportion the 
state into senate and assembly districts ; to provide for the estab- 
lishment of a commissioner of immigration ; to submit to a vote 
of the people an amendment to the banking law ; and a number 
of acts incorporating and amending the charters of towns, villages 
and cities ; the appointment of commissioners to locate county 
seats ; disposition of swamp and saline lands, and the lands of 
the Des Moines improvement; the change of names of towns, and 
other measures of local interest. 

At the general election in 1860, for president, the republican 
electoral ticket received 70,302 votes, and the democratic electors, 

Administration of Gov. Kirkwood. 267 

55,069, and the electors favorable to John Bell, 1,763. The repub- 
lican ticket was elected, and at a meeting of the electoral college, 
they cast their votes, for the state of Iowa, for Abraham Lincoln 
for president, and H. Hamlin for Vice President. 

Pursuant to a proclamation of the governor, the general assem- 
bly convened at Des Moines, on the loth of May, 1861, in extra 
session. In the senate the lieutenant governor declined to 
take the chair as speaker, as he had been appointed to the 
office of commissioner of emigration, and J. F. Wilson was ap- 
pointed temporary president and J. H. Sanders secretary. In the 
house, Hon. John Edwards assumed the chair and Chas. Aldrich 
was elected chief clerk pro tern. The latter gentlemen declining 
the position, Wm. Thompson was elected to that position. On the 
following day. Gov. Kirkwood sent to each house, his annual 
message, from which liberal extracts have been taken. He com- 
mences by saying : 

" The constitution requires that I shall state to you the purpose 
for which you have been convened in extraordinary session. 

" When a little more than a year ago your regular session clos- 
ed, the whole country was in the enjoyment of peace, and pros- 
perity. At home, life, liberty, and property were secure, and 
abroad the title of an American citizen was claimed with pride, 
and a full assurance that it was a sure guaranty of respect and 
protectiou to all who could make good the claim. To-day civil 
war is upon us, and a wide-spread conspiracy against the general 
government, which we now know has been maturing for years, 
has been developed, and the whole country is filled with the din 
of arms. On the one hand, and from one section of the country 
men who should be loyal citizens, if benefits conferre d by a gov- 
ernment should make men loyal to it, are mustering in armed 
bands with the intent to dissolve the union, and destroy our gov- 
ernment, and on the other hand partially from the same section, 
and as one man from the other, our loyal people are rallying 
around our union and our government, and pledging for their 
maintenance, what our fathers so freely periled to secure for them, 
life, fortune and honor. 

"In this emergency Iowa must not and does not occupy a 
doubtful position. For the union as our fathers formed it, and 

268 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

for the government thej founded so wisely, and so well, the peo- 
ple of Iowa are ready to pledge every fighting man in the state 
and every dollar of her money and credit : and I have called you 
together in extraordinary session, for the purpose of enablmg 
them to make that pledge formal and effective. 

" On the 15th day of April last, the President issued his proc- 
lamation, calling on the loyal states for aid to enforce the laws. 
On the 25th day of the same month, I received from the secretary 
of war a requisition on this state dated on the 15th, calling for 
one regiment of troops. Having been before advised by tele- 
graph that such requisition had been issued, I felt well assured that 
I would only be carrying out your will and the will of the people 
of the state, in responding to the call as promptly as possible. I 
therefore did not wait the receipt of the formal requisition, but 
proceeded at once to take such steps as seemed to me best adapted 
to speedily effect that object. I was met at the outset by two 
difficulties. There were not any funds under my control to meet 
the necessary expenses, nor was there any effcient military law 
under which to operate. Your action only could furnish these 
aids in a legal way, and yet to await your action would involve 
great, perhaps dangerous, delay. 

" The first difficulty was obviated by the patriotic action of the 
chartered banks, and citizens of the state, who promptly placed 
at my disposal all the money I might need, and I determined, 
although without authority of law, to accept their offer, trusting 
that you would legalize my acts. One difficulty thus avoided, I 
trusted, and as the result shows, safely, to the patriotism zi the 
people for the removal of the other, and on the 17th day of April 
issued my proclamation calling for the requisite number of troops. 

" The telegraphic dispatch of the secretary of war informed me 
that it would be sufficient if the troops required of this state were 
in rendezvous at Keokuk, by the 20th inst. The prompt and 
patriotic action of the people enabled me to place them there in 
uniform on the 8th, twelve days in advance of the time fixed, and 
they would have been there a week sooner had not the action of 
the mob at Baltimore cut off all communication with the seat of 
government, and left me without any instructions for two weeks. 

270 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

I recommend that 3'ou make suitable appropriations covering ex- 
penses thus incurred. 

" Tenders of troops were made altogether beyond the amount 
required, and learning from the newspapers and other sources, 
that another requisition would probably' be made on this state, I 
took the responsibility of ordering into quarters, in the respective 
counties where raised, enough companies to form a second regi- 
ment in anticipation of such requisition, that they might acquire 
the necessary discipline and drill. The second requisition has 
not yet reached me, but I am expecting it daily, and am prepared 
to respond to it promptly when made. 

" The officers and men composing the first regiment were in 
quarters for sometime before being mustered into the service of 
the United States and those called out in anticipation of a second 
requisition will have been in quarters a considerable time before 
they will be called into service, if at all. It is but just that pro- 
vision be made for payment of the men who have thus promptly 
and patrioticallj' stepped forth in the defense of the country, for 
the time lost by them before being actually received by the 
United States, and I recommend that you make the necessary ap 
propriations for that purpose. 

" In addition to the two regiments thus accepted by me, I have 
already received tenders of companies enough to make up five 
regiments more, and I have been strongly urged by them, and by 
many other good citizens, to accept the whole, and place them in 
quarters at the expense of the state. In view of the facts that all 
I had done was without authority of law, and the further fact that 
you, the law making power of the state, were so soon to assemble, 
I did not feel justified in so doing, but have recommended in all 
cases that all such companies should, if possible, keep up their 
organization, and should devote as much of their time as possible 
to the drill, without interfering materially with their ordinar\' 
business, thus keeping in reserve a large organized and partially 
drilled force to meet emergencies. 

" It will be necessary that you enact a military law, authoriz- 
ing, among other things, the formation of a military staff under 
which I can have the assistance and advice of such officers as 
compose it, in raising, arming, equipping and supporting such 

Administration of Gov. Kirkwood. 271 

further troops as you may direct to be I'aised for the use of the 
state, or as may be required by the United States. 

"It will also be necessary to use the credit of the state to raise 
means to meet the extraordinary expenses incurred, and to be in- 
curred. You have the power to do this under that provision of 
the constitution which authorizes without a vote of the people the 
contracting of a debt 'to repel invasion' or to 'defend the state 
in war.' 

" In most or all of the counties in which companies have thus 
far been accepted, the board of supervisors or public and spirited 
citizens have raised means for the support of the families of vol- 
unteers who have left families dependent on them for support 
This action is eminently praiseworthy, and yet its operation is 
partial and unequal. It is scarcely to be presumed that compa- 
nies will be received from all the counties of the state, or equally 
from those counties from which they may be received, and it 
seems to me much more equitable and just that the expense be 
borne by the state, and the burden thus equally distributed among 
our people. 

" The procuring of a liberal supply of arms for the use of the 
state is a matter that I earnestly recommend lo your early and 
serious consideration. The last four weeks have taught us a les- 
son which I trust we may never forget, that peace is the proper 
time in which to prepare for war. 

" I feel assured the state can readily raise the means necessary 
to place her in a position consistent alike with her honor and her 
safety. Her territory of great extent and unsurpassed fertility, 
inviting and constantly receiving a desirable emigration, her pop- 
ulation of near three quarters of a million of intelligent, industri- 
ous, energetic and liberty loving people, her rapid past and pros- 
pective growth, her present financial condition, having a debt of 
only about one quarter of a million of dollars, unite to make her 
bonds among the most desirable investments that our country af- 

" The people of Iowa, your constituents and mine, remember- 
ing that money is the sinews of war, will consider alike criminal 
a mistaken parsimony which stops short of doing whatever is 
necessary for the honor and safety of the state and a wild extrav- 

272 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

agance which would unnecessarily squander the public trea- 

The business of the session was confined mainly to acts con- 
nected with the war and for the benefit of volunteers. The fol- 
lowing enactments were of this character : an act to legalize the 
acts of certain boards of supervisors and municipal corporations, 
by which any appropriations heretofore made by these corpora- 
tions for procuring equipments, munitions of war, or maintaining 
the families of enlisted persons, are legalized and confirmed ; an 
act requiring and authorizing the governor to purchase arms, 
powder, clothing, etc., and providing the means of payment; for 
the relief of the volunteer soldiers of the state, by which in all 
actions now pending or that may be hereafter in any of the courts of 
the state, if the defendant is absent from home in actual military 
service, it shall be a sufficient cause for a continuance of such 
suits until such soldier is discharged or mustered out ; providing 
for auditing all accounts and disbursements arising under a call 
for volunteers, and the appointment of a board of commissioners 
to audit such accounts ; an act for the relief of volunteers, provid- 
ing that officers and privates shall be paid out of the war and 
defense fund, for the time between the date such volunteers were 
or may be ordered into quarters by the governor, to the time they 
may have been or may be mustured into the United States army ; 
to provide for the issue and sale of state bonds to procure a loan 
of money for the state to repel invasion and defend itself in war 
(not exceeding the sum of $800,000) ; to amend the militia law 
of the state ; to appropriate money to pay expenses incurred by 
the state in calling out, organizing, uniforming, subsisting and 
equiping the militia of the state, and purchasing arms and muni- 
tions of war ; same for the militia men of the state for the better 
protection of the exposed borders of the state, and to resist maraud- 
ing parties of Indians and other hostile persons, etc., empowering 
the board of supervisors to make appropriations for the support of 
the families of volunteers. 



First Regiment — Regimental History — Statistics of Officers, etc. — Cavalry 

The progress of the last chapter brings us faifly into the war 
record of Iowa. We have seea how promptly the legislature pro- 
vided the ways and means to place Iowa in the front rank of 
loyal states in the great contest. We may now observe the oper- 
ations of the plans adopted. 

The record made during the remaining part of the year 1861 
is given in the adjutant general's report for that year. We are 
informed through this report that up to Dec. 31, 1861, sixteen 
regiments had been organized under various requisitions from 
the president and orders from the war department. There were 
three cavalry regiments in the field, and a fourth at Mount Pleas- 
ant There were three batteries of light artillery ; making an ag- 
gregate of 19,105 men furnished by the state for the U. S. mili- 
tary service. In addition, there was also a company known as 
the Sioux City mounted rifles, that did excellent service on the 
northwestern frontier, and there had been also organized and 
mustered into the United States service an efficient corps called 
the Sioux City cavalry, designed for frontier service. One regi- 
ment was organized under the order of the governor, of the 
volunteer militia of the state, known as the first regiment of the 
western division of the Iowa volunteer militia, which was com- 
manded by Col. John R. Morledge of Page county. The first 
regiment of volunteer infantry was co.xiposed of companies en- 
rolled from the counties of Muscatine, Johnson, Des Moines, Hen- 
ry, Dubuque and Linn. The total number of enlisted men in 
this department including field and stafiE officers was 959. These 
18 'STS) 

274 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

men were mustered into the service of the United States at Keo- 
kuk, May 14, 186 L, under the proclamation of the president, bear- 
ing date April 15, 1861, and ordered into quarters on the 18th of 
April. This regiment was officered as follows : John F. Bates, 
colonel ; Wm. H. Merritt, lieutenant colonel ; Asbury B. Porter, 
major; Wra. H. White, surgeon; H. Reichenbach, assistant sur- 
geon ; Geo. W. Waldron, adjutant ; Theo. Guelich, quartermas- 
ter : I. Q. Fuller, chaplain. 

This regiment took an active part at the battle of Wilson's 
Creek near Springfield, Mo., on the 10th of August, 1861, with 
considerable loss in killed and wounded. 

The second regiment was composed of companies from the 
counties of Lee, Scott, Polk, Jefferson, Van Buren, Davis, Wash- 
ington, Clinton and Wapello. The total number of enlisted men 
in the regiment in 1861 was 992. The following men were the 
original officers : Sam'l R. Curtis, colonel ; James M. Tuttle, 
lieutenant colonel ; M. M. Crocker, major; N. P. Chipman, ad- 
jutant; W. R. Wells, surgeon, and W. W. Nassau, assistant sur- 
geon. There were a number of changes caused by the promotion 
of Col. Curtiss to be a brigadier general. This regiment after 
leaving the state were stationed at Bird's Point and vicinity, and 
subsequently at Benton Barracks, at St. Louis, under the com- 
mand of Col. Tuttle. They had suffered from diseases incident 
to the climate. They had not been in any general engagements, 
but had seen several skirmishes. Since they entered the service 
they had been engaged in guardingjbridges and railroads, and 
made some laborious marches. 

The third regiment was made up of companies from the coun- 
ties of Dubuque, Marion, Clayton, Winneshiek, Story, Fayette, 
Warren, Mahaska and Black Hawk. Most of the companies 
were ordered into quarters by the governor, in May and June, 
1861, and mustered into the service of the United States by Lieut. 
Chambers, U. S. A., at Keokuk, in the early part of June. The 
original number of men was 960. The officei's of the regiment 
at its organization were : N. G. Williams, colonel ; John Scott, 
lieutenant colonel ; Wm. M. Stone, major; Geo. W. Clark, quar 
termaster; Fitzroy Sessions, adjutant ; T. 0. Edwards, surgeon ; 
D. M. Cool, assistant surgeon ; P. H. Jacob, chaplain. 

276 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

The regim ent leaving the state proceeded to Benton Barracks, 
St. Louis, and were stationed in Missouri during the year. They 
took part in the battle at Blue Mills Landing, on September 17, 
1861, and suffered severely in killed and wounded. 

The fourth regiment was composed of companies from the 
counties of Mills, Pottawattomie, Guthrie, Decatur, Polk, Madi- 
son, Ringgold, Union, Wayne, and Page. Attached to and a part 
of the regiment was Dodge's battery of light artillery. They 
were mustered into the service of the United States by Lieut. 
Merrill, in the month of April, 1861. The numberof the volun 
teers at that time was 903. The regiment was officered as fol 
lows : Grreuville M. Dodge, colonel ; John Gallagan, lieutenant col 
onel; Wm. R. English, major; J. A Williamson, adjutant; M. W 
Robbins, surgeon ; W. S. Grimes, assistant surgeon ; T. M. Good 
fellow, chaplain. The regiment was stationed at Rolla, Mis 
souri, in November 1865. The regiment received no clothing 
until September. 

The fifth rigiraent was made up of companies organized in 
the counties ol Cedar, Jasper, Louisa, Marsh all, Buchanan, Keo- 
kuk, Benton, Van Buren, Jackson, Alamakee. Number of origi- 
nal enlisted men 903. The companies were organized in June 
1861, and were mustered into the service of the United States on 
and near the 15th of July by Lieut. Alex. Chambers, U. S. A., 
at Burlington. The following were the original officers : Wm. 
H. Worthington, colonel ; Chas. L. Matthias, lieutenant colonel ; 
Wm. S. Robertson, major; J. P. Foley, adjutant; Chas. Rawson, 
surgeon; P. A. Carpenter, assistant surgeon ; A. D.Madeira, chap- 
lain. The regiment was stationed at Springfield, Missouri, in the 
fall of 1861. 

The sixth regiment was composed of companies from the coun- 
ties of Linn, Monroe, Henry, Lucas, Clarke, Harden, Johnson, 
Appanoose, Lee, and Des Moines, and were mustered into the 
United States service at Burlington the middle of July, 1861, by 
Lieut Alex. Chambers, U. S. A.. The original number of en- 
listed men, 855. The field and staff officers when organized 
were : John A. McDowell, colonel ; Markoe Cummins, lieutenant 
colonel; John M. Corse, major: W. H. Harlan, adjutant; A. T. 
Shaw, surgeon ; J. E. Lake, assistant surgeon ; John Ufford, 

Iowa in the War. 277 

chaplain ; J. Brunaugh, quartermaster. The regiment on leav 
ing the state proceeded to St. Louis, and was stationed at Spring- 
field, Missouri, during the fall of 1861. 

The seventh regiment was formed of companies organized in 
the counties of Muscatine, Chickasaw, Mahaska, Lee, Wapello, 
Iowa and Washington. The whole number of men was 884. 
The companies were sworn into the United States service at Bur- 
lington by Lieut. Chambers, with the following field and staff offi- 
cers. Jacob G. Lauman, colonel ; Aug. Wentz, lieutenant colonel 
(killed at the battle of Belmont) ; Elliot W. Rice, major ; Daniel F. 
Bowler, adjutant; Amos Witter, surgeon ; Asa Morgan, assistant 
surgeon ; J. Harvey Clark, chaplain, and S. E. Forsha, quar- 

This regiment left for St. Louis, and from thence to a position 
three miles above Belmont, and participated in the battle at Bel- 
mont, November 7, 1861, in which engagement the regiment had 
killed, 51 ; died of wounds, 3 ; missing, 10 ; prisoners, 39 ; wounded, 
124 ; total, 227. Lieut. Colonel Wentz was killed, and the colonel 
and major were severely wounded. On the 16th of November, 
the regiment removed to St. Louis and encamped at Benton Bar- 

The eighth regiment was composed of companies organized in 
the counties of Clinton, Scott, '.'Washington, Benton, Marion, Keo- 
kuk, Iowa, Mahaska, Monroe and Louisa, and were mustered 
into the government service at Davenport by Lieut. Chambers in 
September 1861, and consisted of 922 enlisted men at the organ- 
ization of the regiment. The following were the field and staff oSi- 
cers : Frederic Steele, colonel ; Jas. L. Geddes, lieutenant colonel ; 
J. C. Fergerson, major; Geo. H. McLaughlin, adjutant; W. M. 
McCol lough, quartermater ; Jas. Irwin, surgeon ; Gr. H. Noyes, 
assistant surgeon, and C. G. Vandeveer, chaplain. The regiment 
removed from the state to St. Louis, and was stationed at Spring- 
field until the 16th of November, 1861. 

The ninth regiment was formed of companies recruited in the 
counties of Jackson, Jones, Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, Black 
Hawk, Winnesheik and Linn, and were mustered into service at 
Dubuque, in the month of September, 1861, by Capt. C. Wash- 
ington, U. S. A., having at that time 937 enlisted men. It was 

278 TuTTLtfs History of Iowa. 

officered as follows : Wm. Vandever, colonel ; Frank G. Herron, 
lieutenant colonel; Wm. H. Cojde, major; Wm. Scott, adjutant; 
Benj. McClure, surgeon ; H. W. Hart, assistant surgeon, and 
A. B. Kendig, chaplain. The regiment were employed in Mis- 
souri. Five companies were stationed at Pacific, Mo., at the 
Eolla branch of the Pacific Railroad ; the remainder of the regi- 
ment were in the vicinity in detachments, and engaged guarding 
railroad bridges. The Dubuque battery of light artillery, which 
formed a part of the regiment, was detached Oct. 10, 1861, and 
stationed at Benton Barracks, St. Louis. 

The tenth regiment was made up of companies formed in various 
parts of the state, particularly of the counties of Polk, Warren, 
Tama, Boone, Washington, Powesheik, Green, Johnson, Jackson, 
Madison and Polk, and were mustered into the United States 
service in the month of September, 1861, at Iowa City, by Capt. 
Alex. Chambers, U. S. A., and had 868 men on the roll when 
organized. The following were the field and stafi: officers : Nich- 
olas Perczel, colonel ; Wm. E. Small, lieutenant colonel ; John 
C. Bennett, major; Thos. W. Jackson, adjutant; Wm. P. Davis, 
surgeon ; Andrew J. Willey, assistant surgeon ; D. W. Tolford, 
chaplain ; Mahlon Head, quartermaster. The regiment removed 
to Missouri, and was stationed in November at Cape Girardeau, 
engaged in working on the fortifications in and around that place. 
On the 14th of November, they removed to Bird's Point and 
were stationed there. 

The eleventh regiment was made up of companies formed in 
the counties of Muscatine, Hardin, Marshall, Jones, Louisa, 
Cedar, Washington, Henry, Clinton and Linn. The regiment 
was composed of 905 enlisted men. The men were mustered into 
the United States service at Davenport, in the month of October, 
1861. The officers of the regiment were Abram M. Hare, colo- 
nel ; Wm. Hall, lieutenant colonel ; John C. Abercrombie, major ; 
Cornelius Cadle, quartermaster ; Wm. Watson, surgeon ; Fred. 
Lloyd, assistant surgeon ; J. S. Whittlesey, chaplain. The regi- 
ment left the state for St. Louis, and was at Jefferson City in 
December, 1861. 

The twelfth regiment was composed of companies enlisted in 
the counties of Harden, Alamakee, Fayette, Linn, Black Hawk, 

Iowa in the War. 279 

Delaware, Winneshiek, Dubuque and Jackson, and were mus- 
tered into the United States service at Dubuque, by Capt. C. 
Washington, in the month of October, 1861, and contained at the 
time of the organization of the regiment 914 men, at which time 
the following officers were in command : Jackson J. Wood, colo- 
nel ; J. P. Coulter, lieutenant colonel; S. D. Brodtbeek, major; 
N. E. Duncan, adjutant; Jos. B. Dorr, quartermaster; C. C. Par- 
ker, surgeon; W. H. Finley, assistant surgeon; A. G. Eber- 
hardt, chaplain. The regiment proceeded to Benton Barracks, St. 
Louis, at which place they were stationed to the close of the year 

The thirteenth regiment was composed of companies enlisted 
in the counties of Linn, Lucas, Scott, Story, Benton, Jasper, Keo- 
kuk, Polk, Marshall and Washington, and were sworn into the 
government service at Davenport, by Capt. A. Chambers, U. S. 
A., in the month of September, 1861, the number of enlisted 
men being at that time, 920. The field and stafi officers were: 
M. M. Crocker, colonel; M. M. Price, lieutenant colonel; John 
Shane, major ; Wm. T. Clark, adjutant ; H. G. Barnes, quarter- 
master; Jos. McKee, surgeon, and J. H. Boucher, assistant sur- 

The regiment left the state for St. Louis and was at Jefferson 
City at the close of the year, 186l. 

The fourteenth regiment was formed of companies organized in 
the counties of Johnson, Jones, Des Monies, Tama, Cerro Gordo, 
Henry and Jasper, and mustered into the government service at 
Iowa City and Davenport in the months of October and Nov- 
ember, 1861. The strength of the regiment at that time was 878 
men. The field and staff officers were, Wm. T. Shaw^, colonel ; 
Edward W. Lucas, lieutenant colonel ; H. Leonard, major ; 
Noah H. Tyner, adjutant; C. C. Buell, quartermaster; G. M. 
Staples, surgeon; S. N. Pierce, assistant surgeon, and S. A. Ben- 
ton, chaplain. 

The regiment moved from the state to Benton barracks, St 
Louis, and were stationed there to the close of the year 1861. 

The fifteenth regiment was organized at Keokuk, and was com- 
posed of companies from the counties of Clinton, Polk, Mahaska, 
Wapello, Lee, Mills, Fremont, Marion, Warren, Pottawatomie, 

280 TuTTLffs History of Iowa. 

Harrison, Clarke and Van Buren, and were mustered into the 
United States service by Capt. C. C. Smith, at Keokuk, in the 
month of November, 1861. The officers of the regiment when 
organized were, Hugh T. Reid, colonel ; Wm. Dewey, lieutenant 
colonel; W. W. Belknap, major; Geo. Porautz, adjutant; J. M, 
Hedrick, quartermaster ; Wm. H. Barnham, surgeon ; Wm. H 
Gibbon, assistant surgeon, and Wm. W. Eastabrook, chaplain. 
The regiment was at Keokuk until the close of the year 1861 
The sixteenth regiment was organized and enrolled in the coun 
ties of Clinton, Scott, Muscatine, Boone, Dubuque, Linn, Benton 
and Polk. A portion of the regiment were mustered into the gov 
ernment service at Davenport, Keokuk and St. Louis, in the 
month of December, 1861 and January, 1862. The field and 
stafiE officers were, Alex. Chambers, colonel ; Addison H Sanders, 
lieutenant colonel ; Wm. Purcell, major; Josiah L. Phillips, assist- 
ant surgeon; Geo. E. McCosh, acting adjutant, and C. E. Fracker, 
acting quartermaster. The regiment proceeded to Benton bar- 
racks, and were at that place in January, 1862. The first cavalry 
regiment was formed of companies enrolled in the counties of Lee, 
Clinton, Des Moines, Warren, Madison, Henry, Johnson, Wash- 
ington, Dubuque, Harden, Black Hawk, Jones, Delaware, Mon- 
roe, Wapello, Keokuk, Clayton, Jackson. The companies were 
mustered into the United States service at Burlington in July and 
August, 1861. The regiment numbered 1043 when organized. 
The following is a list of field and staff officers : Fitz Henry War- 
ren, colonel ; Chas. E. Moss, lieutenant colonel ; E. W. Chamber- 
lain, Jas. 0. Gower and W. M. G. Torrence. 1st, 2d and 3d major . 
J. C. Stone, adjutant; M. L. Morris, quartermaster; M. B. 
Coachran, surgeon ; D. B. Allen, assistant surgeon ; J. W. 
Latham, chaplain ; D. E. Kerr, J. M. Bryan and H K. Rob- 
inson, 2d lieutenants and adjutants, 1st, 2d and 3d battalions ; 
J. Lundes, C. A. Case and W. A. Muzzy, quartermasters 1st, 2d 
and 3d battalions. The regiment was ordered to St. Louis about 
the first of October, 1861, and on the 15th the whole regiment 
was encamped at Benton barracks, St. Louis. Eight companies 
■were ordered into the interior of the state, a portion being retained 
at Jefferson City, and the remainder going further west to operate 
against the guerrilla bands, which then infested that region. 


The second cavalry regiment was enrolled in the counties of 
Muscatine, Marshall, Scott, Polk, Hamilton, Harrison, Wright, 
.lohnson, Delaware, Linn, Dubuque, Jones, Lee, Des Moines, and 
Jackson, and was ordered into quarters by the governor in the 
month of August, 1861, and mustered into the United States ser- 
vice in September. The number of enlisted men at the organiza- 
tion was 1035. The list of staff and field officers is as follows : 
Washington L. Elliott, colonel ; Edward Hatch, lieutenant colonel; 
Wm. P. Hepburn, Datus E. Coon, and Hiram W. Love, majors ; 
W. B. Blaney, quartermaster; Chas. F. Marden, adjutant; Geo. 
Eeeder, surgeon ; George H. Noyes, assistant surgeon, and C. G. 
Truesdell, chaplain. The regiment proceeded to St. Louis and 
encamped at Benton barracks until the beginning of the year, 1862. 

The third cavalry was organized from companies formed in the 
counties of Davis, Yan Buren, Lee, Decatur, Jefferson, Appa- 
noose and Marion, and was composed of 1088 men. The field 
and staff officers were as follows : Cyrus Bussey, colonel ; Henry 
H. Trimble, lieutenant colonel ; C. H. Perry, H. C. Caldwell, and 
W. C. Drake, majors ; J. W. Noble, adjutant ; D. L. McGugin, 
surgeon ; C. C. Biser, assistant surgeon ; P. P. Ingalls, chaplain. 
The regiment was mustered into the United States service at 
Keokuk the latter part of October and November, 1861, by Capt. 
A. Chambers, and proceeded to St. Louis and was there to the 
close of the year 1861. 

The fourth cavalry was formed from companies enlisted in the 
counties of Fremont, Delaware, Henry, Madison, Chickasaw, 
Lee. Wapello, Poweshiek and Des Moines. Its numeral force, 
when organized, was 1010. The regiment was mustered into the 
government service at Mt. Pleasant, in November, 1861, by Capt. 
A. Chambers. The officers were, Asbury B. Porter, colonel ; 
Thos. Drummond, lieutenant colonel ; Simeon Swan, Jos. E. Jew- 
ett, and Geo. A. Stone, majors; Geo. W. Waldron, adjutant; T. 
P. LauSer, quartermaster; A. W. McClure, surgeon ; Wellington 
Bird, assistant surgeon, and A. J. Kirkpatrick, chaplain. 


Kirkwood's Administration — His MessaM of January, 1862 — State Institu- 
tions — War Measures and their Operation — Kirkwood's Reelection — 
The Election Contest — Legislation — Laws of the Ninth Session. 

The ninth general assembly of Iowa convened at Des Moines 
on the 13th of January, 1862. The senate was called to order by 
Lieut. Gov. Rusch, president, and W. F. Davis, elected permanent 
secretary ; and the house of representatives was permanently or- 
ganized by the election of Hon. Rush Clark, speaker, and Charles 
Aldrich, chief clerk. Gov. Kirkwood soon after sent to each 
branch of the general assembly, his annual message. This docu- 
ment gives a full account of the business of the state government 
for the previous two years, including the part taken by the au- 
thorities in furnishing troops and sending them on to the seat of 
war to put down the rebellion during 1861. I take extensive 
extracts from this valuable state document. 

He said: " The expenditures of the two last years for all state 
purposes have been about $300,000, for each year. This includes 
both ordinary and extraordinary expenditures; the amounts ex- 
pended for the insane asylum, the penitentiary, the blind asylum 
at Vinton, the printing of the revised statutes, and other extraor- 
dinary objects, as well as the amounts expended in carrying on 
the ordinary operations of the state government. The expendi- 
ture has not in any case been permitted to exceed the appropria- 
tion, and is materially less both for the penitentiary and insane 
asylum, and has in all cases that have come under my observa- 
tion been carefully and economically made. In my judgment, 
there is not another state in the Union in which the protection of 
government is extended to as large a population, so widely scat- 


284 Tuttle's Histoby of Iowa. 

tered, more economically than in our own. But while this is true, 
it is equally true that our finances are not in a healthy condition. 
The report of the auditor of state discloses the somewhat startling 
fact that of the state tax for 1860, and preceding years, there was 
at the date of his report (the 4th day of November, 1861), delin- 
quent and unpaid the large sum of about $400,000 — a sura more 
than sufficient to cover the entire expenses of our state govern- 
ment for one year. This large delinquency has occurred mainly 
within the last four years, and the same report shows there were 
at the same date warrants drawn on the treasury to the amount 
of $103,645, which were unpaid for want of funds, most of which 
were drawing interest at the rate of eight per cent, per annum. 

"From these facts the following conclusions are inevitable: 1. 
That during the last four years there has been levied a state tax 
larger by about $300,000, than the necessities of the state required. 
2. That this was rendered necessary by the fact that only a por- 
tion of our people paid the tax due the state. 3. That the state 
has been compelled yearly to pay large sums by way of interest 
on warrants which need not have been paid had the taxes been 
collected promptly and the treasury kept supplied with funds to 
meet all demands upon it. 4. That the state, being compelled 
to purchase its supplies with warrants, has had to pay higher 
prices than if it had had the cash to pay. 5. That the tax-pay- 
ing portion of our people have thus been compelled to pay not 
only their proper share of the public burthens, but also the share 
of those who did not pay their taxes, increased by interest and 
high prices. These things should not be so. They reflect dis- 
credit not only on those of our citizens who seek to avoid their 
just share of those burthens which are imposed upon all for the 
benefit of all, but also upon the laws which permit them to do 
so with impunity. I therefore very earnestly recommend to your 
attention a careful examination of our revenue laws for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining if they can be made more effective in enforc- 
ing the prompt payment of taxes. 

" In some particulars, the expenses of the state may be materi- 
ally less for the next than for the last two years. The appropria- 
tion of $19,500 for the revised statutes was temporary, and will 
not be again required. The amount appropriated for past in- 

lOVTA IX THE WaK. 285 

debtedness of the penitentiary, $38,500, has nearly paid that in 
debtedness, and but a nominal sum will be needed for that pur 
pose. The amount appropriated for the general support of the 
prison has been so well managed that the amount thereof unex 
pended is deemed by the warden sufficient for the next two years 
so that the amount of $35,000. appropriated at the last regulai 
session for that purpose, need not be renewed in whole or in part. 
Of the amount of $75,000, appropriated at the last session for 
finishing and furnishing the center and east wing of the insane 
asylum, about $18,000 remain unexpended, which balance, with 
$20,000 now asked for, is deemed sufficient to complete the whole 
building. So that the appropriation needed for construction ac- 
count in that institution may be $55,000 less than at the last ses- 
sion. The Blind Asylum at Vinton is now under cover and not 
liable to injury from the weather, and if you should deem it ad- 
visable not tt> make any appropriation for its present completion, 
$10,000 may be deducted from the amount of the appropriation 
of the present session as compared with that of the last. There 
has been paid, during the past two years, to agricultural societies 
the sum of about $18,000. If you think it advisable to with- 
hold any appropriation for this purpose for the next two years, 
this sura may be saved. The foregoing sums, amounting in the 
aggregate to $176,000, are the expenditures for the objects named 
for two years, and, if withheld, will be a saving of $88,000 per 
annum from the amount of state taxes. This amount, I doubt 
not, may be increased by a careful examination of our state ex- 
penditures and strict economy, to $100,000, and if a proportion- 
ate reduction of county and township expenses can be made, the 
entire amount of the tax required by the general government can 
be raised without increasing our present taxation. I commend 
the matter to your most earnest and careful examination. 

" The report of the adjutant general, herewith submitted, shows 
the number and description of troops raised in this state for 
United States service to be sixteen regiments of infantry, four of 
cavalry, three batteries of artillery, and one independent company 
of cavalry for frontier service. Of these, the fifteenth and six- 
teenth regiments of infantry are not fully organized. In addition, 
Co.l Koch and Col. Rankin are engaged in raising regiments of 

286 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

infantry, which, if completed, will make the seventeeth and 
eighteenth regiments of that arm of the service. 

" It is a matter of much gratification to me that our state has 
thus promptly responded to the demands made upon it by the 
United States for aid in this perilous crisis of our country's his- 
tory, and it is also a matter of great pride to me that the troops 
of our state, whether tried in the exhausting service -of the camp, 
the march, or in the fiery ordeal of the battle-field, have never been 
found wanting, but have, by their cheerful endurance of unaccus- 
tomed hardship and their indomitable valor, won for themselves 
and our state a name which may well cause us to feel an honest 
pride in claiming, in any part of our broad land, that our homes 
are in Iowa. 

" At the extra session of 1861, what was supposed ample pro- 
vision was made to furnish the necessary funds for raising, cloth- 
ing and equipping the volunteers that might be required from this 
state, by authorizing the issue and sale of our state bonds. Im- 
mediately after the close of that session, the necessary steps were 
taken to put our bonds in market, but, before they could be of- 
fered in New York, the faith and credit of our state were most 
wantonly and unjustly attacked by certain papers in that city, so 
that when, under the law, the bonds were offered for sale, it was 
found entirely impossible to effect sales at the prices fixed by the 
board of commissioners appointed for that purpose, or which 
would not have been ruinous to the state. No sales were there- 
fore made in New York, and an appeal was made to our own 
people to take the bonds and furnish the means necessary to meet 
the large expenses consequent upon raising the troops called for 
from this state. The report of the loan agents, herewith submit- 
ted, will show you the amount of bonds sold by them in the 
state, and the amount of money received therefor. It will be 
seen that much the larger proportion of the bonds was taken by 
persons to whom the state was indebted, and that but a small 
share was sold for cash. The result was that the officers charged 
with the duty of raising troops as required by the general gov- 
ernment were much embarrassed for want of means, being com- 
pelled to operate wholly upon credit, consequently to great disad- 
vantage. Whatever could be furnished by our people was 

288 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

promptly furnished on the credit of the state, but without means, 
it was impossible to procure arms, clothing, and such other arti- 
cles as our own people did not produce. After providing clothing 
fo;- the 1st, 2d and 3d regiments, I found it utterly impossible to 
provide for those subsequently raised, and was compelled to rely 
upon the general government for that purpose, and although it 
was a matter of much mortification to me to be compelled to al- 
low our troops to leave our state ununiformed and unarmed, yet I 
am induced to believe the result has been as well for the troops 
and for the government. The troops who left our state without 
uniform, left at a season of the year when but little clothing was 
needed for comfort, and they were provided with uniforms in 
Missouri as speedily and more cheaply than I could have provided 
for them. The regiments which have left the state more recently 
have been furnished with good clothing by the genera! govern- 
ment before leaving. I have not purchased for the state the arms 
contemplated by the law passed at the extra session, for the rea- 
son that arms could be had only for money, and I had not the 
money wherewith to pay. Some arms have been furnished by the 
general government, but not sufficient for the security of the state, 
and I recommend the subject to your careful consideration. 

" On several occasions during the past season, when the rebels 
had or appeared likely to get control in Northern Missouri, much 
uneasiness existed along our southern border lest they should at- 
tempt an invasion of our state, which, for want of arms, our peo 
pie were not properly prepared to resist. Immediately after the 
close of the extra session of the general assembly, I appointed 
Col. John Edwards and Col. Cyrus Bussey my aids, with large 
discretionary powers, to act for the preservation of tranquillity in 
the southern border counties. I was well satisfied the peace of 
our state would be more easil}' preserved by preventing invasion 
than by repelling it, and therefore while I could not order our 
state troops beyond our state line, instructed Cols. Edwards and 
Bussey, and through them the troops under their command, that 
if at any time the loyal men of Northern Missouri were in peril 
and called upon them for assistance, they had as full authorit}' as 
I could give them to lead their men into Missouri to the aid of 
the loyal men there, and my promise upon their return that my 

Iowa in the Was. 289 

power should be used to the utmost extent to protect them if 
called in question for so doing. Under these cii'cumstances, and 
in some cases at the instance of the officers of the United States, 
Cols. Edwards and Bussey, and Col. Morledge, of Page county, 
at different times led bodies of Iowa troops into Missouri and 
kept them in service there until their presence was no longer 
needed, and I am well assured their services were highly valua- 
ble, not only in preserving the peace of our border and protecting 
our own people, but in supporting and strengthening the union 
men of Missouri. The expenses incurred in these expeditions 
are, in my judgment, properly chargeable to the general govern- 
ment, and I am now seeking their reimbursement. 

" Great uneasiness also existed on our western and northern 
border lest the Indians in Dacotah and Minnesota might be led 
by designing men to take advantage of the troubled state of pub- 
lic aEFairs, and commit depredations on our people in that region. 
The great distance of that part of the state from the place where 
my other duties compel me to keep my headquarters, and the 
want of the means of speedy communication therewith, either by 
railroad or telegraph, rendered it, in my judgment, absolutely 
necessary that I should confer on suitable persons the power to 
act for me promptly in case of emergency, as fully as if I were 
present to act in person. I accordingly conferred such authority 
on Hon. Caleb Baldwin, of Council Bluffs, and Hon. A. W. Hub- 
bard, of Sioux City. Under this authority, bodies of mounted 
men were called into service at different times for short periods, 
and I am happy to be able to state the tranquillity of that portion 
of our state has been preserved. 

" I cannot permit this occasion to pass without thanking 
Messrs. Edwards, Bussey, Morledge, Baldwin and Hubbard, for 
their efficient and valuable services. 

" At my request the secretary of war authorized the enlistment 
of a company of cavalry in the service of the United States, 
especially for the protection of the northwestern border. This 
company has been recruited and mustered in, and I hope will be 
sufficient for the protection of that portion of our state. 

"The state university is now in successful operation, although 
much embarrassed for want of means arising from the nonpay- 

290 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

ment of interest due on loans of its pemanent fund. The enact- 
ment of laws requiring the more prompt payment of interest, and 
for the safety and better investment of the permanent fund as 
above suggested, will enable the trustees and faculty to extend 
the usefulness of the institution. I am decidedly of opinion that 
not only the interest of the institution, but also the interest of the 
state require, that you should provide a military department of 
the university, and should establish a military professorship 
therein The sad experience of the last few months has shown 
^us the neue.ssit}^ of military knowledge among our people. By 
giving to the young men who may attend the university, military 
instruction and training, we will not only greatly benefit them, 
but will also have made provision for what our present experience 
shows may at any moment become a necessity to our people. 
The board of education at their recent session directed the trustees 
of the university to make provision for a military department 
therein as soon as the general assembly should make the necessa- 
ry appropriations therefor, and I earnestly recommend the subject 
to your favorable consideration. 

" The affairs of the penitentiary have been well conducted du- 
ring the last two years. Its present faithful and efficient officers, 
although laboring under many difficulties, have, by their careful 
and skillful management, maintained excellent discipline, pre- 
served, in a remarkable degree, the health of the convicts, and 
have so economized its expenses, that of the sura appropriated at 
the last regular session for the general support of the prison, there 
remains unexpended an amount so large, that, in the opinion of 
the warden, no appropriation for that purpose will be needed at 
the present session. These officers, however, as well as those in 
charge of the insane asylum, the asylums for the deaf and dumb, 
and the blind, and all others who have been charged with the 
duty of procuring for the state either labor, materials, or mer- 
chandise of any kind for ordinary state purposes, have been con- 
tinually embarrassed for the want of money, and have been com- 
pelled to carry on their operations, and make their purchases at 
great disadvantage with warrants on the treasury. Of course 
they have been compelled to pay higher prices in warrants than 
they would have had to pay in cash. As soon as these warrants 

Iowa ix the War. 291 

are delivered, they are presented at the treasury, and indorsed 
unpaid for want of funds, and from that time draw eight per cent, 
interest, so that the excess of price and interest are so much clear 
loss to the state that might be saved if our taxes were promptly 
paid. Neither states nor individuals can manage their affairs in 
this manner without serious present embarrassment and great ul- 
timate loss, and in my judgment it is clearly your duty, as guard- 
ians of the public welfare, to see to it that this state of affairs 
shall not continue. The reports of the officers of the peniten- 
tiary show the sums, which, in their opinion, should be appropri- 
ated by you, and the objects for which they are needed. Whilst 
I am satisfied that all these objects are legitimate and that the 
accomplishment of them would add much to the safety and com- 
pleteness of the prison, I cannot in the present condition of our 
finances recommend appropriations for all. The completion of 
the third tier of cells, additional accommodations for the hospital, 
additional shop-room, and a new cistern, are perhaps indispensa- 
ble, and should be provided for. 

" The reports of the proper officers of the deaf and dumb and 
blind asylums are herewith submitted. These institutions appeal 
so strongly to our better feelings, and the necessities of those for 
whose benefit they are intended are so peculiar and so urgent that 
I cannot withhold my recommendation that the usual appropria- 
tions be made for their support. The appropriation made at the 
last regular session for the new building for the blind, at Vinton, 
has been expended in the manner required by law. The build- 
ing is now inclosed, and is not, as I understand, liable to injury 
by exposure to the weather, and I submit whether it is not advis- 
able, in our present financial condition, to withhold the appropri- 
ation necessary to complete it until the next session of the general 
assembly. From the reports of the officers of the insane asylum, 
you will learn that the institution is now in successful operation. 
The appropriation made at the last regular session for finishing 
and furnishing the centre and east wing of the building, has 
proved to be more than sufficient for that purpose, and there is a 
considerable balance unexpended. The number of patients now 
in the institution is nearly or quite sufficient to fill all the finished 
portion of the building, and much inconvenience arises from the 

292 Tuttle's Bistort of Iowa. 

fact that patients of both sexes are confined in the same wing. 
This fact, with the additional one that before the next session, a 
large portion of the now unfinished part of the building will in 
all probability be needed for the reception of patients, induces me 
to recommend, as I earnestly do, that an appropriation be now 
made, which, with the unexpended balance of the last appropria- 
tion, will be sufficient to finish and furnish the west wing. Every 
one who has witnessed the misery and degradation and knows the 
hopelessness of the cure of those poor unfortunates when confined 
in the cells of our county jails, and has also witnessed their com- 
parative happiness and comfort, and knows the prospect for their 
restoration in the asylum, will insist that the most terrible diseases 
shall no longer be treated as a crime, and that the state shall do 
her duty by providing and caring for these, the most helpless and 
most unfortunate of her people. An abundant and unfailing sup- 
ply of water is absolutely essential to the successful operation of 
an institution of this kind. A reliance for such supply upon cis- 
terns and common wells would be uncertain and unsafe, and as 
these were the only resources heretofore provided, the trustees and 
commissioners, in order to remove the difficulty, have undertaken 
the digging of an artesian well. The details of the work for this 
purpose thus far will be found in the reports, and I recommend 
that a sufficient appropriation be made to complete it or to show 
its impracticability. I also recommend that the law requiring the 
several counties of the state to pay for the support of their own 
pauper insane, be so changed as to require such payment to be 
made in advance. In this way only will such payment be prompt 
and reliable, and the state be relieved practically from the burthen 
of supporting the institution. I cannot perceive the necessity for 
the two boards of trustees and commissioners. Either of the 
boards can easily perform in addition to its present duties, the 
duties of the other board, and by the consolidation, possible con- 
flicts of authority would be avoided, as well as considerable ex- 

"The report of the register of the state land office shows the 
condition of the various grants of land made by the congress of 
the United States to this state. 

" Very serious and embarrassing questions have arisen from the 

294 • TuTTLFfs History of Iowa. 

conflicting interests and claims of some of the land grant railroad 
companies and the Des Moines Navigation and Railroad Company. 
There has been much vacillation and conflict of opinion and ac- 
tion among the heads of the department of the interior in regard 
to the extent of the Des Moines river land grant. That grant has 
been held by one secretary to extend only to the forks of the 
river at Des Moines city ; by another to extend to the sources of 
the river in Minnesota, and by another to extend only to the 
north boundary of our state. One or more of the secretaries cer- 
tified to the state as part of this grant large bodies of land lying 
above the forks of the river within the limits of the state, and the 
state subsequently sold and conveyed many of these lands to in- 
dividuals. Afterward the state contracted with the Des Moines 
Navigation and Railroad Company to prosecute the work of im- 
proving the Des Moines river, agreeing to convey to said company 
the title of the state to portions of the lands so certified to the 
state for that purpose, as rapidly as the work progressed. Under 
this arrangement the title of the state to many of these lands was 
conveyed to the Des Moines Navigation and Railroad Company. 
Subsequently by settlement with the Des Moines Navigation and 
Railroad Company the state conveyed to said company the title 
of the state to the remainder of the lands which had been certified 
to the state by the secretary of the interior, and at the same time 
conveyed to the Keokuk, Ft. Des Moines and Minnesota Railroad 
Company its title to all the lands of said grant which had not 
been certified to the state by the secretary of the interior, except 
fifty thousand acres reserved for certain purposes. The Des 
Moines Navigation and Railroad Company have conveyed to in- 
dividuals large bodies of the lands thus conveyed to them. The 
lines of three of the land grant railroads (the Dubuque & Sioux 
City, the Cedar Rapids & Missouri, and the Mississippi & Missou- 
ri) cross the Des Moines river above its forks, and hence arises a 
conflict between these companies and the companies and their 
grantees, and the grantees of the state who hold portions of those 
lands as part of the original Des Moines river grant. These rail 
road companies claim that the Des Moines river grant never really 
extended above the forks of the river at Des Moines, and that 
consequently all conveyances made by the state of lands above 

Iowa in the War. 295 

that point, as Des Moines river grant lands are invalid, and that 
by virtue of the railroad land grant they acquired a title to all 
such lands lying within the limits of their respective grants. 

" The state having only conveyed what title it had to these 
lands may not be legally liable to make good any loss that may 
result to others from a failure of that title, but certainly is morally 
bound, at the least, to do what may be reasonably and fairly 
done to protect the rights and interests of those threatened with 
such loss. When the state granted to the railroad companies the 
lands granted to the state by congress for railroad purposes, it was 
not contemplated by the parties, certainly it was not contemplated 
by the state, that it was granting to these companies lands previ- 
ously conveyed by the state to others, and if since the making of 
these grants the companies who are to receive the benefit of them 
have discovered that by strict legal construction they are entitled 
to more than was contemplated, either by themselves or by the 
state, and are disposed to enforce strictly these legal rights, to the 
injurv of innocent purchasers from the state ; the state may, and 
I think should, hold these companies in all things to a strict com- 
pliance with the terms of the grants made to them. If these com- 
panies are now in default, and ask the indulgence and clemency 
of the state, it seems to me the state may very properly, before 
extending such indulgence and clemency, inquire and know 
what indulgence and clemency these companies will extend to the 
unfortunate holders of these lands, and make for the one with the 
other such terms and conditions as may be equitable and just to 

The governor concludes his message by saying : " The year 
which has just closed, has brought to our people a new experi- 
ence, new trials, new responsibilities, and new duties. Let us 
continue to meet them as we have thus far met them, with neither 
an overweening confidence in, and reliance upon our own strength, 
nor an unmanly and craven fear for ourselves, or of the hardships 
we may endure before we win by deserving success, but with 
patience, calmness, unflinching courage, and an abiding faith in 

On the 15th of January, 1862, the two houses met in joint con- 
vention to canvass the votes for governor and lieutenant governor, 

296 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

agreeably to the provisions of law. The canvass was concluded 
with the following result : 

Whole number of votes cast for governor 105, 594 

Of which Samuel J. Kirkwood received 60,252 

W. H. Merritt 40, 187 

S. M. Samuels 4,551 

Henry Clay Dean 463 

Scattering 142 

Whole number of votes cast for lieutenant governor was 102 , 978 

Of which John R. Needham received 60, 145 

Lauren Dewey 38,617 

Jesse Williams 4, 123 

Scattering 88 

Whereupon the president announced Samuel J. Kirkwood 
elected governor of the state for the term of two years, and that 
John E. Needham was duly elected lieutenant governor for the 
term of two years, they having received a majority of all the votes 
cast at the election in October, 1861. 

After the announcement of the result of the canvass, a com- 
mittee was appointed to inform the governor and lieutenant gov- 
ernor of their election, and to inform the governor that they were 
in readiness to hear his inaugural message. Gov. Kirkwood soon 
after appeared and read his inaugural address. This document 
gave an account of the struggle then pending, of the causes of the 
rebellion, the action of the Iowa troops in the service at Blue Mills 
and Belmont, and highly commending their bravery, when called 
upon to meet the enemy. 

The general assembly adjourned sine die on the 8th of April, 

The following are some of the important acts passed by the 
ninth general assembly at the regular session : To assume the col- 
lection and payment of the quota apportioned to the state of the 
direct tax annually laid upon the United States by act of con- 
gress, approved August 5, 1861 ; to appropriate money ($3,000) for 
the relief of sick and wounded soldiers among the Iowa volun- 
teers ; to provide for the payment of taxes and the interest and 
principal of the school fund on treasury demand notes, issued by 

Iowa in the War. 297 

the state bauk of Iowa and the several branches ; for the assess 
ment, levy, and collection of the quota of the state of the tax laid 
on the United States by act of congress, and the payment of audit 
or's warrants ; for the completing of the blind asylum at Vinton 
and appropriating ten thousand dollars for that purpose ; to 
authorize the governor to procure passes over railroad and steam 
boat routes for sick and wounded soldiers ; to provide for the ap 
pointment and pay of additional surgeons, and for the employ 
ment of nurses in the Iowa regiments in the government service : 
to provide a uniform standard of weights and measures, and ere 
ating the office of state superintendent of weights and measures ; 
relating to the suppression of intemperance ; to make a further 
appropriation ($10,000) for finishing and furnishing of the hospi- 
tal for the insane at Mt. Pleasant ; to exempt the property of 
Iowa volunteers in the military service from levy or sale ; making 
appropriations for the payment of state and judicial officers, inter- 
est on state bonds and loans, etc. ; for the better protection of the 
school fund ; to provide for the support of the deaf and dumb 
and blind asylums ; to remove the blind asylum from Iowa City 
to Vinton, Benton county ; to amend and consolidate the school 
laws of the state. 


Kirkwood's Second Term — Extra Session of the Legislature in 1862 — Laws 
Passed — Govvernor's Message — Election of 1863 — Regimental Hfetory 
for 1862 — Cavalry and Battery Sketches. 

Agreeably to a proclamation of the governor, calling for an 
extra session of the legislature, the general assembly convened at 
Des Monies on the third day of September, 1862. 

Gov. Kirkwood in his message says : " When you closed your 
last regular session, the belief prevailed very generally that 
the strength of the rebellion had been broken ; the lapse of time 
has shown that belief to be erroneous and a change of legislation 
upon some questions of public interest has become necessary, and 
you have been convened in extraordinary session to consider 
matters vitally affecting the public welfare, which require, in my 
judgement, your immediate action." The governor recommended 
such increase of the contingent fund, for extraordinary expenses, 
as they may deem necessary ; he remarked, that the state had 
nearly 50,000 men in the field, and recommended an increase in 
the force of the adjutant general's office for the necessary trans- 
action of the business now connected with that department He 
also recommended that a camp of instruction be established, and 
that the several counties of the state be required to furnish their 
equitable proportion of men to place in camp under instruction ; 
that when men should be needed to fill the ranks of any of the 
regiments, requisitions be made for the proper number. He fur- 
ther recommends, that the laws of the state be so modified, that 
all members of Iowa regiments, who would be entitled to vote, if 
at home, on the day of election, be allowed to vote wherever they 
may be stationed in the United States, and that provision be 
made for receiving and canvassing their votes ; also, that those 

800 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

persons entertaining peculiar views upon the subject of bearing 
arms, and whose religious opinions conscientiously entertained 
preclude their so doing, be exempted therefrom in case of draft, 
upon the payment of a fixed sum of money to be paid to the 

The governor stated, that since the adjournment of the legisla- 
ture, congress had passed a law donating public lands to the 
several states and territories which may provide colleges for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts ; and that, under 
this law, the state of Iowa was entitled to a donation of two 
hundred and forty thousand acres of land. He recommended 
suitable legislation on this subject. 

The following are the principal laws passed at this extra ses- 
sion : to provide for the protection of the northwestern frontier 
of Iowa from hostile Indians ; to appropriate money to meet the 
expenses of the executive department, and to provide for the 
sick and wounded soldiers in the service ($30,000) ; for the 
better protection of the southern border of the state ; to provide 
for the acknowledgment of instruments by the soldiers in the 
military service, and for the administration of oaths ; to accept of 
the grant and carry into execution the trust conferred upon the 
state by an act of congress for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts; to amend the law of 1860, and enable the quali- 
fied electors of the state, in the military service, to vote at certain 
elections ; to legalize appropriations made by the boards of super- 
visors for the payment of bounties and for the support of the 
families of volunteers ; to provide for the appointment of sani- 
tary agents and to define their duties ; to create the office of 
assistant adjutant general, and an act to provide for the selection 
of lands granted to the state by act of congress, approved July 
13, 1862, confirming a land claim in the state of Iowa, and for 
other purposes. The state election for members of congress, and 
half of the senate and members of the assembly, took place on 
the second Tuesday of November, 1862. At this election the 
platform of the republican party was similar in ite general prin- 
ciples to that adopted by the same party in Illinois ; and that of 
the democratic party was similar to that adopted by the same 
party in the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania. The offices to be 

Iowa in the War. 301 

filled were, secretary of state, auditor of state, treasurer, attorney 
general, and register of the land office, and six members of con- 
gress. The vote of the citizens was as follows : for the republican 
candidate for secretary state, 66,014 ; for the democratic candidate 
for the same office, 50,899 ; majority for the former, 15,115. The 
soldiers in the several regiments, which had gone from the state, 
were also allowed to vote, with the following result : for the 
republican candidate for secretary of state, 14,874 ; for the dem- 
ocratic candidate, 4,115 ; republican majority 10,759. The votes 
for the other state officers, including citizens and soldiers' votes, 
gave the republican candidates a majority of a little over 15,000. 
The candidates of the republican party for congress were all 
chosen. At the election for governor the preceding year (1861), 
the republican majority was 16,608 ; the same, at the presidential 
election in 1860, 15,298. At the election for members of gen- 
eral assembly, in 1861, the result was as follows : In the senate, 
republicans, 32 ; democrats 14 ; and in the house, republicans 
59, and democrats 33. 

At the election held in November, 1863, the candidates for 
govern. M- were William M. Stone, administration, and J. M. Tut- 
tle, opposition. The opposition convention, which assembled on 
the 8th of July, nominated Maturin L. Fisher as their candidate 
for governor. He subsequently declined, and Gen. Tuttle was 
nominated by the state central committee of that party. Both 
candidates were in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war, 
and of sustaining the government in all measures for that object, 
and of making peace only on the unconditional submission of the 

The election resulted in the choice of Mr. Stone for governor. 
The vote of the soldiers was. Stone, 16,791 ; Tuttle, 2,904; total, 
19,695. The whole number of votes cast for governor, including 
the army vote, was 142,814, of which Stone received 86,107, and 
Tuttle, 56 132 ; scattering, 75. The majority for Col. Stone was 
29,975. The legislature was divided — Senate: administration, 
42 ; opposition, 2. House : administration, 87 ; opposition, 5. 

An act had been passed by the legislature granting to soldiers 
the privilege of voting at their encampments for state officers. 
For the purpose of taking their vote, the governor appointed a 

302 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

number of commissioners to proceed to the different camps and 
hold the election. This measure induced the opposition central 
committee to address letters to Gens. Grant, Rosekrans and 
Schofield, in command of the western armies, inquiring whether 
the soldiers would be permitted to hold an untrammelled election 
under the laws, and whether a member of the central committee 
or any competent agent would be furnished with the same con- 
duct and facilities which may be granted to the governor's "com- 
missioners," for the purpose of distributing ballots to the officers 
and men, and exercising the legal right of challenge as to any 
v-ote offered which may be supposed to be illegal. The reply of 
Gen. Grant was to the effect, that loyal citizens of northern states 
will be allowed to visit the troops at any time ; but electioneer- 
ing, or any course calculated to arouse discordant feeling will be 
prohibited, and that volunteer soldiers will be allowed to hold an 
election, if the law gives them the right to vote. 

A case, involving the constitutionality of this act of the legis- 
lature, was brought before the eighth judicial district court of the 
state, Judge Isbell, who decided that the clause of the state con- 
stitution, that " any person entitled to vote shall cast his vote in 
the county of his residence," was binding ; and held that such votes 
as were cast outside were illegal, and should be rejected. From 
this decision an appeal was taken to the supreme court, which 
court decided that it was competent for the legislature to pre- 
scribe the qualifications of electors and the time, place and man- 
ner cf exercising ihe elective franchise, and that the provisions of 
the act approved September 11, 1862, are not inconsistent with 
the section of the state constitution referred to, and reversed the 
decision of the lower court. 

The following regiments were organized during the year 1862, 
the first sixteen regiments having been recruited and sent to the 
field in 1861 : 

The seventeenth regiment was composed of companies raised in 
the counties of Decatur, Lee, Polk, Jefferson, Van Bureo, Des 
Moines, Washington, Wapello, Louisa, Appanoose, Henry, Marion, 
Monroe, Pottawattomie, Jones and Warren. The following were 
the field officers: John W. Rankin, colonel; David B. Hills, lieu- 
tenant colonel; Sam'l M. Wise, major; Southwick Guthrie, ad- 

Iowa in the War. 303 

jutant; Edwin J. Aldrich, quartermaster: Nathan Udell, surgeon ; 
B. J. McGorrisk, assistant surgeon, and W. M. Wilson, chaplain. 
The regiment was mustered into the government service, at Keo- 
kuk, in March and April, 1862, by Lieut. C. J. Ball. This regi- 
ment was engaged in man}' severe battles, and will be noticed 

The eighteenth regiment was made up of companies organized 
in the counties of Linn, Clarke, Wapello, Lucas, Appanoose, 
Keokuk, Iowa, Polk, Mahaska, Washington, Marion, Fayette, 
Benton and Muscatine, with the following field officers : John 
Edwards, colonel ; Thos. F. Cook, lieutenant colonel ; H. J. 
Campbell, major; C. B. Braudlich, adjutant; S. S. Smith, quar- 
termaster ; J. H. Allen, surgeon ; Jas. Harvey, assistant surgeon ; 
D. N. Smith, chaplain. The regiment was mustered into the 
United States service, at Clinton, by Capt. H. B. Hendershott, 
August 7, 1862, and removed to Missouri. 

The nineteenth regiment was formed from companies oi'ganized 
in the counties of Lee, Jefferson, Washington, Louisa, Van Buren 
and Henry, with the following officers : Banjamin Crabb, colonel ; 
Sam. McFarland, lieutenant colonel ; Daniel Kent, major; Gr. G- 
Bennett, adjutant; J. H. Downing, quartermaster; P. Harvey, sur- 
geon ; L. M. Sloanaker, assistant surgeon, and D. Murphy, chap- 
lain. The regiment was mustered into the government service by 
lieutenant C. J. Ball, at Keokuk, on the 17th of August, 1862. 

The twentieth regiment was composed mainly of companies or- 
ganized in the counties of Linn and Scott, with the following field 
and staff officers : W. McE. Dye, colonel ; Jos. B. Leake, lieutenant 
colonel ; W. G. Thompson, major ; J. H. Eice, quartermaster ; H. 
Eestine, surgeon ; A. 0. Blanding, assistant surgeon, and U. Eber- 
hart, chaplain ; and was mustered into the government service by 
Capt. H. B. Hendershott, at Clinton, on the 25th of August, 1862. 

The twenty-first regiment was formed from companies organized 
in the counties of Mitchell, Clayton, Dubuque and Delaware, with 
the following field officers : Samuel Merrill, colonel ; W. W. 
Dunlap, lieutenant colonel ; S. G. Van Anda, major ; H. M. Poole, 
adjutant ; Chas. E. Moore, quartermaster ; Wm. A. Hyde, surgeon ; 
Lucius Benham, assistant surgeon, and S. P. Sloan, chaplain. The 
regiment was mustered into the government service at Clinton, 

304 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

June, 1862, and a part at Dubuque in August, by Capt. H. B. 
Hendershott, U. S. A. 

The twenty-second regiment was made up of companies enlist- 
ed in the counties of Johnson, Jasper, Monroe and Wapello, and 
was mustered into the government service at Iowa City, Septem- 
ber 10, 1862. The following were the field officers : Wm. M. 
Stone, colonel ; John A. Garrett, lieutenant colonel ; Harvey 
Graham, major ; Jos. B. Atherton, adjutant ; G. F. Lovelace, quar- 
termaster ; Wm. H. White, surgeon ; A. B. Lee, assistant surgeon, 
and R. B. Allender, chaplain. 

The twenty-third regiinent was organized from companies 
formed in the counties of Story, Polk, Dallas, Wayne. Pottawat- 
tomie and Marshall, and mustered into the government service at 
Des Monies in the month of September, 1862, by Lieut. C. J. 
Ball, U. S. A., and was officered as follows : Wm. Dewey, 
colonel ; W. H. Kingman, lieutenant colonel ; S. L. Glasgow, 
major; C. 0. Dewey, adjutant; R. W. Cross, quartermaster ; A. 
H. East, surgeon ; S. V. Campbell, assistant surgeon, and A. J. 
Barton, chaplain. 

The twenty-fourth regiment was formed from companies organ- 
ized in the counties of Jackson, Clinton, Adair and Linn, and 
was mustered in the government service by Capt. H. B. Hender- 
shott, at Muscatine in September, 1862. The following were the 
field officers : Eber C. Byam, colonel ; J. Q. Wilds, lieutenant 
colonel : Ed. Wright, major; Chas. L. Byam, adjutant; L. Bald- 
win, Jr., quartermaster; J. F. Ely, surgeon ; H. M. Lyons, assist- 
ant surgeon ; F. W. Vinton, chaplain. 

The twenty-fifth regiment was organized from companies enlisted 
in Washington, Henry, Des Monies and Louisa, and was mus- 
tered into the government service at Mount Pleasant in Septem- 
ber, 1862, by Capt. Geo. S. Pierce. The field officers were, Geo. 
A. Stone, colonel; Fabian Brydolf, lieutenant colonel; Calvin 
Taylor, major; S. Kirkwood Clark, adjutant ; Fred. J. Clark, 
•juartermaster ; W. S. Marsh, surgeon; Jas. D. Gray, assistant 
surgeon, and Thos. E. Corkbill, chaplain. 

The twenty-sixth regiment was made up of enlisted men from 
the county of Clinton, and was mustered into the government 
service September and October, 1862, by Capt. H. B. Hender- 


306 Tuttlk's IlisTOSY OF Iowa. 

shott, at Clinton. The officers of the regiment were, Milo Smith, 
colonel ; Samuel Q. Magill, lieutenant colonel ; Samuel Clark, 
major; Thos. G. Ferreby, adjutant; Thos. H. Flint, quartermaster ; 
A. T. Hudson, surgeon ; W. McQuigg, assistant surgeon, and 
John McLeish, Jr., chaplain. 

The twenty-seventh regiment was raised by companies organ- 
ized in the counties of Alamakee, Buchanan, Clayton, Delaware, 
Floyd, Chickasaw and Mitchell, and was' mustered into the gov- 
ernment service at Dubuque, in October, 1862, by Capt. Gr. 3. 
Pierce. The commanding officers were, James I. Gilbert, colonel ; 
Jed. Lake, lieutenant colonel ; Geo. W. Howard, major ; Chas A. 
Comstock, adjutant; 0. P. Shiras, quartermaster; J. E. Sanborn, 
surgeon ; D. C. Hasting, assistant surgeon, and D. N. Bordwell, 

The twenty-eighth regiment was formed of companies enlisted 
in the counties of Iowa, Benton, Johnson, Jasper, Poweshiek and 
Tama, and was mustered into the United States service at Iowa 
City, in October, 1862, by Capt. H. B. Hendershott. The follow- 
ing were the field officers : Wm. E. Miller, colonel ; John Con- 
nell, lieutenant colonel ; H. B. Lynch, major ; J. E. Pritcbard, 
adjutant; Thos. Hughes, quartermaster; J. W. H. Vest, surgeon, 
and W. P. Lathrop, assistant surgeon. 

The twenty-ninth regiment was made up of companies organ- 
ized in the counties of Pottawattomie, Mills, Harrison, Adams, 
Adair, Fremont, Taylor, Ringgold, Union and Guthrie. The 
regiment was mustered into the government service at Council 
Bluffs in December, 1862, by Lieut. Horace Brown. The field 
officers were : Thos. H. Benton Jr., colonel ; Eobert F. Patterson, 
lieutenant colonel ; Chas. B. Shoemaker, major ; Jos. Lyman, ad- 
jutant ; W. W. Wilson, quartermaster ; W. S. Grimes, surgeon ; 
W. L. Nicholson, assistant surgeon, and J. M. Conrad, chap- 

The thirtieth regiment was organized by recruits from the 
counties of Lee, Davis, Des Moines, Washington, Yan Buren and 
Jefl'erson, and mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, 
in September, 1862, by Lieut. C. J. Ball. The field officers were : 
Chas. H. Abbott, colonel ; W. M. G. Torrence, lieutenant colonel ; 
Lauren Dewey, major; Edwin Eeiner, adjutant; Samuel Lock- 

lovTA IN THE War. 307 

wood, quartermaster ; J. W. Bond, surgeon ; Peter Walker, assis- 
tant surgeon, and John Burgess, chaplain. 

The thirty-first regiment was composed of companies organized 
in the counties of Linn, Black Hawk, Jones and Jackson, and 
was enrolled or mustered into the government service at Keo- 
kuk and Davenport, in the months of September and October, 
1862, by Capt. H. B. Hendershott, and Lieut. H. C. Freeman. 
The commissioned officers were :^ Wm. Smith, colonel ; Jeremiah 
W. Jenkins, lieutenant colonel; Ezekiel Cutter, major; E. 0. 
Blackman, adjutant; A. J. Twogood, quartermaster; G. L. Car- 
hart, surgeon ; Lucius French, assistant surgeon, and D. S. Starr, 

The thirty-second regiment was made up of recruits from a 
large number of counties in the state, more particularly from 
Harden, Hamilton, Wright, Cerro Grordo, Boone, Butler, Frank- 
lin, Webster, Story and Marshall. The following were the com- 
missioned officers: John Scott, colonel ; Edward H. Mix, lieuten- 
ant colonel; G. A. Eberhart, major; Chas. Aldrich, adjutant; 
T. C. McCall, quartermaster ; S. B. Olney, surgeon ; Jesse Was- 
son, assistant surgeon, and L. F. Coffin, chaplain. The regiment 
was mustered into the government service at Dubuque, in Oc- 
tober, 1862, by Capt. G. S. Pierce. 

The thirty-third regiment was organized by companies organized 
in Marion, Keokuk and Mahaska counties, and was mustered 
into the United States service at Oskaloosa, in October, 1862, by 
Lieut. C. J. Ball. The regimental officers were : Samuel A. Rice, 
colonel ; C. H. Mackey, lieutenant colonel ; H. D. Gribson, major ; 
F. F. E. Burlock, adjutant; H. B. Myers, quartermaster; Arad. 
Parks, surgeon ; J. Y. Hopkins, assistant surgeon, and R. A. 
McAyeal, chaplain. 

The thirty-fourth regiment was organized from companies 
formed from the counties of Decatur, Warren, Lucas and Wayne, 
and was mustered into the government service at Burl ington, 
October, 1862, by Lieut. C. J. Ball. The commanding officers 
were : Geo. W. Clark,colonel ; W. S. Dungan, lieutenant colonel ; 
R. D. Kellogg, major; J. D. Sarrer, quartermaster; C. W. Davis, 
surgeon; H. W. Jay, assistant surgeon, and U. P. GoUiday, 

308 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

The thirty-fifth regiment was formed by companies from Mus- 
catine, Louisa and Cedar counties, and was mustered into thegov- 
ernment service by Capt. H. B. Hendershott, at Muscatine, in 
the month of September, 1862, with the following field officers : 
Sylvester G. Hill, colonel ; Jas. H. Rathrock, lieutenant colonel ; 
EL O'Connor, major; F. L. Dayton, adjutant; L. Heiskell, 
quartermaster ; C. L. Chambers, surgeon ; S. M. Cobb, assistant 
surgeon, and F. W. Evans, chaplain. 

The thirty-sixth regiment was formed of companies enlisted in 
the counties of Monroe, Wapello. Appanoose and Wayne, and 
was officered as follows : Chas. W. Kittridge, colonel ; F. M. 
Drake, lieutenant colonel ; T. C. Woodward, major ; A. Gr. Ham- 
ilton, adjutant ; S. W. Merrill, quartermaster ; M. Cousins, sur- 
geon ; C. G. Strong, assistant surgeon, and M. H. Hare, chaplain. 
The regiment was mustered into the United States service by 
Lieut. C. J. Ball, at Keokuk, in October, 1862. 

The thirty-seventh regiment was made up from twenty or more 
counties of the state, mainly from Black Hawk, Linn, Lee, Mus 
catine. Van Buren, Johnson, Iowa, Wapello, Mahaska, Dubuque, 
Appanoose, Henry, Washington, Jasper, Jones, Scott, Fayette, 
Clinton and Monroe, and was mustered into the government ser 
vice at Muscatine, in the month of December, 1862, by Capt. H. 
B. Hendershott. The field and staff officers were as follows : Geo. 
W. Kincaid, colonel ; Geo. R West, lieutenant colonel ; Lyman 
Allen, major; D. H. Goodno, adjutant; Prentis Ransom, quarter 
master ; J. N. Finley, surgeon ; G. S. Dewitt, assistant surgeon 
and J. H. White, chaplain. 

The thirty-eighth regiment was organized in the counties of 
Fayette, Bremer, Chickasaw, Winnesheik and Howard, and was 
mustered into the government service at Dubuque, the 4th of No 
vember, 1862, by Lieut. C. J. Ball. The field officers were : D. 
H. Hughes, colonel ; Jas. 0. Hudnutt, lieutenant colonel ; C. 
Chad wick, major; H. W. Pettitt, adjutant; M. R. Lyons, quarter 
master; H. W. Hart, surgeon; E. A. Duncan, assistant surgeon 
and John Webb, chaplain. 

The thirty-ninth regiment was organized in the counties of 
Madison, Polk, Dallas, Clarke, Greene, Des Moines and Decatur, 
and was mustered into the United States service by Capt. H. B. 

Iowa /^ the Was. 309 

Hendershott, at Davenport, in November, 1862. The commis- 
sioned officers were : H. J. B. Cummings, colonel ; Jas. Redfield, 
lieutenant colonel ; Jos. M. Griffiths, major ; Geo. C. Tichenor, 
adjutant; Fred. Mott, quartermaster; P. N. Woods, surgeon ; W. 
L. Leonard, assistant surgeon, and Thos. J. Taylor, chaplain. 

The fortieth regiment was formed in the counties of Marion, 
Poweshiek, Mahaska, Jasper, Keokuk and Benton, with the fol- 
lowing commissioned officers : John A. Garrett, colonel ; S. F. 
Cooper, lieutenant colonel; Sherman G. Smith, major; L. A. 
Duncan, adjutant; A. B. Miller, quartermaster; D. W. Robinson, 
surgeon ; A. S. Elwood, assistant surgeon, and S. Hestwood, 
chaplain. The regiment was mustered into the United States 
service by Capt. H. B. Hendershott, at Iowa City, in November, 

The forty-first regiment was organized in the counties of John- 
son, Black Hawk, Butler, Clinton, Jones, Des Moines and Cerro 
Gordo, and was mustered into the United States service by Capt. 
Alex. Chambers, at Iowa City, in October, 1862. The only com- 
missioned officer at that time was John Pattee, major. 

The above comprises all the infantry regiments prepared for 
the field in the year. 

A notice of the first four cavalry regiments organized in the 
year 1861, has been already made. Two additional regiments were 
organized in 1862. The fifth cavalry was organized with the fol- 
lowing field officers: W. W. Lowe, colonel; M. T. Patrick, lieu- 
tenant colonel ; C. S. de Bernstein, H. Baird, W. Kelsey and J. 
M. Young, majors ; Wm. Aston, adjutant ; E. Lowe, surgeon ; 
B. T. Wise, assistant surgeon. The regiment was mustered in the 
service by companies, a portion at Dubuque, and a part at St. 
Louis. One company was enrolled in Douglas, Nebraska, two 
companies in Minnesota, and one in Missouri. 

The sixth cavalry was made up of companies organized in the 
counties of Scott, Clinton, Dubuque, Delaware, Chickasaw, Fay- 
ette, Winnesheik, Pottawattomie, Harrison, Montgomery, Wood- 
bury, Alamakee, Linn, Clayton, Johnson and Tama, and mus- 
tered into the government serxnce at Davenport, in January, 1863, 
by Capt H. B. Hendershott. The commanding officers were : D. 
S. Wilson, colonel ; S. L. Pollock, lieutenant colonel ; T. H. 

310 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

Shephard, E. P. Ten Broeck and A. E. House, majors ; E. L. 
Miller, adjutant; A. Williams, quartermaster; G. W. Trumbull, 
surgeon ; J. H. Camburn, assistant surgeon, and D. H. Mitchell, 

In addition to the above there were three batteries of light ar- 
tillery organized in 1861 and 1862. The first battery was en- 
rolled in the counties of Wapello, Des Moines, Dubuque, Jefifer- 
son, Black Hawk and others, and mustered into the United States 
service by Capt. Alex. Chambers, at Burlington, August 17, 
1861. Of this battery Chas. H. Fletcher was the first captain. 

The second battery was enrolled in the counties of Dallas, 
Polk, Harrison, Fremont and Pottawattomie, and mustered into 
the government service by Lieut. Lewis Merrill, at Coucil Bluffs 
and St. Louis, August 8 and 31, 1861 ; of which battery. Nelson 
T. Spoor was captain. 

The third battery was enrolled in the counties of Dubuque, 
Black Hawk, Butler and Floyd, and mustered into the govern- 
ment service by Capt. C. Washington, at Dubuque ; of this bat- 
tery, Mortimer M. Hayden was captain. 

The northern border brigade was composed of companies A to 
E, inclusive, of which James A. Sawyer was lieutenant colonel, 
and Lewis H. Smith, quartermaster. 

The southern border brigade, first battalion, was composed of 
two companies, of which Wm. Sale was captain of one, and Jos. 
Dickey of the other. The second battalion, two companies. Ho- 
sea B. Horn and Elisha D. Skinner, captains. The third battal- 
ion, three companies, Jas. H. Summers, E. F. Esteb and Nathan 
Miller, captains. The fourth battalion, three companies, Wash- 
ington Hoyt, John Flick and John Whitcomb, captains. 



Regimental History — Condensed History of Iowa in tlie War for the Union. 

The following regiments were organized and placed in the 
field in the year 1863, in addition to those raised in the years 
1861 and 1862. 

The seventh Iowa cavalry was formed from companies organ 
ized in the counties of Wapello, Keokuk, Mahaska, Appanoose 
Davis, Polk, Dubuque, Black Hawk, Jasper, Fayette, Clayton 
Webster, Winnesheik, Jefferson, Scott, Woodbury and Johnson 
The field officers were Samuel W. Summers, colonel ; John Pat 
tee, lieutenant colonel ; H. H. Heath, Geo. W. O'Brien and John 
S. Wood, majors ; A. J. Willey, surgeon ; J. W. La Force, as- 
sistant surgeon ; E. S. Sheffield, adjutant ; W. H. Northrop, quar- 
termaster. The regiment was mustered into the service of the 
United States by Lt. Col. W. N. Grier, at Davenport, in April, 
June and July, 1863. A portion of the regiment were taken 
from other regiments, the Sioux City cavalry being also attached 
to this regiment. 

The eighth cavalry was organized from companies enlisted in 
the counties of Page, Wapello, Van Buren, Ringgold, Des Moines, 
Clarke, Wayne, Lucas, Henry, Lee, Appanoose, Jackson, Mar 
shall, Cedar, Muscatine and Polk, with the following field officers 
Joseph B. Dorr, colonel ; Horatio G. Barnes, lieutenant colonel 
John J. Brown, Jas. D. Thompson and A. J. Price, majors ; J 
H. Isett, adjutant ; J. Q. A. Dawson, quartermaster ; J. E. Pritch 
ard, commissary; W. H. Finlay, surgeon: A. S. Carnahan, aS' 
sistant surgeon ; Thomas C. Clark, chaplain. The regiment was 
mustered, into the service of the United States by Lieut. Col. W. 
N. Grier,' at Davenport. September 30, 1863. 

Iowa m the Wab. 313 

The ninth cavalry was organized in the counties of Muscatine 
Taylor, Linn, Scott, Decatur, Davis, Wapello, Benton, Washing- 
ton, Fayette, Alamakee, Clayton, Winnesheik, Floyd, Harden 
Lee, Cedar, Hamilton, Clarke, Dallas, Jefferson, Keokuk, Jasper, 
and Shelby, and was mustered into the United States service 
by Lieut. Col. W. N. Grier, at Davenport, in November, 1863. 

The fourth battery of light artillery was organized by enlist 
ments from the counties of Mahaska, Mills, Fremont, Henry, etc. 
of which battery Philip H. Goode was captain ; the total number, 
rank and file, being 152 men, and was mustered into the govern 
ment service by Col. W. N. Grier, at Davenport, November 23 

The first infantry (African descent) was organized under special 
authority from the war department, under date July 27, 1863 
was ordered into quarters by Col. Wm. A. Pile, superintendent 
colored enlistments, August 16, 1863, and mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States, by Lieut. Col. W. N. Grier, at Keokuk. 
October 11, 1863. Of this regiment, John G. Hudson was colo 
nel ; Milton F. Collins, lieutenant colonel ; John L. Murphy, ma 
jor ; Theo. W. Pratt, adjutant ; Wm. McQueen, quartermaster 
Freeman Knowles, surgeon ; Jas. H. Pile, chaplain. 

At the general election of October 13, 1863, Wm. M. Stone re 
ceived for the office of governor, 86,122, and Jas. T. Tuttle, 
57,948 votes. 

The limits of this volume will not admit of a detailed state 
ment of the movements of the different regiments that left the 
state during the war. The following account will show some of 
the important engagements and battles in which each regiment 
took a part. Some of these engagements were fought with great 
bravery on the part of the Iowa troops, and with great loss of 
life. No state sent into the field a better class of citizen soldiery 
who I eiformed their duty with greater credit to their state and 
the government. 

The first infantry was mustered out of service Aug. 25, 1861, 
at the expiration of their three months' enlistment, at St. Louis. 
The only engagement this regiment was in was at Wilson Creek, 
Aug. 10, 1861. 

The second regiment was engaged at Fort Donelson, 1861 ; 

314 TuTTLEfs History of Iowa. 

Corinth, October, 1862 ; Shiloh, in the Atlanta campaign, at De- 
catur, Chickamauga, Liberty Church, Jackson, Dallas and Jones- 
borough. During the war, the second and third regiments were 
consolidated and made a battery of six companies, and the regi- 
ment of veteran volunteers mustered out July 12, 1865. 

The third regiment fought at Blue Mills, Mo., 1861 ; Shiloh, 
April, 1862 ; Hatchie, in the siege of Vicksburg, 1863 ; in the 
Meridian campaign, at Jackson and Atlanta, and was mustered 
out in June, July and November, 1864. 

The fourth regiment was engaged at Pea Ridge, Council Bluffs 
and on the western frontier; at the siege of Vicksburg, Chatta- 
nooga, Resaca, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta and 
Chickasaw Bayou, and was mustered out July 24, 1865. 

The fifth regiment took part in the operations at New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, luka, siege of Vicksburg, Corinth, Mission Ridge, 
Jackson and Champion Hills, and was disbanded in August, 1864. 
The veterans and recruits of the regiment were transferred to the 
fifth Iowa cavalry. 

The sixth regiment was actively engaged at Pittsburg Landing, 
Jackson, Miss. ; Mission Ridge, Altoona, Shiloh, Big Shanty 
and Kenesaw Mountain, and was mustered out of government 
service, at Louisville, July 21, 1865. 

The seventh regiment was engaged in the battles of Belmont, 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, luka, Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and in 
the Carolina campaigns, and was mustered out at Louisville, July 
12, 1865. 

The eighth regiment was engaged at Shiloh, Vicksburg, Win- 
chester, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Memphis, Spanish Fort, 
Bayou de Glaize and Old River Lake, and was mustered out, 
April 20, 1866, at Selma, Ala. 

The ninth regiment was engaged at Pea Ridge, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Dallas, Resaca, Vicksburg and Atlanta, and was mus- 
tered out July 18, 1865, at Louisville. 

The tenth regiment was in the engagements at Corinth, siege of 
Vicksburg, Champion Hills, New Madrid, Island No. 10, luka, 
Port Gibson, Jackson, Mission Ridge, and was in the march from 
Atlanta to Savannah. The regiment was mustered out at Little 
Rock, Ark., Aug. 15, 1865. 

Iowa m the War. 315 

The eleventh regiment was in the battles of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, Shiloh, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-jack Creek, and was mus- 
tered out of service, July 15, 1865, at Louisville, Ky. 

The twelfth regiment was engaged in the battles of Shiloh, 
Pittsburg Landing, Fort Donelson, Jackson, siege of Vicksburg, 
Brandon, mouth of White river, Tupelo, Nashville, Brentwood 
Hills, Spanish Fort, Little Rock, Brownsville, Goose Creek, and 
was mustered out of service, at Memphis, Tenn., Jan. 20, 1866. 

The thirteenth regiment served at Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, 
Atlanta, Colliersville, Shiloh, and was mustered out of service, 
July 21, 1865, at Louisville, Ky. 

The fourteenth regiment was engaged in service at Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, Fort de Russey, Pleasant Hill, Bayou de Glaize, Tu- 
pelo and Town Creek. The regiment, except veterans and re- 
cruits, was mustered out of service, at Davenport, Nov. 16, 1864 ; 
the latter were consolidated into two companies, called the 
" Residuary Battalion of the fourteenth infantry," and were mus- 
tered out, Aug. 8, 1865. 

The fifteenth regiment served at the battles of Pittsburg Land- 
ing, siege of Corinth, Vicksburg, Atlanta, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Canton, Ezra's Church, luka and Jackson. It was mustered out 
of service, at Louisville, July 2-1, 1865. 

The sixteenth regiment was engaged at Pittsburg Landing, 
Corinth, Vicksburg, Atlanta, luka, Kenesaw Mountain, Big 
Shanty, and Nick-a-jack Creek, and was mustered out of service 
July 19, 1865, at Louisville, Ky. 

The seventeenth regiment was engaged at luka, Corinth, Cham- 
pion Hills, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, Tilton, Mission Ridge, and 
Jackson, and was mustered out of service at Louisville, July 25, 

The eighteenth regiment was engaged at Winchester, Fisher's 
Hill, Cedar Creek, Springfield, Mo., Prairie D'Anne, and Poison 
Springs, and mustered out of service at Little Rock, July 20, 1865. 

The nineteenth regiment was engaged at Prairie Grove, siege 
of Vicksburg, Brownsville, Spanish Fort, Atchafaylaya, Pascagou- 
la. Sterling's Farm, and was mustered out of service at Mobile, 
Ala., July 10, 1865. 

The twentieth regiment served at Prairie Grove, siege of Vicks. 

316 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

burg, Fort Morgan, Atchafaylaya, Matagorda Bay, and was mus- 
tered out of service at Mobile, Ala., July 8, 1865. 

The twenty-first regiment was engaged at the siege of Vicks- 
burg, Wood's Fork, Hartsville, Mo., Winchester, Jackson, Port 
Gibson, Black Eiver Bridge, Fort Blakely, and was mustered out 
of service at Baton Eouge, La,, July 15, 1865. 

The twenty-second regiment was engaged in the battles of Port 
Gibson, Cedar Creek, Thompson's Hill, Black River Bridge, Ope- 
quan or Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and at the siege of Vicksburg, 
and the Red Ri\-er expedition, and mustered out at Savannah, 
July 25, 1865. 

The twenty-third regiment was engaged in the battles at Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, siege of Vicksburg, Jackson, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek, and was 
mustered out of service at Harrisburg, Texas, July 26, 1865. 

The twenty-fourth regiment was engaged in the battles at Port 
Gibson, Champion Hills, Vicksburg, Jackson, Sabine Cross Roads, 
Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek, and was mustered 
out of service at Savannah, Ga., July 17, 1865. 

The twenty fifth regiment was engaged at Arkansas Post, Vicks- 
burg, Lookout Mountain, Missouri Ridge, Ringgold, Resaca, At- 
lanta, and Bentonville, and was mustered out at Washington, D. 
C, June 6, 1865. 

The twenty-sixth regiment was engaged in battle at Arkansas 
Post, Black River Bridge, Jackson, Ala., Resaca, and was mus- 
tered out of the government service at Washington, D. C, June 
6, 1865. 

The twenty -seventh regiment was engaged at Nashville, Pleas- 
ant Hill, Jackson, Old Oaks, La Grange, Ft. Blakeley, Black 
River Bridge, Yellow Bayou, Old Town Creek, and Mansura, and 
mustered out of service August 8, 1865, at Clinton. 

The twenty-eighth regiment was engaged in the battles and en- 
gagements at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Vicksburg, Jackson, 
Sabine Cross Roads, Cane Eiver, Middle Bayou, Winchester, 
Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, Mansura, Yellow Bayou, and was 
mustered out at Savannah, Ga., July 31, 1865. 

The twenty-ninth regiment was engaged at Parker's Cross Roads, 
Spanish Fort, Helena, Mobile, Brownsville, Terrensir, Prairie 

318 TuTTLffs History of Iowa. 

d'Annie, Liberty, and Jenkins' Ferry. The regiment was mus- 
tered out of service at New Orleans, August 10, 1865. 

The thirtieth regiment was engaged at Haines Bluff, Arkansas 
Post, Einggold, Atlanta, Jonesboro', Vicksburg, Resaca, Kene- 
saw Mountain, Dallas, Mission Ridge, Cherokee Nation, and Ezra 
Church, and was mustered out of service at Washington, D. C, 
June 5, 1865. 

The thirty-first regiment was in service at Raymond, Vicksburg, 
luka. Mission Ridge, Walnut Hills, Big Shanty, Lookout Mount- 
ain, Arkansas Post, Jonesboro', and Atlanta, and was mustered 
out of service at Louisville, June 27, 1865. 

The thirty-second regiment was engaged at Pleasant Hill, La., 
Tupelo, Lake Chicot, Yellow Bayou, Old Town Creek, Ft. De 
Russey, and in the Red River expedition. The regiment was 
mustered out of service at Clinton, August 24, 1865. 

The thirty-third regiment was engaged in battle at Jenkins' 
Ferry, Ark., Helena, Saline River, Memphis and Princeton, and 
mustered out at New Orleans, July 17, 1865. 

The thirty-fourth regiment was engaged at Arkansas Post, 
Chickasaw Bluff, Vicksburg, Yazoo City, Fort Esperanza and 
Blakely. The regiment was consolidated with the 38th regiment, 
and was mustered out at Houston, Texas, August 15, 1865. 
Five companies of this regiment were consolidated into a battalion 
November 12, 1864, and on the 1st of January, 1865, were con- 
solidated with the 38th infantry and known as the 34th infantry 

The thirty-fifth regiment was engaged at Jackson, Pleasant Hill, 
Bayou de Glaize, Mansura, Tupelo, Old River Lake, Nashville, 
Bayou Rapids, Lake Chicot, and was mustered out of service at 
Davenport, August 10, 1865. 

The thirty-six regiment was engaged at Helena, Vicksburg, 
Mark's Mills, Prairie D'Annie, Elkins Ford and in the Ya- 
zoo expedition, and was mustered out of service August 24, 

The thirty-seventh and thirty eighth regiments are not record- 
ed as having been engaged in any important battles. The first 
was mustered out of service at Daveuport ; the latter was consol- 
idated with the 34th regiment, December 31, 1864, forming five 

luJf'A IN THE War. 319 

companies of the reorganized regiment, wtiich retained the name 
of the 34th infantry. 

The thirty-ninth regiment was engaged at Parker's Cross 
Eoads, Tenn., Altoona and at Shady Grove, where the regiment 
was taken by the enemy, and was subsequently mustered out of 
service at Washington, D. C, June 5, 1865. 

The fortieth regiment was not called into open battle with the 
enemy except at Jenkins' Ferry, Ark., in 1864, and was mustered 
out of service at Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation, August 2, 1865. 

The other infantry regiments of the state were not called to 
meet the enemy in force during their enlistment. The forty-first 
battalion, of three companies, became three companies of the 7th 
Iowa cavalry. The forty-fourth regiment was mustered out at 
Davenport, September 15, 1864 ; the forty-fifth (hundred days 
men) was mustered out at Keokuk, September 16, 1864; the 
forty-sixth, the same, was mustered out at Davenport, September 
23, 1864; the forty- seventh, not reported; the fort3'.eighth was 
mustered out at Rock Island, Octobor 21, 1864 ; the first or six- 
tieth United States volunteers was mustered out at Duvall's 
Bluff, October 15, 1865. 

Of the cavalry regiments of the state it is impossible to give a 
particular notice, owing to the nature of their work. The move- 
ments of the regiments were rapid, and they were engaged in the 
field as regiments, by battalions and companies. A particular 
account of their operations and also of the batteries of light artil- 
lery may be found in the reports of the adjutant general for the 
years 1861 to 1865 inclusive. 



Last Message of Gov. Kirkwood — Summary of War Statistics — State Mat- 
ters — Election Canvass — Laws of the Tenth General Assembly — Elec- 
tion Notes. 

The tenth general assembly of the state of Iowa convened at 
Des Moines, on the 11th day of January, 1861:, and was organ- 
ized permanently in the senate, by Lieut. Gov. Needham 
taking his seat as president, and the election of W. F. Davis, as 
secretary ; and in the house by the election of Jacob Butler, as 
speaker, and Jacob Rich, chief clerk. 

The message of Gov. Kirkwood was sent to each branch of the 
general assembly, from which the following statistics are taken, 
and also his views and recommendations on matters of public in- 
terest : 

" The finances of the state are reported as being in a healthy 
condition. The entire state debt is only $622,295.75, consisting 
of loans from the school fund, $122,295.75 ; loan of 1858, $200,000, 
and war loan of 1861, $300,000. Of the $800,000 of war bonds 
authorized to be sold, $500,000 remain on hand — none have been 
offered since the $300,000 were sold ; and it is believed no fur- 
ther sales will be necessary. The report of the state auditor 
shows that the moneys now in the state treasury, the delinquent 
taxes, the amount estimated to be due from the United States, 
and the taxes for 1863 and 1864, are sufficient to pay the esti- 
mated expenditures for the next two years, leaving a balance in 
the treasury of $200,000. There is also due the state from the 
United States, for expenses incurred by the state in raising and 
equipping troops and sending them to the field, and for other 
purposes growing out of the rebellion, the estimated amount of 
$300,000. There is much difficulty in procuring an adjustment 

Administeation of Gov. Stone. 32] 

of this claim at Washington. These moneys were expended by 
the state when there was no law of congress or regulation of the 
federal government (prescribing the form in which proof of the 
expenditures should be taken. Upon presenting the vouchers 
and proofs, as provided for by the general assembly of the state, 
to the proper department at Washington they are found not to 
comply in form with regulations since adopted by that depart- 
ment, and it is doubtful whether these accounts will be allowed 
without some legislation by congress. Reference is made to the 
various grants of land to the state for school, university, railroad 
and other purposes of which it is not necessary to give particu- 
lars. The management of these funds and lands is reported as 

"The state university is in a flourishing condition, and has 
over three hundred and fifty students in attendance. It is recom- 
mended to the favorable consideration of the general assembly. 
At the commencement of the ninth general assembly, 1862, the 
state had organized and sent to the field fourteen regiments of 
infantry, three regiments of cavalry and three batteries of artil- 
lery ; and had in progress of organization two regiments of in- 
fantry and one of cavalry. Of these regiments, the first infantry 
was enlisted for three months, and had then been mustered out 
of service. All the others were enlisted for three years. Since 
the commencement of that session the two regiments of infantry 
and one of cavalry, then incomplete, have been organized, and in 
addition thereto, twenty-four regiments of infantry, five regiments 
of cavalry and one battery have been enlisted ; and all for three 
years. Besides these complete organizations, a large number of 
men have been enlisted for regiments in the field. I have not 
been able as yet to ascertain whether the quota of this state, 
under the last call of the president for volunteers to fill the ranks 
of our veteran regiments has been filled ; if it has not, the defi- 
ciency cannot be large, if the proper credit has been given by the 
provost marshal general for our excess over all quotas previously 
called for, and can be easily and promptly filled by draft 

" Besides the troops thus furnished to the army of the union, 
there were organized, as required by the acts of the extra session 
of 1862, five companies of mounted men for the protection of the 

322 Tuttle's History of Iotta. 

northwestern frontier against the Indians, and ten companies of 
mounted men on the southern border, to protect the persons and 
property of the people on that line against the depredations of 
organized bands of guerillas from Missouri. The companies on 
the northwestern frontier have all been disbanded, and their place 
supplied by troops of the United States." 

The message closes with his views on national afiEairs, slavery 
and kindred matters. 

On the 13th of January, the two houses met in joint conven- 
tion to canvass the votes for governor and lieutenant governor. 
The canvass was concluded with the following result : 

The whole number of votes cast for governor was ... 142,314 

Of which William M. Stone received .... 86, 107 

James M. Tuttle received .... 56,132 

Scattering, ...... 75 

The whole number of votes cast for lieutenant governor was - 141, 605 

Of which Enoch W. Eastman received - - . 87,285 

John F. Buncombe received .... 54,804 

Scattering, ...... 16 

Whereupon the president announced that William M. Stone 
was duly elected governor of the state for the term of two years, 
and that Enoch W. Eastman was duly elected lieutenant governor 
for the term of two years, they having received a majority of all 
the votes cast at the election in October last. On the day follow- 
ing, the governor elect delivered his inaugural address. 

The two houses met again in joint convention, at which time 
Hon. James W. Grimes was elected United States senator for the 
term of six years, from the 4th of March, 1865 ; E. A. Layton, 
warden of the state penitentiary ; E. F. Edgerton, Eeuben Noble 
and L. T. Sherman,. directors of the State Bank of Iowa: Wil- 
liam Beckford, Thos. A. Graham and E. S. Griffith, bank com- 
missioners for the term of two years. The general assembly ad- 
journed sine die, March 29, 1864. 

The following acts were passed at the regular session of the 
tenth general assembly, in 1864: To increase the number of 
judges of the supreme court to four; for the encouragement of 
public libraries ; to encourage lead mining in the state ; to abol- 

324 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

ish the board of education, and for the election of a superintend- 
ent of public instruction, and prescribing his duties ; to appro- 
priate the sum of $20,000 to aid in the erection of a permanent 
building for an agricultural college ; also, a further appropriation 
for the hospital for the insane ; to provide for the erection of an 
arsenal building; for the improvement of the state penitentiary ; 
to appropriate the sum of $20,000 for an additional building for 
the state university for an astronomical observatory ; to provide 
for the payment of the just claims of certain officers and soldiers 
of Iowa regiments ; to organize and discipline the militia; to fa- 
cilitate the construction and operation of railroads in the state ; 
for the relief of the families of soldiers and marines in the ser- 
vice of the United States; and various appropriations for the 
support of the benevolent and charitable institutions of the state 
not before referred to. 

The state census, taken January, 1863, shows 354,661 males; 
346,181 females; 1,320 colored ; total, 702,162, of which number, 
135,068 were entitled to vote. 

At the presidential election in November, 1864, the vote of the 
state was as follows : 

Home vote for Abraham Lincoln, 
Soldiers' vote for Abraham Lincoln, 

Total, .-.-... 
Home vote for G. B. McClellan, .... 
Soldiers' vot« for G. B. McClellan, 


Majorit}' for Lincoln, ....... 39,979 

A secretary of state and members of congress were chosen at 
the same time. The vote for secretary of state was : Home vote 
for republican candidate (Ed. Wright), 72,517: soldiers' vote. 
17,254 ; total, 89,771. Home vote for democratic candidate (Hen- 
dershott), 48,056 ; soldiers' vote, 1860 : total, 49,910 ; majority for 
republican candidate, 39,861. The entire list of members of con- 
gress on the republican ticket were elected. To the general as- 
sembly the democrats elected less than fifteen members. 

The election of a governor and legislature in the year of 1865 
gave rise to an animated political canvass, during the summer and 
autumn, the main question involved in which was the extension 

Administration of Gov. Stone. 325 

of the elective franchise to the colored population of the state. 
In August a soldier's convention, which was largely attended, 
met at Des Moines and nominated a state ticket, composed of offi- 
cers recently in the national service, and headed by the name of 
Gen. Thomas H. Benton for governor. As the convention was 
ostensibly called and controlled by the opponents of colored suf- 
frage, it passed strong resolutions against the adoption of such 
measure, and issued an address to the soldiers of Iowa who were 
opposed to negro suffrage, urging them to support the candidates 
nominated by it The democratic convention which assembled 
at the same time and place as the above made no nomination, but 
indorsed the candidates and resolutions of the soldiers' conven- 
tion. In a letter accepting the nomination, Gen. Benton avowed 
himself a republican and an opponent of negro suffrage, on the 
ground that the period had not arrived for so radical a change in 
the political organization of the state, and that such a change 
would prove, under existing circumstances, detrimental, rather 
than beneficial to the colored race. 

The republican convention renominated Gov. Wm. M. Stone 
for office, and among other resolutions, adopted one in favor of 
making the elective franchise conditional only upon loyalty to 
the constitution and the union, and recognized the equality of all 
men before the law. An additional resolution recommending an 
amendment to the constitution of the state, so as to give the elec- 
tive franchise to colored men, was adopted by a large majority. 

The election took place on the second Monday of October, 
1865, and resulted in the return of Wm. M. Stone by a majority 
of about 16,500 over Gen. Benton. The remaining candidates on 
the republican ticket received majorities of 20,000 and upwards. 
Gov. Stone received a smaller majority than his associates on the 
republican ticket, from the fact, that he was more strongly com- 
mitted than they in favor of negro suffrage. The legislature 
(elected for 1866) stood, senate, 43 republicans and 5 democrats ; 
house, 83 republicans and 15 democrats. 


Regimental History for 1864 — Legislature of 1860 — Gov. Stone's Message of 
1866 — Financial Statistics — Election Canvass — Election of Stone — 
Election of United States Senator — General Legislation. 

The following regiments were enlisted for the government 
service in the year 1864. The forty-fourth Iowa regiment at its 
organization was composed of the following field officers : Stephen 
H. Henderson, colonel ; Henry Egbert, lieutenant colonel ; Jo- 
siah Hopkins, major ; Evert F. Richman, adjutant ; A. J. Van 
Duzee, quartermaster ; James Irwin, surgeon ; J. H. Russell, as- 
sistant surgeon, and Martin Bowman, chaplain. The companies 
composing the regiment were enrolled in the counties of Dubuque, 
Muscatine, Delaware, Johnson, Butler, Jackson, Clinton, Mar- 
shall, Boone and Scott, and mustered into the government ser- 
vice at Davenport, June 1, 1864, by Capt. Alex. Chambers. 

The forty-fifth regiment (one hundred days service) was com- 
posed of the following field officers when organized : Alva H. 
Bereman, colonel ; Samuel A. Moore, lieutenant colonel ; Jas. B. 
Hope, major ; A. W. Sheldon, adjutant ; J. P. Dawson, quarter- 
master ; W. W. Eastabrook, surgeon ; S. H. Stutsman, assistant 
surgeon, and Anson Skinner, chaplain. The companies were en- 
rolled in the counties of Henry, Washington, Lee, Davis, Des 
Moines, Louisa, Jefferson and Van Buren, and mustered into the 
government service by Capt. T. W. Walker, at Keokuk, May 25, 

The forty-sixth regiment at its organization was composed of 
the following officers : David B. Henderson, colonel ; Lorenzo 
D. Durbin, lieutenant colonel ; Geo. L. Torbert, major ; John L 
Harvey, adjutant; D. D. Holdridge, quartermaster; J. R. Dun- 
can, surgeon ; W. H. Rosser, assistant surgeon, and John Todd 

Iowa in the War. 327 

chaplain. The various companies were enrolled in the counties 
of Dubuque, Poweshiek, Dallas, Taylor, Fayette, Linn, Ringgold, 
Delaware, Winneshiek, Moni-oe, Wayne, Clarke, Cedar and Lucas, 
iinder the proclamation of the governor of the state for one hund- 
red days service, and were mustered into the United States service 
by Capt. Alex. Chambers, at Davenport, on the 10th of June 1864. 

The forty-seventh regiment was composed of the following field 
officers at the organization : Jas. P. Sanford, colonel ; John Wil- 
liams, lieutenant colonel ; Geo. J. North, majpr ; Geo. W. Devin, 
adjutant ; Sanford Harned, quartermaster ; Jas. D.Wright, surgeon ; 
Samuel B. Cherry, assistant surgeon, and Enoch Hoffman, chap- 
lain. The companies forming the regiment were enrolled from 
the counties of Marion, G\&j^io\i, Appanoose, Benton, Wapello, 
Buchanan, Madison, Polk, Johnson, Keokuk, Mahaska, and were 
mustered into the government service by Lieut. A. A Harbach, 
at Davenport, on the Ith of June, 1864. This regiment was en- 
rolled under the proclamation of the governor for one hundred 
days service. 

The forty-eighth infantry was a battalion of four companies. 
The field officers were, Oliver H. P. Scott, lieutenant colonel ; 
Wm. T. Hayes, adjutant; Lewis Todhunter, quartermaster; 
John A. Blanchard, surgeon ; Charles L. Wund't, assistant sur- 
geon. The companies were enrolled in the counties of Warren, 
Jasper, Decatur, Lee and Des Moines for one hundred days ser- 
vice and mustered into the government service by Capt. Alex. 
Chambers, at Davenport, on the 13th of July, 1864. 

The eleventh general assembly of the state convened at Des 
Moines on the 8th of January, 1866. The senate was organized 
by lieutenant governor Eastman, taking the chair as president, 
and the election of J. W. Dixon, secretary ; and in the house, by 
the election of Ed. Wright, speaker, and Chas. Aldrich, chief 

The annual message of the governor (W. M. Stone) was sent 
the same day to each branch of the general assembly and was 
read by the secretary of the senate and the chief clerk of the house 
The following extracts of the governmental history of the state for 
the two years preceding are taken therefrom : He commences 
by saying that he deems it expedient for the information of the 

828 TuTTL^s History of Iowa. 

assembly to present, in connection with the financial statement, 
an exhibit of the state military expenditures from the beginning 
of the war to the present time : 

" There was expended for military purposes from 

May, 1861, to November 4, 1861, $233,568 48 

November 4, 1861, to November 2, 1863, - - - 639, 163 85 

November 2, 1863, to November 4, 1865, .... 169,23100 

November 4, 1865, to January 1, 1866, .... 4,047 71 

" These dates express the periods within which the above sums 
were paid, but not when they were actually incurred. The 
amount incurred from January 14, 1864, to January 1, 1866, is 
$44,931. 32. Total military expenditures for all purposes up to 
January 1, 1866, are $1,046,735.99. 

" It will be observed that most of these expenditures were in- 
curred during the period beginning with the war and closing with 
the fiscal year 1863. This was caused by our being compelled, 
in order to facilitate the military operations of the general govern- 
ment to defray a large portion of the expenses incurred in enlist- 
ing, transporting, subsisting, quartering and paying the volunteer 
forces organized in this state. The sums thus expended were re- 
garded merely, as money advanced to the United States, for which, 
under the acts of congress approved respectively July 17th and 
27th, 1861, we are entitled to reimbursement. 

" Although we have filled four several requisitions of the presi- 
dent for troops, and organized four regiments and one battalion, 
during the last two years, yet the entire cost to the state will not 
exceed one thousand dollars. While I was anxious that our state 
should promptly discharge its entire duty in contributing to the 
national defense, in the way of furnishing men, I refused to defray 
the expense involved in recruiting and forwarding our quotas from 
the state treasury ; and accordingly the expenditures thus made 
were paid by disbursing officers assigned by the war department. 
The residue of the expenditure of these two years was incurred in 
organizing the state militia, under act of the general assembly, ap- 
proved March 26, 1865, transporting arms and ammunition, expense 
of the adjutant general's office, detail of men for protecting south- 
em bo rder counties from threatened raids in the fall of 1864 and 
the winter of 1865, and for all other military purposes except the 
sanitary department. 

330 TvTTLtfs History of Iowa. 

We give in the following a somewhat lengthy extract from the 
governor's message in relation to Iowa's war claims against the 
United States. The history of these claims, and the difficulties 
in settling them, is a subject worthy the able treatment given it 
by the governor : 

" I desire in this connection, as briefly as I can, to present the 
condition of our claims against the United States for reimburse- 
ment under the acts of congress above referred to. The suras 
embraced in these claims were mostly expended during the first 
and second years of the war from the war and defense fund, ap- 
propriated by act of the special session, May, 1861. The history 
of our military transactions during this period is too well known 
to the members of your honorable body to require explanation 
here. The evidence is perfectly clear that these claims are for 
money unavoidably expended for legitimate military purposes ; 
and also that they were allowed, audited and paid by the account- 
ing and disbursing officers of the state, in strict conformity with 
the laws of the general assembly. Upon this point there has 
never been any room for controversy, as the accounting officers of 
the United States treasury freely concede. But the real difficulty 
between us arises from the fact, that, after a large share of these 
claims had been paid by the state in the utmost good faith, the 
secretary of the United States treasury adopted a set of regula- 
tions exceedingly technical and unreasonable in their character, 
by which the accounting officers of that department were required 
to be governed in examining the military claims of the several 
states. In the biennial message of my predecessor, under whose 
administration these transactions occurred, this conflict is fully 
explained, as follows : ' There is due this state, from the United 
States, for expenses incurred by the state in raising and equip- 
ping troops, and sending them to the field, and for other purposes 
growing out of the rebellion, the jestimated amount of $300,000. 
There is much difficulty in procuring an adjustment of this claim 
at Washington. When these moneys were expended by the 
state, there was no law of congress, or regulation of the federal 
government, prescribing the form in which proof o£ the expendi- 
ture should be taken ; and the general assembly of this state pro- 
vided, by law, for such proofs and vouchers as were deemed suf- 

Iowa ix the War. 331 

ficient, both for the protection of the state and the United States. 
Upon presentation of these proofs and vouchers to the proper de- 
partment at Washington, they are found not to comply, in form, 
with regulations since adopted by that department; and it is 
doubtful whether they will be allowed without some legislation 
by congress. Some portions of these expenditures, thus made, 
are also objected to as not coming within the letter of existing 
laws of the United States. Among these are the sums paid by 
the state for the subsistence and pay of the troops that went from 
this state to Missouri, at the request of the United States officers, 
under the command of Cols. Edwards and Morledge.' 

" I fully concur in the opinion that the United States is under 
obligation to reimburse this state for money expended in defend- 
ing our frontiers from Indian depredations. The general govern- 
ment having assumed exclusive jurisdiction over the Indian 
tribes, and, being therefore responsible for their conduct, should 
willingly refund all money necessarily expended by this state in 
protecting its borders against their savage incursions. The claim 
for money expended in maintaining the northern border brigade 
rests upon this ground. The organization of the southern brigade 
was rendered necessary, in the opinion of the general assembly, 
to protect the border counties from the depredations of guerrilla 
bands existing in the adjacent state of Missouri. These expendi- 
tures, though constituting just claims against the United States, 
in the absence of any general law covering the case, will not 
probably be secured to us without further legislation by congress. 
This matter is respectfully referred to your consideration. 

" In compliance with the provisions of chapter 61, acts of the 
last session, I visited Washington and found the military claims 
of the state in a very unsatisfactory condition. But little progress 
had been made in their examination, and, under the regulations 
above referred to, most of them were necessarily suspended as the 
examination advanced. I pointed out the gross hardship of these 
regulations to the secretary of the treasury, and repeatedly solic- 
ited their modification, so as to make them conform to the laws of 
this state, under which our claims were allowed and paid. Fail- 
ing in this, I presented the matter to the president, who readily 
perceived their injustice, and gave his opinion to the third audi- 

332 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

tor of the treasury, that under the circumstances, they should 
not be rigorously applied in the examination of the Iowa claims. 
Although this opinion was freely expressed by the president, yet 
he declined to make any positive order for the modification of 
these rules, on the ground that the subject was within the peculiar 
province of the secretary of the treasury. Repeated efforts have 
been made by myself and others for a suspension or change of 
the regulations mentioned, so as to procure a favorable examina- 
tion of our claims, but so far the labor has been unavailing. 

" On the first of October last, I was advised by the third audi- 
tor that the preliminary examination of the Iowa claims had 
been concluded, and a ' statement of differences ' forwarded. 
From this statement, now in the executive office, it appears that 
the total amount of Iowa claims on file in the treasury depart- 
ment is about $616,789.07. Of this amount, $20,825.00 have 
been allowed ; $430,326.70 suspended, and $165,589.23 disal- 

" All the money derived to the state treasury from the levy 
imposed by the act of January 31, 1862, has been absorbed in 
the redemption of warrants issued upon these war and defense 
claims, and was, therefore, a virtual payment of them out of 
funds belonging to the United States, being sufficient, as will be 
perceived, with the $100,000 advanced to the state, to more 
than cover the entire amount of our suspended demands against 

" Under these circumstances, I have determined to hold these 
unadjusted claims as an offset to this direct tax, unless otherwise 
directed by the general assembly. This course I have considered 
necessary to protect the interests of the state from what I am 
constained to regard as exceedingly disingenuous conduct on the 
part of the treasury department towards us. By pursuing this 
course, but little detriment can result to the state from the sus- 
pension of our claims. But as a final adjustment is desirable for 
both parties, steps should be taken to procure it without unneces- 
sary delay ; and I therefore recommend the appointment of a 
special committee to investigate the subject, and report a definite 
and practicable plan for securing a settlement." 

With regard to finances within the state, the governor said : 

Iowa in the Was. 333 

" Our financial affairs were never in a sounder condition. Dunng 
the entire period of the war we have levied but two mills on the 
dollar for state purposes ; and have incurred an indebtedness of 
only $300,000, which was for military expenditures duiring the 
first year of the war. The total amount received in the treasury 
during the fiscal two years ending November 4, 1865, was $977,- 
825.10; and the amount expended for all purposes for the same 
period is $952,739.42, leaving a balance in the treasury of $25,- 

" The total amount of state revenue derivable from general 
levy at two mills, and other sources for the ensuing biennial 
period, excluding the estimated balance due from the United 
States government, may be calculated at $1,311,002.87. 

" The total disbursements required for the same period for 
ordinary purposes, including payment of bonds ($200,000) due in 
1868, maybe estimated with approximate accuracy at $794,923.65, 
leaving a balance of $516,079.22 in favor of resources, from which 
to make such special appropriations as the general assembly shall 
deem expedient. 

" The entire debt of the state is only $622,295,75, consisting of 
$122,295.75 loaned from the permanent school fund, November 
12, 1864, loan of $200,000, payable January, 1868, and $300,000 
war defense bonds. 

" The amount loaned from the school fund is, practically, so 
much borrowed from ourselves, and is only a method resorted to 
for the permanent investment of that fund. The interest on this 
loan is due semi-annually ; but the principal is payable at the 
pleasure of the general assembly ; leaving only $500,000 as the 
actual indebtedness of the state. The $200,000 due January 
1, 1868, may be promptly met from present resources. The re- 
maining $300,000 are not due until 1881. 

" This record of economy and exemption from indebtedness is a 
subject of profound satisfaction to our people. 

" The annual interest on the bonds of 1858 amounts to $14,000 ; 
and, to curtail this expenditure as far as possible, I recommend 
the passage of an act authorizing the state treasurer to redeem 
these bonds as he may be able to secure them, out of money in 
the treasury not required for other purposes." 

334 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

In closing his message he says : '• The faithful services rendered 
during the late war by the troops from this state and their admira- 
ble conduct upon all occasions have furnished themes for abler 
pens than mine. Their fidelity and heroism have been often and 
appropriately acknowledged by the distinguished generals under 
whom they have served. It was their fortune to have borne a 
conspicuous part in all the renowned compaigns of the western divis- 
ion of the army, bravely participating in its bloodiest and most 
decisive engagements. When the history of this great conflict 
shall have been fully and impartially written, it will contain no 
brighter pages than those upon which the achievements of Iowa 
soldiers are recorded. A state which before the war was scarcely 
known except as a patch upon the map of the republic, to-day 
has a name calculated to excite becoming emotions \fi every 
manly and patriotic breast." 

The population of Iowa, according to the census of 1863, was 
as follows ; 

Total number of -whites, ...... 700,842 

Total number of blacks, ....... 1,330 

Total population, ....... 702,162 

According to the census of 1865, the population of Iowa was 
then as follows ; 

Total number of whites, ...... 751,125 

Total number of blacks, ....... 3,607 

Total population, ... . . 754,732 

No report for 1865 from the populous county of Winneshiek 
had been furnished, and the return for 1863 being taken for this 
county, a heavy increase was thereby omitted in the above calcu- 
lation. The census of 1865 also having been taken in the early 
portion of the year, the spring and fall immigration was necessarily 
left out. In all probability there were now over 20,000 people, 
residents of Iowa, not included for these reasons in the above 
statement, which would give an actual population of about 775,- 
000. It will be observed that the increase had been much greater 
during the last two years of the decade ending in 1865, than the 
former periods. 

336 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

On the 10th day of January, 1866, the two houses met again 
in joint convention to canvass the votes for governor and lieuten- 
ant governor of the state and declare the result When the can- 
vass was concluded, it appeared that the whole number of votes 
cast for governor was 124,869, of which William M. Stone re- 
ceived 70,445 ; Thomas H. Benton, 54,070 ; G. S. Bailey, 239 ; 
scattering, 115 ; and for the office of lieutenant governor the 
whole number of votes cast was 125,558, of which B. F. Grue, re- 
ceived 72,834 ; W. W. Hamilton, 52,308 ; L. W Babbit, 316 ; 
scattering, 130 ; whereupon the president announced that Wm. 
M. Stone was duly elected governor of the state for the term of 
two years from the second Monday in January, 1866 ; and B. F. 
Gue, duly elected lieutenant governor for the same period, they 
having a majority of all the votes cast at the election in October 
last On the succeeding day the governor and lieutenant gov- 
ernor elect appeared before the general assembly in joint conven- 
tion, and after administration of the oath of office by the chief 
justice of the supreme court, the governor delivered his inaugural 
message, after which the convention dissolved. 

On the 13th of January, the two houses again met in joint 
convention, for the purpose of electing United States senators ; 
1st, for the full term, commencing March 4, 1867, and 2d, for the 
unexpired terra made vacant by the resignation of Hon. James 
Harlan. The convention then proceeded to ballot for a senator 
for the short term. Hon. S. J. Kirkwood received 118 votes ; W. 
Stoneman, 20 votes ; 10 scattering, absent and not voting. The 
convention then proceeded to the election of a senator for the 
long term, when Hon. James Harlan received 118 votes ; H. HL 
Tremble, 20 votes : absent and not voting, 8. Mr. Kirkwood was 
declared elected for the short term, and Mr. Harlan for the long 
term, six years from March 4, 1867. 

The legislature adjourned on the 2d of April, after a session of 
twelve weeks. One of its first acts was to ratify the amendment 
to the constitution abolishing slavery. It also adopted several 
important series of resolutions relating to national affairs, sug- 
gested by the failure of congress and the president to agree upon 
a reconstruction policy. Of this class was a resolution instruct- 
ing the Iowa delegation in congress to use their best efforts to 

Iowa in the Was. 337 

secure the passage of the Freedman's Bureau bill, over the presi- 
dent's veto. Another series of resolutions instructed the Iowa 
delegation to oppose the admission of the seceded states, until 
they should incorporate in their fundamental laws provisions 
guarantying to all classes of inhabitants equal civil and political 
rights ; to aid in bringing the confederate leaders to trial and 
punishment, and in making the test oath perpetual ; and to insist 
that the revolted states be held within the grasp of the war 
power, if need be, until the negro be elevated by education, and 
the insurrectionists improved in morals. On the subject of 
punishment, a special resolution was adopted, that Jefferson 
Davis " is not a proper subject of executive clemency, and that it 
is the duty of the president of the United States to cause him to 
be brought to a fair and impartial trial before a proper tribunal, 
and if found guilty of the crime of treason, sufifer the penalty 
provided by law." Another resolution indorsed the action of 
congress in passing an act enfranchising the colored citizens of 
the District of Columbia. 

The following acts were also passed : To protect the earnings 
of married women; to provide for the completion of the state 
geological survey ; making an appropriation for completing and 
repairing the buildings of the state university ; also making fur- 
ther appropriations ($27,150) for the hospital for the insane ; for the 
blind asylum and for the agricultural college buildings ($91,000) ; 
permanently locating the deaf and dumb institution at Council 
Bluffs ; accepting of the grant and carrying into execution the 
trust conferred on the state by act of congress, 1864; apportion- 
ing the state into senate and assembly districts ; to provide for 
the settlement of certain claims against the general government ; 
an act regarding soldiers' orphans ; appropriating funds for the 
management of the benevolent institutions of the state, and also 
a number of acts regulating the terms of court in the different 
counties of the state ; amending and legalizing certain laws and 
the action of officers in the discharge of their various duties. 

At this session preliminary steps were taken to amend the state 
constitution by striking out the word, "white," wherever it oc- 
curs in that instrument, and by substituting the words, "persons" 
for "citizens of the United States," in section 1 of article III, and 

338 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

also by adding to section 5 of article II, an article prohibiting 
any person guilty of treason, or of having absconded for the pur- 
pose of avoiding any military conscription or draft, from holding 
oiSce in the state. In accordance with the constitutional pro- 
vision, these amendments were referred to the next legislature, 
which was to meet in January, 1868. 



The Des Moines Convention — Tlie National Union Party — Elections. 

The elections in Iowa in 1866 were for the purpose of filling 
the offices of secretary of state, state auditor, treasurer, register of 
the land office, attorney general and clerk of the supreme court, 
and also for choosing a delegation of six congressmen to represent 
the state in the forteith congress. The republican state conven- 
tion met at Des Moines on the 20th of June, and nominated the 
following candidates : for secretary of state. Col. Edward Wright ; 
state treasurer, Maj. S. E. Rankin ; state auditor, J. A. Elliot ; 
register of state land office, C. C. Carpenter ; attorney general, T. 
E. Bissell ; reporter of the supreme court, E. H. Stiles ; clerk of 
supreme court, Chas. Lindeman. Among the resolutions adopted 
was one heartily approving of the joint resolution passed by the 
last congress, proposing to the several states an additional amend- 
ment to the federal constitution, securing to all citizens of the 
United States, " regardless of race, religion or color, equality be- 
fore the law, equal protection from it, equal responsibility to it ; 
and to all that have proved their loyalty by their acts, an equal 
voice in making it." Other resolutions, advocating the enforce- 
ment of the Monroe doctrine, favoring the equalization of boun- 
ties to the soldiers and condemning dishonesty and carelessness 
in every department of the public service were adopted. 

On the 28th of June a convention of " conservative republi- 
cans " assembled at Des Moines. A preamble and resolutions re- 
ported by a committee, of which Gen. T. H. Benton was chair- 
man, were adopted. The preamble recited that the members of 
the convention being unable to cooperate with the radical and 
dominant element in the republican party in the political meas- 


340 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

ures which it had initiated, had decided to establish a political as- 
sociation to be known as the national union party, the essential 
principles of which were declared to be as follows : A repudia- 
tion of the radical doctrine of state rights and secession on the one 
hand, and centralization of federal authority on the other — that 
no state can secede, the war having been prosecuted on our 
part as expressly declared by congress itself, to defend and main- 
tain the supremacy of the constitution and to preserve the union 
inviolate with all its dignity and equality and the rights of the 
states unimpaired. The confederate states are still in the union 
and entitled to equal rights under the constitution, and congress 
has no power to exclude a state from the union, to govern it as a 
territory, or to deprive it of representation in the council s of the 
nation, when its representatives have been elected and qualified 
in accordance with the constitution and laws of the land. Other res- 
olutions were adopted, assenting the right of the state to prescribe 
the qualification of its electors, and opposing any alterations of 
the provisions of our state institutions on the subject of suffrage, 
and cordially indorsing the restoration policy of president John- 
son as wise, patriotic, constitutional and in harmony with the 
the views of the late president Lincoln and with the platform 
upon which it was elected. 

The convention then nominated the following candidates for 
state officers : Secretary of state. Col. S. G. Van Amanda ; 
treasurer. Gen. Geo. A. Stone ; auditor, Capt. R W. Cross ; regis- 
ter, S. P. McKennie ; attorney general, Capt. "W. Bolinger ; su- 
preme court reporter, Capt. J. W. Lemute ; clerk, Louis Kinzey. 

The democratic convention met at Des Moines, on the 11th of 
July, and adopted resolutions reaffirming adherence to democratic 
principles, in favor of the policy of president Johnson, and pledg- 
ing him the support of the democrats of Iowa; in favor of the 
immediate admission of the rebellious states, and in favor of 
union with any body for that purpose ; in favor of the taxation of 
United States bonds ; against a tariff ; in favor of the Monroe 
doctrine, etc. ; against the prohibitory liquor law, etc. 

After some discussion, the convention decided to support the 
candidates nominated by the conservative republicans with the 
exception of those for reporter and clerk of the supreme court, in 

342 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

whose places they substituted the names of T. J. Stoddard and 
J. F. Gottschalk 

The political canvass was conducted here as elsewhere, with 
great animation, and the election which took place on the 9th of 
October, resulted largely in favor of the republicans. For secre- 
tary of state, Wright, republican candidate, received 91,227 votes, 
and Van Amanda, democrat and conservative republican, 55,815 ; 
majority for Wright 35,412. The total vote, 147,124, was much 
the largest ever cast in the state, exceeding the vote of 1865 for 
governor, 22,257. The remaining candidates on the republican 
ticket were elected by majorities about equal to that of Wright. 
The six republican candidates for members of congress were also 

The general assembly of the state, which meets biennially on 
the second Monday of January, held no session in 1867. The 
political parties began in the spring a vigorous canvass for the 
state election to be held in October. The state ofl&cers to be 
chosen at that election were governor, lieutenant governor, judge of 
the supreme court, attorney general and superintendent of public 
instruction. Calls were made in April, on the part of the state 
central committees of each of the leading political organizations, 
for conventions to be held in June. The republican convention 
met at Des Moines on the 19th of that month, and adopted a 
platform similar to the one adopted a year previous. A motion 
was made to amend the first resolution, so as to guaranty equal 
rights to all persons without regard to sex, which motion was 
laid upon the table. The convention then proceeded to nominate 
the following persons to fill the offices designated above : gov- 
ernor, Col. Samuel Merrill ; lieutenant governor. Col. John Scott ; 
judge of the supreme court, Joseph M. Beck ; attorney general, 
Maj. Henry O'Connor ; superintendent of public instruction, D. 
Franklin Wells. The democratic state convention assembled on 
the 26th of June, and after the adoption of a platform, made the 
following mominations : governor, Chas. Mason ; lieutenant gov- 
ernor, M. D. Harris ; judge of the supreme court, John H. Craige ; 
attorney general, W. T. Barker ; superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, M. L. Fisher. 

An exciting campaign followed these nominations. The ques- 

Jdmixistbation of Gov. Stoxe. 343 

tion of the prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors acquired 
some prominence, and a "people's party," made up of anti-pro- 
hibionists, was organized. The election took place on Tuesday, 
the 8th of October, and resulted in the election of the republican 
ticket The votes for governor and lieutenant governor were not 
canvassed until the commencement of the session of the general 
assembly in January, 1868. The republican majority ranged 
from 24,000 to 27,000. 

The general assembly that met in January, 1868, was com- 
posed as follows : senate, republicans, 39 ; democrats, 8. House 
of representatives, republicans, 77 ; democrats, 16 ; people's, 5 ; 
independent, 2. 

The twelfth regular session of the general assembly convened 
at Des Moines on the 13th of January, 1868, and was perma- 
nently organized in the senate by the president of that body, 
Lieut. Gov. Gue, and the election of Hon. James M. Weart as 
secretary; and in the assembly by the election of Hon. John 
Russell, of Jones county, as speaker, and M. C. Woodruff, of 
Harden county, as chief clerk. 

On the 14th, agreeably to a vote of both houses, the general 
assembly met in joint convention for the purpose of receiving the 
biennial message of Hon. "W. M. Stone, governor. 

The message was lengthy and gave a full statistical report of 
the various interests of the state. 



Inauguration —Message of Gov. Merrill — Legislatioa — Auieadmeut of the 
Constitution — United States Electors for Grant — Merrill's Second 
Term — Wright Elected Senator — Sketch of Legislation during Gov. 
Merrill's Second Term — Election in 1870 — Election of 1871. 

On the i5th of January the general assembly met in joint 
convention for the purpose of canvassing the vote of governor and 
lieutnant governor. The tellers reported that the whole number 
of votes cast at the last election was 151,838, of which Samuel 
Merrill received 89,144; Charles Mason received 62,657, and 37 
votes scattering ; and the whole number of votes cast for lieutenant 
governor was 152,358, of which John Scott received 89,251 ; D. 
M. Harris received 62,746, and 361 scattering. Whereupon the 
president of the joint convention announced Samuel Merrill duly 
elected governor of the state for the term of two years from the se- 
cond Monday in January, 1868, and John Scott lieutenant governor 
for the same time. The joint convention then adjourned to meet 
on the 16th, on which day the governor appeared and delivered 
his inaugural address. After the senate had returned to their 
room, Lieut. Gov. B. F. Gue, after making a few remarks to the 
senate, introduced his successor, Lieut. Gov. Scott, and presenting 
him with the gavel, retired as president of the senate. The fol- 
lowing are some of the important acts passed at this session : 
Granting to the United States government the right of way for a 
ship canal around the Des Moines or Lower Rapids in the Mis- 
sissippi ; appropriating $20,000 for making necessary repairs on 
the buildings of the state university ; resuming certain rights con- 
ferred upon the Dubuque and Pacific (now Dubuqe and Sioux 
City) Railroad Company ; allowing aliens to possess and dispose 
of property ; to establish and organize a state reform school for 

Administration of Gov. Merrill. 3i5 

juvenile offenders, and to lease White's Manual Labor Institute 
for that purpose ; to provide for the submission of certain amend- 
ments to the constitution of the state ; to authorize the census 
board to procure plans and specifications for a state house, and 
making appropriations for repairs on the capitol building ; to 
permanently locate and provide for the erection of an additional 
institution for the insane (at Independence) ; for the enlargement 
of the state penitentiary ; making appropriations to the various 
state institutions; for the erection of buildings for a deaf and 
dumb institution (at Council Bluffs) ; for the registry of electors 
and to prevent fraudulent voting ; to regulate life insurance com- 
panies ; to provide for the further prosecution and completion of 
the state geological survey ; to apportion the state into senate and 
assembly districts. Among the laws enacted, with a view to 
promote the material interests of the state, was one prohibiting 
the importation of infected cattle ; an act " to encourage the grow- 
ing of timber, fruit trees, shade trees and hedges," and numerous 
laws passed in the interest of railroads and other internal improve- 

The growing of timber is to be encouraged by exempting from 
taxation one hundred dollars worth of real or personal property 
for ten years, for each acre of forest trees planted and cultivated, 
the trees not to be more than eighty feet apart. Property to the 
amount of fifty dollars is to be exempted from taxation five years 
for each acre on which fruit trees are cultivated, placed at inter- 
vals not exceeding thirty feet. The aid to railroads, aside from 
the granting of franchises for the construction of new roads, con- 
sists in liberal grants of land for the benefit of these important 
enterprises. A great work, connected with this system of rail- 
ways, is a bridge over the Missouri river at Council Bluffs, the 
plan of which has already been prepared by Gr. M. Dodge, chief 
engineer of the Union Pacific railroad, while a contract has 
been made with L. B. Bloomer, of Chicago. The bridge is 
to be built of iron and will rest on iron columns, eight and one- 
half feet in diameter, sunk seventy feet into the sand at the bot- 
tom of the river. The bridge will cross the stream, with ten spans 
each, of two hundred and fifty feet extent. Besides the 2,500 
feet of iron work, forming these arches, the trestles will have 

346 Tuttle's Uistobt of Iowa. 

about the same length, and the approaches to the structure will 
be about three miles long. The weight of the superstructure of 
this bridge will be about 2,000 pounds for each lineal foot. 

Another of the laws, to which reference has been made by its 
title, was one to abolish the distinction between foreigners and 
citizens, as to the acquisition, enjoyment and transfer of property, 
whereby all distinctions of the kind indicated both as to real and 
personal property were done away. 

A provision was made by the previous legislature for an 
amendment of the constitution of the state, by striking out the 
word " white " from that instrument, and removing all political 
distinctions founded on difference of color. No election for state 
officers occurred in 1868, but this amendment was submitted to a 
vote of the people for their ratification at the election in Novem- 
ber, 1868, for members of congress, and presidential electors, at 
which time the whole vote was 186,503, of which 105,384 were 
for the amendment and 81,119 against it. The constitution was 
accordingly amended by a majority of 24,265 votes. 

At the session of the legislature of January, 1868, resolutions 
in favor of impeaching the president of the United States were 
adopted in the senate, by a vote of 35 to 10, and a similar one in 
the house of representative by a strict party vote. 

The political conventions were held in the early part of the 
year, and were three in number. About the first of February, 
the colored people held a convention and published an address 
"to every true, honest and liberty-loving citizen of Iowa;" 
calling upon such worthy citizens for " sympathy and aid in 
learning those rights and privileges which belong to us as free 
men." The address is simply an appeal for the right of suffrage, 
which has hitherto been denied the colored people of the state by 
the constitution. The democratic state convention met at Des 
Moines on the 26th of February, and the republican state conven- 
tion shortly after ; both parties adopted resolutions embodying 
the pi-inciples heretofore expressed. 

The election in the fall resulted in the choice of electors 
pledged to vote for Gen. U. S. Grant for president, by a majority 
of 46,359 ; the whole vote being 194,439 ; of which Gen. Grant's 
electors received 120,399, and Horatio Seymour's, 70,040 ; for 

348 TuTTLifs History of Iovta. 

secretary of state, Ed. Wright, republican, received 120,265 votes 
and D. Hammer, democrat, 74,461. Six republican members of 
congress were elected, representing the state as a unit on political 

There was no session of the general assembly in the year 1869. 

The proposition to amend the constitution of Iowa was submit- 
ted to the people, pursuant to chapter 84 of laws of 12th general 
assembly, and voted on at the election held November 3, 1868. 
There were five amendments, viz., to strike out the word " white," 
from section 1 of article 2, which defines the right of suffrage ; 
from section 33, article 3, providing for taking the census ; from 
sections 34 and 35, providing for the apportionment of members 
of the general assembly ; and from section 1, relative to the mili- 
tia ; all these amendments were adopted by over 20,000 majority. 

A convention was held at Dubuque on the 11th of November, 
1869, composed of the leading men of the west, including the 
governors of Iowa and Wisconsin and several members of con- 
gress, to take into consideration the feasibility of improving the 
water communication between the Mississippi river and the lakes 
(a distance of about 280 miles), and also the most judicious 
course to be pursued in order to obtain an appropriation from 
congress to carry out the work. Eesolutions were adopted rec- 
ommending and urging upon all senators and representatives of 
the new states in congress to use their influence in procuring the 
passage of a bill for the improvement of the Pox and Wisconsin 
rivers and the Michigan ship-canal. 

The election contest of 1869 was conducted in a spirited man- 
ner. The democratic state convention put in nomination the fol- 
lowing state ticket : For governor, George Gillaspy ; for lieuten- 
ant governor, A. P. Richardson; for supreme judge, W. F. Bran- 
nan ; for superintendent, Edmonds Jaerger. The republican state 
convention nominated for governor, Samuel Merrill ; for lieuten- 
ant governor, Madison M. Walden ; for judge of supreme court, 
John F. Dillon ; for superintendent of public instruction, Abra- 
ham J. Kessell. The result of the election in October was as 
follows : Merrill, republican, 96,579 ; Gillaspy, democrat, 57,434. 
Merrill's majority, 39,145. The legislature of 1870 contained, in 

Administration of Gov. Meebill. 349 

the senate, forty-three republicans, and seven democrats. In the 
lower house, eighty-six republicans, and fourteen democrats. 

The thirteenth general assembly of the state assembled at Des 
Moines on the 10th day of January, 1870. The senate was or- 
ganized by the election of Hon. Gr. G. Bennett, president pro tern. 
a-nd Jas. M. Weart as secretary, and in the house by the election 
of Hon. A. E. Cotton as speaker, and Charles Aldrich as chief 
clerk. The annual message of the governor was received in each 
house, and was read by the secretary and chief clerk, from which 
document the following abstract of the financial affairs is taken, 
and the governor's recommendations on matters of public policy. 

During the fiscal year, ending October 31, 1869, the period cov- 
ered by the reports, there was received into the treasury on ac- 
count of the general revenue, inclusive, $82,114.48 ; on hand 
November 1, 1867, the sum of $1,839,668.12; the expenditures 
amounting to $1,553,507.96 ; leaving a balance in the treasury of 
$386,160.16. This large amount was partly due to the payment 
by the general government of the sum of $229,827.39, on account 
of claims for expenditures by the state during the war, and the 
further sum of $18,117 to reimburse the outlay for the defense of 
the northern border of the state, subsequent to the massacre at 
Spirit Lake in 1857. 

The bonds issued by the state in 1858 of $200,000 had all been 
paid, and the only indebtedness of the state consisted of the war 
and defense bonds of May, 1861, amounting to $300,000, and 
drawing seven per cent, interest These bonds would not be due 
till 1881, and a recommendation was made to authorize the treas- 
urer of the state to purchase and cancel these bonds out of the 
surplus funds whenever in the opinion of that officer and of the 
auditor of state, the condition of the finances would allow it 

By the census of 1869 (being the eleventh enumeration made 
by state authority), the total population of the state was 1,042,- 
807, an increase during the two years since the last previous 
enumeration of 140,767, or 15.60 per cent — an average of 7.80 
per cent per annum, and the population to the square mile 18.9. 
The returns of agricultural labor continued to show steady and 
vigorous development There were produced during the year 

360 TuTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

1866, 14,635,529 bushels of wheat; 56,928,938 of corn, and 17,- 
552,064 of all other grain ; and in 1868, 17,963,555 bushels of 
wheat; 70,507,577 of corn, and 20,237,426 of all other grains. 

On the 12th of January, 1870, the two houses met in joint con- 
vention for the purpose of canvassing the votes for governor and 
lieutenant governor. Senator Bennett, president pro tern, of the 
senate presiding. After the canvass was concluded, it was an- 
nounced that the whole number of votes cast for governor was 
154,507, of which Samuel Merrill received 97,243, and Geo. 
Gillaspy received 57,257 ; scattering 7 ; and the whole number 
of votes cast for lieutenant governor, was 154,270, of which Madi- 
son M. Walden received 96,736 ; A. P. Richardson received 
56,878, and scattering 657, whereupon the president announced 
Samuel Merrill, duly elected governor for the term of two years 
from the second Monday in January, 1870, and M. M. Walden, 
duly elected lieutenant governor of the state, for the term of two 
years, they having recived a majority of all the votes cast at the 
election in October last, 1869. 

On the 13th, the general assembly again met in joint conven- 
tion for the purpose of the inauguration of the governor and 
lieutenant governor elect, and the oath of office having been duly 
administered. Gov. Merrill delivered his inaugural address. 

On the 18th of the same month, the house elected George G. 
Wright United States senator for the term of six years, from the 
fourth day of March, A. D. 1871 ; and J. B. Howell, United 
States senator, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Hon. James W. Grimes. On the same day the senate, by vote, 
elected the two named persons senators of the United States. 
The two houses met in joint convention on the 20th, and the ac- 
tion of each house in reference to the election of United States 
senators was read by the secretary of the senate and the chief 
clerk of the house, and it was announced by the president that 
the gentlemen referred to were duly elected United States sen- 

The general assembly adjourned on the 13th of April. One 
hundred and eighty acts were passed, and twenty-seven joint reso- 
lutions were adopted. Among the more important acts, was one 
making careful and thorough provision for the management of 

Admixisteatiox of Gov. Merrill. 351 

the two insane asylums of the state, which are located, the one 
at Mount Pleasant and the other at Independence; providing for 
the government of the state university at Iowa City ; authorizing 
the several counties to establish and maintain high schools ; and 
- one creating a commission to revise the statutes of the state. Pro- 
vision was also made for the establishment of an industrial home 
for the blind, and for the erection of a new capitol building. 
Appropriations were made for the benefit of the state institutions, 
amounting in the aggregate to $586,500, of which amount $165,- 
000 was for the hospital for the insane at Independence; 
$150,000 towards the new capitol building ; $68,500 for the ag- 
ricultural college, and sums varying from $15,000 to $44,000 
each for other institutions. 

Resolutions were adopted on several matters of interest. One rati 
fied the fifteenth amendment to the national constitution ; another 
favored a system of postal telegraphy, and a third recommended 
the removal of the national capital to the Mississippi valley. The 
question of granting the right of suffrage to women was brought 
before the legislature by a large number of petitions on the sub- 
ject, and an amendment to the constitution, making the conces- 
sion asked for, was proposed, but, after some discussion, it was 
laid upon the table. The question of the propriety of prohibit- 
ing the sale of intoxicating liquors was discussed. A prohibitory 
law already existed in the state, and the question of its modifica- 
tion was considered. The result was the passage of an act allow- 
ing the several counties to determine whether the sale of ale, 
wine and beer should be prohibited or not within their own lim- 
its, by submitting the question to a vote of the people. An act 
was passed providing for a submission to the people, at the elec- 
tion of 1870, of the question of holding a convention for the re- 
vision of the constitution, the result to be reported to the general 
assembly at its next session. 

Eailroad legislation also demanded a large share of attention. 
A bill was proposed "to prescribe rules and regulations for rail- 
roads, and to establish uniform and reasonable rates of tariff for 
the transportation of certain freights thereon." This led to an 
extended debate, involving the question of the expediency of the 
interference by the government in the management or control of 

352 TuTTLnfs HisTosr of Iowa. 

railroads, the dangerous power and influence which these corpo- 
rations are attaining, and other kindred questions. The bill was 
finally defeated in the senate by a vote of 20 in its favor to 21 
against it. 

An act for the taxation of railroad property also occasioned 
much debate, and was finally passed. Also, " an act to enable 
townships, incorporated towns and cities to aid in the construc- 
tion of railroads." In several instances, the right to levy and 
collect taxes for this purpose was questioned, and an injunction 
asked to prevent it. The district judge, however, refused to is- 
sue the injunction, and his action was sustained by the supreme 
court, which thereby affirmed the constitutionality of the law. 
Opposition to the payment of interest on bonds issued by coun- 
ties to aid in the construction of railroads at one time threatened 
to result in an open defiance of the authority of the federal 
courts, which had decided in favor of the validity of the law pro- 
viding for its payment ; but the energetic action of Gen. Dix pre- 
vented any violent outbreak. 

At this session a memorial to congress was passed on the sub- 
ject of a water communication between the Mississippi Valley 
and the Atlantic Ocean, and the improvement to the Fox and 
Wisconsin rivers. 

The election in 1870 was for members of congress, judges of 
the supreme court, and the state executive officers with the ex- 
ception of governor, who held over till January, 1872. 

The democratic convention took place at Des Moines on the 
10th of August and nominated the following ticket : for secre- 
tary of state, Charles Dorr, of Polk county ; for auditor, W. N. 
Garner, of Louisa county ; for treasurer, W. 0. James, of Potta- 
wattomie county ; for attorney general, H. M. Martin, of Scott 

The republican convention assembled on the 17th of August 
at Des Moines. The ticket put in nomination was as follows : 
judges of the supreme court, Chester C. Cole, William E. Miller 
and James G. Day ; secretary of state, Edward Wright; auditor, 
John Russell ; treasurer, Samuel E. Rankin ; register of state 
land office, Aaron Brown ; attorney general, Henry O'Connor. 

The election took place on the 11th of October, and resulted in 

354 TvTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

the choice of the republican candidates by large majorities. The 
total vote for secretary of state was 164,265, of which E. Wright 
received 103,377 and C. Dorr, 60,888, making the majority of the 
former, 42,489. The proposition for a convention to revise the 
state constitution was voted down, 82,039 to 24.846. The follow- 
ing members of congress, all republicans, were elected : Geo. W. 
McCrary, Aylett R. Cotton, Wm. P. Wolf, Wm. G. Donnan, 
Madison M. Walden, Francis W. Palmer and Jackson Orr. 

In the year 1871 the political canvass was attended with very 
little excitement, there being no special question at issue, and it 
being certain that the republicans would carry the state elections. 
The democratic convention was held at Des Moines on the 14th 
of June, when the following nominations were made : for gov- 
ernor, J. C. Knapp, of Van Buren county ; for lieutenant gov- 
ernor, M. M. Hamm, of Dubuque; for superintendent of public 
instruction, E. M. Mumm, of Lee ; for judge of the supreme court, 
John F. Duncombe, of Webster. 

The republican convention met at the same place just one week 
later, on the 21st of June, and made nominations as follows: for 
governor, Cyrus C. Carpenter, of Webster; for lieutenant gov- 
ernor, H. C. Bullis, of Winnishiek; for superintendent of public 
instruction, Col. Alonzo Abernethy, of Crawford ; for judge of the 
supreme court, J. G. Day, of Fremont. The last was a renomina- 
tion and was unanimous. 

The election resulted in the choice of the republican ticket by 
large majorities. The total vote for judge of the supreme court 
was 176,348, of which Day received 108,881, and Duncombe 
67,547, which gave the former a majority of 41,348. The legis- 
lature of 1872 consisted of 42 republicans and 8 democrats in the 
senate, and 78 republicans and 30 democrats in the house, or 120 
republicans and 30 democrats on joint ballot. Three amend- 
ments to the constitution, proposed by the preceding legislature, 
came before this body for approval or rejection before being sub- 
mitted to a vote of the people for final ratification; one of these 
proposed to remove the restriction to the right of suffrage to male 
citizens only : and the other two would, if adopted, remove all dis- 
qualifications for holding seats in the general assembly on account 
of either sex or color. 

Administration of Gov. Mehhill. 355 

The census of Iowa as taken by the government in 1870 gave 
the population of the state at 1,191,792, of which number 5,762 
were colored, and 204,057 of foreign birth. The assessed value of 
property, §302,515,418. Included in the census are 3 Chinese 
and 48 Indians. The tribal Indians were officially estimated at 
300. The true value of property was $717,644,750. The public 
debt, county, town, city, etc., amounted to $7,508,635. The 
aggregate value of farm products, including betterments and ad- 
ditions to stock, was $114,386,441 ; 2,967,543 pounds of wool 
were raised ; 45,669 persons ten years old and over could not 
write, of whom 20,965 were males and 24,704 were females. 


Last Message of Gov Merrill — Statistics from the Governor's Message — 
Carpenter's Election — Legislation — Presidential Election — Events of 
1873-3 — General Assembly of 1873 — Election of Judges. 

The fourteknth general assembly of the state convened at 
Des Moines on the 8th day of January, 1872. The senate was 
called to order by Lieut. Gov. H. C' Bullis. J. A. T. Hull was 
elected secretary. In the house of representatives, James "Wilson 
was elected speaker, and J. J. Safely, chief clerk. 

The annual message of the governor (Samuel Merrill) was re- 
ceived in each house, and read by the secretary of the senate, and 
the chief clerk of the house. From this document, liberal extracts 
are taken, showing the legislative history of the state for the pre- 
vious two years, and the suggestions and recommendations of the 
governor to the general assembly : 

" The report of the auditor of state, and that of the treasurer of 
state, for the fiscal term ending November 4, 1871, show a con- 
tinued increase in the resources of the state. Upon comparison 
with the financial reports presented at the last general assembly, 
it will be seen that there is a large increase in the amount yielded 
by the ordinary sources of revenue. Direct taxation, for instance, 
produced $184,244.11 more than in the previous term, although 
the levy in the later term was twenty per cent less than in the 

"The revenue from railroads shows an increase of $19,364.71, 
notwithstanding a reduction for the last year, in the proportionate 
amount of revenue from this source coming into the state treasury, 
of sixty per cent ; and the taxes collected from insurance compa- 
nies indicate a gain of $28,627.87. The heavy payments by the 
general government during the two years ending November L, 

Administratiox of Gov. Caupenteb. 357 

1869, amounting to much the greater part of our remaining claim 
on account of expenses incurred by the state because of the war, 
reduced very materially the revenue to be expected from that 
source ; hence the receipts therefrom during the last two years 
were nearly $300,000 less than during 1868 and 1869. The gross 
receipts of the revenue during the term were $1,769,522.91, which, 
with the balance in the treasury November 1, 1869, made the 
amount of available means during the term, $2,055,683.07. The 
expenditures were $1,973,942.23. Balance of general revenue 
in the treasury November 6, 1871, $81,840.84. The warrants 
issued during the period amounted to $1,972,980.78, of which 
$666,615.74 were issued for the use and support of the various 
public institutions of the state ; $626,031.29 were drawn for the 
erection, enlargement, and improvement of public buildings ; and 
$58,264.24 went to objects of a special or extraordinary character, 
for which the legislature has, at various times, made appropria- 
tions — such as the geological survey and report, the encourage- 
ment of immigration, the reunion of Iowa soldiers, republication 
of supreme court reports, etc. The balance of the warrants issued 
amounting to $622,019.51, very nearly represents the regular and 
ordinary expenses of the state government. These, it will be 
seen, constitute only a little more than one-third of the entire ex- 
penditures of the state. 

" The debt of the state, exclusive of bonds issued to the school 
fund, remains as stated in my former message, viz. : $300,000, in 
war and defense bonds. This debt will become due in 1881. I 
recommend that authority be given, under proper restrictions, for 
the purchase of the bonds and the early extinguishment of the debt 

"My official relation to the state university as president of the 
board of trustees, and afterwards of the board of regents," says the 
governor, "has afforded me ample opportunity to become ac- 
quainted with its conditions and claims, and I feel justified in 
bearing my unqualified testimony to its very great value, as stand- 
ing at the head of our noble system of public education. My per- 
sonal observation, for the last four years, fully confirms the opin- 
ion of numerous competent judges, that the courses of study; the 
learning, experience, fidelity, and zeal of the instructors ; the pro- 
ficiency in scholarship and the orderly conduct of the students ; 

358 Tl'ttle's History of Iowa. 

the controlling idea and general plan of the university ; its adapta- 
tion to the educational wants of the people, and its progressive 
character, entitle it to a high rank among the institutions of its 
class in the northwestern part of our country. The reports of the 
board of regents, and the president of the university, contain a 
full and detailed account of its affairs, and will afford information 
that will enable you to judge for yourselves concerning its whole 
organization, the facilities it offers for the highest mental culture, 
and the extent to which those facilities are availed of, by the 
youth of our own and other states." 

"On the 31st of December, 1868, there were 1,448 miles of rail- 
road in the state, and on the 31st of December, 1870, there were 
2,783 miles; an increase of 1,335 miles in the two years. There 
are now 3,000 miles of railroad in operation in the state. Accord- 
ing to the estimate of the treasurer of state, the value of the prop- 
erty now in railroads may be put at rather more than $80,000,000, 
or about one-eleventh of the entire value of all the property in 
the state. The magnitude of this interest is now so formidable as, 
in my opinion, to demand some measure of official super- 
vision. At present, railroad companies, upon the completion 
of their lines, are required to report to the legislature, stating 
'the amount paid in,' the entire expenses of construction, 
' the length of the road, the number of planes on it, with their 
inclination to the mile, the greatest curvature of the road, the 
average width of the grade, and the number of ties per mile.' 
I am not aware that any railroad company in the state has 
complied with this requirement ; certainly very few, if any, have 
done so. 

" Each railroad is also required to report, under oath, to the 
secretary of state, annually, ' showing the amount 'of its capital 
stock, and ' amount paid thereon ; the amount of bonds issued, 
and how secured, and all other indebtedness ; the length of such 
railroad when completed, and how much is built and in use ; the 
number of acres of land donated or granted to them, by whom, 
and what disposition has been made of said grants or donations ; 
the gross amount of receipts, and how disbursed ; the net amount 
of profits and the dividends made, with such other facts as may 
be necessary to a full statement of the affairs and condition of 

360 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

such railroads.' This requirement is complied with by only a 
small number of companies ; and it is not made the duty of any 
officer to enforce the provisions of either statute. The latter re- 
port may be compelled by a writ of mandamus asked for by any 
stockholder; but there is no penalty in either case for failure to 
make report. If it were made the duty of some public officer to 
enforce the making of these reports, there can be little doubt that 
they would be obtained. 

" The census of 1870, taken by the federal government, reports 
a population of 1,191,802 in the state. This is an increase of 
150,988 over the figures given by the state census of the previous 
year — the largest gain yet made by the state during the same period, 
viz : about sixteen months. The advance made since the census 
of 1860 is 516,889. The rapid strides Iowa has made are better 
realized upon comparing her growth with that of other states. 
In 1850, she stood twenty-seventh of the states of the union in 
point of population. In 1860, she ranked twentieth ; and in 
1870, eleventh. Among the duties devolving upon you, at the 
present session, will be that of apportioning the state into seven 
congressional districts, or, if the bill pending in the United States 
senate passes, into nine of them. In justice, the representation in 
the present congress, and consequently in the electoral college 
next fall, should be based upon the census of 1870 ; but efforts 
to effect this result have hitherto failed, and will not probably 
now be renewed. An apportionment of the state into senatorial 
districts for four years, and into representative districts for two 
years, will also be necessary. The judicial districts may now 
also be reorganized for four years. I would suggest the creation 
of another judicial district, in order to relieve some of our over- 
burdened districts, and at the same time, to provide for the newer 
but more rapidly growing counties." 

The governor closes his message by saying : 

" Our state, with its first quarter of a century just completed, 
has already made a history of her progress, her enterprise, and 
her patriotism, "of which all her citizens may be proud. The 
sparsely settled territory of 100,000 souls, which twenty-five 
years ago became a state, has grown to an opulent commonwealth 
of 1,350,000 people. The luxuriant soil Iowa was known to 

Administration of Gov. Carpenter. 361 

possess has more than fulfilled its early promise ; while her treas- 
ures of stone and coal, then hardly suspected to exist, have added 
largely to her wealth. Railroads, then scarcely west of Ohio, 
now stretch their 3,000 miles of iron in network over the state ; 
and the telegraph goes with them. Her political record has been 
equally honorable. The first free daughter of the Missouri com- 
promise, she has been true to her heritage of freedom. Among 
the first to rush to the support of an endangered union, and to 
lay her best blood on the altar of her country, she was also first 
to strike from her constitution the odious discrimination between 
her citizens on account of color. The past career of Iowa, both 
as territory and state, has been honorable, progressive, substantial. 
May her future be even more so! " 

The two houses met in joint convention, on the 10th of Janu- 
ary, for the purpose of canvassing the vote for governor and lieu- 
tenant governor. Senator Lowry, president pro tern, of the senate, 
presiding. The canvass was concluded with the following result : 
Whole number of votes cast, 177,380, of which Cyrus C. Car- 
penter received 109,128 ; Joseph C. Knapp, 68,226 ; scattering, 
26. For lieutenant governor, the whole number of votes cast 
was 177,247, of which Henry C. Bullis received 108,856 ; M. M. 
Ham received 68,858 i scattering, 1. Whereupon the president 
pro tem. announced that C. C. Carpenter was duly elected gov- 
ernor of the state of Iowa for the term of two years from the 
second Monday in January, 1872, and H. C. Bullis duly elected 
lieutenant governor of the state for the term of two years, they 
having received a majority of all the votes cast at the election 
held in October, 1871. 

On the following day, the two houses again met in joint con- 
vention for the purpose of inaugurating the governor and lieu- 
tenant governor elect. The oath of office having been adminis- 
tered by Senator Lowry, president pro tem. of the joint convention, 
Gov. Carpenter read his inaugural address ; after which the con- 
vention was dissolved. 

The general assembly closed its session on the 23d of April, 
1872, and adjourned to meet on the third Wednesday of Janu- 
ary, 1873. The mass of the work accomplished was of local im- 
portance only ; but there were a few acts of general interest. 

362 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

The state was divided into nine congressional districts, fifty sena- 
torial districts and seventy-five representative districts. A subject 
that occupied a good deal of attention was that of regulating the 
sale of intoxicating liquors. There was a committee on the sup- 
pression of intemperance, to whom all petitions and propositions 
were referred. Among the bills discussed was one providing for 
the licensing of the sale of spirituous, vinous and malt liquors, 
which was defeated in the house by a vote of 29 yeas to 64 nays. 
A proposition to prohibit the making, keeping or selling of liquor 
was also defeated, as well as one that made parties selling intoxi- 
cating liquors responsible for all damages done by reason of the 
sale. The act finally passed was in the form of an amendment 
to the revised laws of 1860, and provided that " no person shall 
obtain a permit to buy and sell intoxicating liquor, under the 
provisions of article 2 of chapter 6i of the revision of 1860, and 
the acts amendatory thereto, unless such person shall first present 
to the court a certificate, signed by a majority of the legal voters 
of the township, city or ward in which he desires to sell such 
liquors, that he is of good moral character, and that they believe 
him to be a proper person to buy and sell intoxicating liquors for 
the -purposes named in section 1575 of the revision of 1860." 
Other provisions were in the bill regulating the business re- 
ferred to. 

The question taxing railroads and regulating their tariff was 
also a prominent one m the debates of the assembly. A bill was 
finally passed providing that it shall be the duty of the census 
board to assess all the property of each railroad company in the 
state, excepting the lands, lots and other real estate of a railroad 
company not used in the operation of their respective roads. 
The officers of each company owning, leasing or operating any 
railroad in the state were required to furnish said board with a 
statement, embracing certain statistics of property belonging to 
such railroad company, for the assistance of the census board in 
properly assessing such companies. 

Capital punishment for the crime of murder was abolished and 
all crimes punishable with death shall be punished by imprison- 
ment for life at hard labor in the penitentiary ; and by the pro- 
visions of the law, the governor shall not grant a pardon, unless 

Administration of Gov. Carpenter. 363 

the same shall have been recommended by the general assembly 
of the state. The vote on its final passage stood, twenty-nine to 
senventeen in the senate, and sixty-six to twenty-two in the house. 
Another act was passed providing " that no appropriation of pub- 
lic money, or property shall be made, and no gift, loan or appro- 
priation of money or property shall be authorized by the corpo- 
rate authorities, supervisor, or trustees of any county, township, 
city or town, or municipal organization of the state to, or in favor 
of any institution, school association or object which is under 
ecclesiastical, or sectarian management or control." Another act 
provides for taking the census of the state in 1873. Another 
act was passed authorizing any city or incorporated town to raise 
money, not exceeding in amount one mill upon the dollar, of the 
assessed value of taxable property in any one year, for the main- 
tenance of a free public library within the limits of such city or 
incorporated town ; the question to be submitted to a vote of the 
people of such town or city before accepting the benefit of this 

Among other acts passed was one for the establishment of 
another penitentiary at the stone quarries, near Anamosa ; one 
providing for the enlargement of the institution for the education 
of the blind ; one establishing a board of capitol commissioners, 
with the governor at its head, to take charge of the erection of 
the state house at Des Moines, the cost of which was limited to 
$1,500,000 ; and one constituting a visiting committee to ascer- 
tain the condition and managment of insane asylums, and see 
that needed reforms are adopted. 

An effort was made to carry a resolution submitting to a vote 
of the people, the proposition to strike from the clauses of the 
constitution relating to the right to vote and hold office, the word 
" male. " The resolution passed the house by a vote of 58 to 59, 
but was defeated in the senate, 22 voting in the afiirmative, 24 
in the negative, and 4 being absent or not voting. The following 
appropriation bills were passed : for the completion of the north 
wing of hospital for the insane at Independence, $200,000 ; for 
the maintenance of the state university, $52,300 ; for enlargement 
of the college for the blind, $70,000 ; for the agricultural college, 
$16,000 ; to the soldiers' orphans' homes, $16,000 ; to the state 


penitentiary, $9,600, and $45,000 for tiie state reform school, to 
furnishing rooms for the reception of girls. 

The general assembly adjourned on the 23d of April to meet 
again in January, 1873, for the purpose of completing the revis- 
ion of the code of laws. 

The first political convention of the year 1872, was that of the 
republicans, held for the purpose of appointing twenty-two dele- 
gates to the national convention of the party. Resolutions were 
adopted, indorsing the administration of President Grant, and in- 
structing the delegates to vote for his renomination, and Henry 
Wilson, as a candidate for vice president. On the 23d of April, 
a mass convention was held at Davenport to choose delegates to 
the liberal republican convention at Cincinnati. One hundred and 
fifty delegates were appointed, and resolutions adopted, opposing 
the renomination of President Grant, and pledging support to " any 
one of the good and able men of the party for the first place in 
the gift of the people, nominated upon a platform declaring in 
favor of honesty, economy, amnest}'-, thorough genuine reform, 
and the one term principle for the presidency." 

The democrats met in convention at Des Momes on the 11th of 
June, and appointed delegates to the national convention at Balti- 
more. The resolutions fav'ored the indorsement of the nomina- 
tion and platform of the liberal republicans made at Cincinnati. 

The democrats and liberal republicans held conventions at Des 
Moines on the first of August to nominate state officers. No gov- 
ernor or lieutenant governor was to be nominated, and the ticket 
selected by a conference committee and adopted by both conven- 
tions was as follows: For secretary of state, E. A. Guilbert ; state 
treasurer, M. J. Pholfe ; auditor, J. P. Casserly ; attorney general, 
A. G. Case. The republican state convention met at Des Moines 
on the 21st of August and nominated Josiah T. Young for sec- 
retary of state ; William Christy for treasurer : John Russell, 
for auditor ; Aaron Brown for register of state land office, and M. 
E. Cutts, for attorney general. A platform was adopted which 
eulogized the principles of the republican party, and indorsed 
the platform and candidates of the national convention. 

At the election in the fall, 1872, the total vote given for presi- 
dent in Iowa, was 202,762, of which the Grant electors received 

366 TuTTLffs History of Iowa. 

131,566; and the Greeley electors 71,196. The total vote for 
secretary of state was 206,856, of which Young, republican, re- 
ceived 132,359 ; and Guilbert, democrat, received 74,497. The 
legislature of 1873 contained a large republican majority. 

The auditor of state, in his report for two years ending No- 
vember 4, 1871, gives the following statement of receipts and 
expenditures of public money : 

Balance in the treasury, October 30, 1869, - - . ^300,19B 86 

Received into the treasury from all sources during the same 

period, ....... 2,206,357 33 

$2,509,556 19 

The disbursements by the state treasurer during the same 

period amounted to - - - . - - 2,413,580 93 

Leaving a balance in the treasury, on the 4th of Nov., 1871, of $95,969 20 

The general assembly met, puisuant to adjournment, on the 
15th of January, 1873, and was called to order by Lieut. Gov. 
H. C. Bullis, president; and in the house, by the speaker. There 
were sixteen laws enacted and fifteen joint resolutions passed. 
The acts were mainly of a local nature ; legalizing the incorpora- 
tion of towns and school districts, and making appropriations for 
the expenses of the adjourned session and other miscellaneous 
purposes. There was no act of a public character requiring 
specific notice. After a session of thirty- six days, the general 
assembly adjourned sine die on the 20th of February, 1873. 

The election in the fall of 1873 passed off without any un- 
usual excitement Joseph M. Beck was elected supreme court 

The census of the state, as taken in 1873, contains many 
valuable statistics of the resources of the state, and from the 
published report the followmg extracts are taken : The whole 
number of males (white), 644,424 ; females (white), 601,457 ; 
males (colored), 2,813 : females, (colored), 2,639. Number of 
acres of land improved, 9,987,788 ; number of bushels of wheat 
harvested (1872), 32,437,836 ; same of corn, 141,744,522 ; same 
of oats, 221,113,013; same of barley, 57.770,169; number of 
pounds of wool shorn, 2,348,884. 

Pursuant to the provisions of law, the fifteenth general assembly 

Admjnjstratiox of Gov. Carpenter. 367 

of the state convened at Des Moines on the 12th of January, i871. 
The senate was organized by Lieut. Gov. Bullis, president, taking 
his seat, and the election of J. A. T. Hall, secretary. In the 
house, John H. Gear was elected speaker on the one hundred 
and thirty-second ballot (January 23), and Jas. M. Weart, chief 

On the 24th Gov. Carpenter sent to the general assembly his 
biennial message, which was lengthy and replete with informa- 
tion concerning the affairs of the' state, and freighted with many 
valuable suggestions concerning the future. 

On the 24th of January, a joint convention of the two houses 
was called for the purpose of inaugurating the governor and 
lieutenant governor elect, Lieut. Gov. Bullis, presiding. After 
the canvass the president announced the following as the result 
of the canvass : For governor, the whole number of votes cast 
was 188,759, of which C. C. Carpenter received 106,122 ; Jacob 
G. Vale, 80,557 ; scattering, 2,080. For lieutenant governor, 
whole number of votes cast was 185,734, of which Joseph Dysart 
received 104,978 ; C. E. Whiting, 75,363 ; scattering, 5,898, and 
declared C. C. Carpenter elected governor and Jos. Dysart, lieu- 
lenant governor of the state of Iowa for the term of two years 
from the second Monday in January, 1874, and until .their 
successors are elected and qualified. The oath of office was 
administered to the governor and lieutenant governor elect on 
the day following. Gov. Carpenter delivered his inaugural address, 
after which the jomt convention dissolved. 

The following are the titles to some of the most important of 
the public and private laws enacted at this session of the general 
assembly : To provide for the permanent survey of lands ; for the 
support of the state reform school ; to provide for the appointment 
of fish commissioners ; to provide for the organization and man- 
agement of savings banks ; to establish maximum rates of charges 
for the transportation of freight on the different railroads of the 
state ; for the relief of sufferers in the northwest ; to provide for 
leasing the convict labor of the Iowa penitentiary ; making addi- 
tional appropriations for the hospital for the insane at Independ- 
ence ($93,000), for the deaf and dumb institution ($15,000), for 
the aid and maintenance of the state university (,$40,000). for com- 

368 ■ Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

pleting the north wing of the college for the blind ($45,000), for 
improvements at the state reform school ($25,000), for work on 
the erection of the new capitol building ($125,000), for a physical 
laboratory for the agricultural farm ($25,000), for the hospital of 
the insane at Mt. Pleasant about ($10,000), for the soldiers' or- 
phans' home ($8,200) ; to apportion the state into senate and 
assembly districts ; besides passing 21 joint resolutions and me- 
morials. The general assembly adjourned sine die, March 19, 


Railroad Legislation —Election of 1874 — Litigation — Election of 1875. 

Ix REFERENCE to the law to " establish maximum rates of 
charges for the transportation of freights on the different railroads 
of the state," the general superintendent of the Chicago and Rock 
Island road wrote to the governor in the spring of 1875, in which, 
after stating the case of the road as against the new rules, he 
promises to test the operation of the new law, in actual practice, 
before assailing it in the courts. " If," he says, " the result of a 
thorough and satisfactory experiment should show that an observ- 
ance of the rules must involve a permanent surrender of the rev- 
enues to which the company is entitled from the operation of its 
lines, a different policy will be adopted, with a view of securing 
such revenue, and any attempt to enforce the act as a valid law, 
will be resisted in the proper tribunals." In a case under this 
law, decided by the United States district court, the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company asked for an injunction 
to restrain the attorney general of Iowa from prosecuting certain 
suits brought by him against the company, under the provisions 
of this act; first, because the act is in conflict with the constitu- 
tion of the United States, in that it impairs the obligation of con- 
tracts, and is a regulation of inter state commerce ; second, be- 
cause it is repugnant to the constitution of the state of Iowa, in 
that it does not affect all railroads alike, and is therefore not of 
uniform operation ; and third, that it conflicts with the bill of 
rights. In the opinion of the court (Dillon, J.), railway corpora- 
tions chartered by the state, with the express or even implied power 
"to make contracts," have the power to demand and receive com- 
pensation for their services ; but this is far short of conferring 
24 (369) 

370 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

upon them an exclusive power in this respect, and one beyond 
future legislative control ; a railroad, in its public character, is an 
improved highway ; its life is due to the exercise of state and na 
tional prerogative of eminent domain and taxation ; and its public 
character is not divested hj the fact that its ownership is private." 

The court was content with holding that the legislature of Iowa 
has not ^^ exj)ressli/ conferred" upon any railway corporation there- 
in, exclusive powers to fix their own charges ; that such power 
cannot be arrived at by implication, and that whatevai' powers are 
conferred in this respect are subject to an implied condition that 
they shall not be exercised oppressively or unreasonably ; that 
they are at the same time subject to the future exercise of public 
regulations of the state, or of any other power possessed by the 
state in its nature legislative, which includes the power to regulate 
consistently with the charter, the franchises granted, and to pre- 
scribe and limit the amount of charges which it shall be lawful 
for the railroad to take for transportation. As to the question of 
inter state commerce, the court held, that the state could only 
have legislative control over the road within its own borders, and 
recognizing the fact that our railroad system is made up of parts 
supplied by several states, the court expressed a doubt whether a 
power in a state thus limited to its own local borders and inter- 
ests, could be beneficial in its exercise, and remarked that it was 
a " legislative problem and not a judicial question." 

Presiding Justice Miller took no part in this decision, from the 
fact that all these questions would soon come before him in the 
United States supreme court, and he desired them to come there 
without any expression of opinion by him. " Another case is be- 
fore the court, and probably will be decided the present year 
(1875), involving the question whether a company can be com- 
pelled to operate its road under the rates established by the above 
act, when it would thereby not be able to earn expenses ; in other 
words, Can a railroad be compelled to do service without compen- 
sation ? " 

The election of this year (1874) was for the following offlcers : 
secretary of state, state auditor, treasurer, register of the land of- 
fice, attorney general, clerk and reporter of the supreme court. 

The republican convention put in nomination the following 

372 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

ticket : for secretary of state, Josiah T. Young ; auditor, Buren 
E. Sherman ; treasurer, William Christy ; register of the land of- 
fice, David Secor ; attorney general, M. E, Cutts ; clerk of the su- 
preme court, Edward J. Holmes ; reporter of supreme court, John 
S. Kunnells. 

The democratic and liberal republicans nominated the follow- 
ing ticket : for secretary of state, David Morgan ; auditor, Joseph 
M. King ; treasurer, Henry C. Hargis ; register of land office, 
Eobert H. Rodearmel ; attorney general, John H. Keatley ; clerk 
of the supreme court, George W. Ball ; reporter of supreme court, 
James M. Weart. 

At the election which took place on the 13th of October, the 
republican ticket was elected. The whole number of votes cast 
for secretary of state was 185,937, of which Mr. Young received 
107,340 votes, and Mr. Morgan 78,597 ; Mr. Young's majority 
being 28,743. The remainder of the republican candidates were 
elected by nearly a similar vote. The republican candidates 
for congress, viz : Gr. W. McCrary, J. Q. Tufts, C. T. Granger, 
H. 0. Pratt, Jas. Wilson, E. S. Sampson, John A. Kasson, were 
also elected. The election in 1875 for state officers was unusually 
interesting and enthusiastic. 

The republican state convention was held in Des Moines, June 
30th, and Samuel J. Kirkwood nominated for governor ; Joshua 
G. Newbold for lieutenant governor ; Austin Adams for judge of 
the supreme court ; Alonzo Abernethy for superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction. The democratic state convention was held in the 
same city, June 24, 1875 ; nominated Shepherd Leffler for governor ; 
E. B. Woodward for lieutenant governor ; W. J. Knight for judge 
of the supreme court ; A. K.Wright for superintendent of public in- 
struction. Wright declined, and the democratic state central com- 
mittee put on in his place Isaiah Doane. The official vote of the 
state will be canvassed by the executive council for judge of su- 
preme court and superintendent of public instruction, on Thursday 
November 11, 1875, but the vote for governor and lieutenant gov- 
ernor will not be canvassed until next January, 1876, by the gen- 
eral assembly. The election resulted in a great victory for the re- 
publicans. The aggregate vote was about 218,900, some eleven 
or twelve thousand greater than ever before, the highest previous 

Administration of Gov. Carpenter. 373 

vote being that of 1872 ; and Gov. Kirkwood receives the largest 
vote ever given for a candidate for governor of Iowa ; he has a 
majority of over 31,000. 

[We close the legislative history November, 1875. — C. K 



Territorial Officers — State Officers — Members of Congress from the Organ- 
ization of the Civil Government to the Present Time, 1875. 

When Iowa was erected into a separate territory in 1838, 
Robert Lucas was appointed governor of the new territory by 
President Van Buren. He was succeeded by John Chambers, 
who received his appointment from President Harrison, and 
aeruprl fr,nr years, and until succeeded by James Clark, appointed 
by President Polk in November, 1845, who held the office till 
Bsaember 31, 1846, when the state government went into opera- 
I'am with Ansel Briggs as governor, who served as such until 
December, 1850, one term ; the terms of office of the governors, 
under the former constitution, being for four years. He was 
succeeded by Stephen Hempstead, who served one term, ending 
December, 1854. The next was James W. Grimes, who served 
as governor from December, 1854, to January, 1858. During 
this official term another constitution of the state was adopted, 
which reduced the term of governor from four to two years, 
making it begin on the second Monday in January of. the even 
years, and shortening, by about one year. Gov. Grimes' guberna- 
torial career, which came to a close in January, 185S. Ralph P, 
Lowe was the first governor under the new constitutioa, and 
served one term, ending January, 1860. He was succeeded by 
Samuel J. Kirk wood, who was the first executive of Iowa hon- 
ored by a reelection, an innovation which has thus far been con- 
tinued to his successors. Gov. Kirkwood's second term closed 
in January, 1864, and he was followed by William M. Stone, 
who also served as governor two terms, ending January, 1868, 
when he was succeeded by Samuel Merrill, whose term expired in 
January, 1870, and was reelected and served to January, 1872. 

Official Directoky of Iowa. 375 

Cyrus C. Carpenter was his successor, and served two terms until 
January, 1876, to be followed by Samuel J. Kirkwood, who had 
served two terms as governor, from 1860 to 1864. His third 
term will expire January, 1878. 

It will be seen that Iowa, since she has become a separate ter- 
ritory, has had eleven executives — three territorial governors, 
during a period of seven years and a half, ending December 31, 
1846 ; three state governors under the old constitution, acting 
during a period of eleven years, ending January, 1858 ; and five 
state governors under the second constitution, acting during a 
period of eighteen years to be completed January, 1876. 

The following named persons were territorial oificers : 

Secretary — Wm. B. Conway, appointed 1838, died in office 
Nov., 1839; James Clark, appointed 1839; 0. H. W. Steele, 
appointed 1841 ; Sam'l J. Burr, appointed 1843 ; Jesse Williams, 
appointed 1845. 

Auditor — Jesse Williams appointed Jan. 14, 1840; Wm. L. 
Gilbert, appointed Jan. 23, 1843, reappointed Feb. 27, 1844; 
Robert Secrest, appointed 1845. 

Treasurer — Thornton Bayless, appointed Jan. 23, 1839; Mor- 
gan Reno, appointed 1840. 

Agent — Jesse Williams, appointed Jan. 15, 1841; John M. 
Coleman, appointed 1842, reappointed Feb. 15, 1843, and Feb. 
12, 1844 ; Anson Hart, appointed 1844 or 1845. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction — William Reynolds, ap- 
pointed 1841. 

Supreme Court — Chas. Mason, chief justice, 1838-1846; Joseph 
Williams, associate, 1838-1846; Thomas S. Wilson, associate, 

Delegates to Congress — Wm. W. Chapman, in 25th and 26th 
congresses ; Francis Gehon, elected 1839, but did not serve ; Au- 
gustus C. Dodge in 27th, 28th and 29th congresses. 

The following persons have held offices under the state gov- 
ernment : 

Governors — Previously referred to. 

Lieutenant Governors — Oran Faville; Nichohxs Rusch ; Johr 
R. Needham ; Enoch W. Eastman ; Benj. F. Gue ; John Scott 
Madison M. Walden ; Henry C. Bullis ; Joseph Dysart. 

376 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

Secretary of State — Elisha Cutler, Jr.; Josiah H. Bonney; 
Geo. W. McCleary, three terms ; Elijah Sells, three terms ; James 
Wright, two terms ; Ed. Wright, three terms ; J. T. Young. 

Auditor of State — Joseph T. Fales, two terms; William Pattee, 
two terms ; Andrew J. Stevens, John Pattee, two terms additional ; 
Jona. W. Cattell, three terms ; John A. Elliott, three terms ; 
John Eussell. 

State Treasurer — Morgan Reno, two terms ; Israel Kister; Mar- 
tin L. Morris, three terms ; John W. Jones, two terms ; Wm. H, 
Holmes, two terms ; Sam. E. Rankin, two terms; Wm. Christy.. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction — Jas. Harlan; Thos. H. 
Benton, Jr., two terms ; J. D. Eads ; Joseph C. Stone ; M. L. 
Fisher. Office abolished. 

Secretary of Board of Education — Josiah T. Tubby, T. H. Ben- 
ton, jr., three terms ; Oran Faville. Office abolished. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction — Oran Faville, two terms ; 
D. Franklin Wells, two terms ; A. S. Kissell ; A. Abernethy. 

Register of State Land Office — Anson Hart ; Theo. S. Parvin ; 
Amos B. Miller, two terms ; Edwin Mitchell ; Josiah A. Harvey, 
two terms ; C. C. Carpenter, two terms ; Aaron Brown. 

Chief Justice Supreme Court — Chas. Mason; Jos. Williams; 
S. Clinton Hastings ; Joseph Williams ; Geo. G. Wright ; Ralph 
P. Howe ; Caleb Baldwin ; Geo. G. Wright ; Ralph P. Howe ; 
John F. Dillon ; Wm. E. Miller. 

Associate Judges — Jos. Williams ; Thos. S.Wilson ; J. F. Kinney ; 
Geo. Green ; Jona. C. Hall ; W. G. Woodward ; N. W. Isbell ; 
L. C. Stockton ; Caleb Baldwin ; Geo. G. Wright, R. P. Howe ; 
J. F. Dillon ; C. C. Cole ; J. M. Bech ; W. E. Miller; J. G. Day. 

XXIX Congress — 18^6 to 1847. 
Senators — First general assembly failed to elect. 
Representatives — S. Clinton Hastings, Muscatine; Shepherd 
Leffler, Burlington. 

XXX Congress — 1847 to 1849. 
Senators — Augustus C. Dodge, Burlington, elected December 7, 
1848 ; George W. Jones, Dubuque, elected December 7, 1848. 
Representatives — 1st dist, William Thompson, Mt. Pleasant; 
2d dist, Shepherd Leffler, Burlington. 

378 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

XXXI Congress — 1849 to 1861. 

Senators — George W. Jones, Dubuque; Augustus C. Dodge, 
Burlington, reelected January 10, 1849. 

Representatives — 1st dist., first session, William Thompson, Mt. 
Pleasant, unseated by the house of representatives on a contest, 
and the election remanded to the people ; 1st dist., second session, 
Daniel F. Miller, Fort Madison, elected September 4, 1850 ; 
2d dist, Shepherd Leffler, Burlington. 

XXXII Congress — 1851 to 1863. 

Senatcrrs — George W. Jones, Dubuque; Augustus C. Dodge, 

Representatives — 1st dist, Bernhart Henn, Fairfield ; 2d dist, 
Lincoln Clark, Dubuque. 

XXXIII Congress — 1853 to 1855. 

Senators — Augustus 0. Dodge, Burlington ; George W. Jones, 
Dubuque, reelected December 21, 1852. 

Re2Jresentatives — 1st dist, Bernhart Henn, Fairfield; 2d dist, 
John P. Cook, Davenport 

XXXIV Congress — 1856 to 1857. 

Senators — George W. Jones, Dubuque; James Harlan, Mt 
Pleasant, elected January 6, 1855, and January 17, 1857.* 

Representatives — 1st dist, Augustus Hall, Keosauqua ; 2d dist, 
James Thorington, Davenport 

XXXr Congress — 1851 to 1859. 

Senators — George W. Jones, Dubuque; James Harlan, Mt 

Representatives — 1st dist, Samuel R Curtis, Keokuk; 2d dist, 
Timothy Davis, Elkader. 

XXXri Congress — 1859 to 1801. 

Senators — James Harlan, Mt Pleasant; James W. Grimes, 
Burlington, elected January 26, 1858. 

Representatives — 1st dist, Samuel R Curtis, Keokuk ; 2d dist, 
William Vandever, Dubuque. 

XXXVII Congress— 1861 to 1863. 

Senators — James Harlan, Mt Pleasant, reelected January 11, 
1860 ; James W. Grimes, Burlington. 

* Election declared illegal by the U. 8. Senate, January 12, 1857 ; again 
elected as above. 

Official Directory of Iowa. 379 

Representatives — Isl dist, first session, Samuel R. Curtis, 
Keokuk ;* 1st dist, second and third sessions, James F. Wilson, 
Fairfield, elected October 8, 1861 ; 2d dist, William Vandever, 

XXXVIII Congress — 1%QZ to 1865. 

Senators — James Harlan. Mt Pleasant ; James W. Grimes, 

Representatives — 1st dist, James F. Wilson, Fairfield ; 2d dist, 
Hiram Price, Davenport ; 3d dist, William B. Allison, Dubuque ; 
4th dist, Josiah B. Grinnell, Grinnell; 5th dist, John A. Kasson, 
Des Moines ; 6th dist, Asahel W. Hubbard, Sioux City. 
XXXIX Congress — 1865 to 1867. 

Senators — James Harlan, Mt Pleasant ;f James W. Grimes, 
Burlington ; Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa City, elected January 13, 

Representatives — 1st dist, James F. Wilson, Fairfield ; 2d dist, 
Hiram Price, Davenport ; 3d dist, William B. Allison, Dubuque ; 
4th dist, Josiah B. Grinnell, Grinnell; 5th dist., John A. Kasson, 
Des Moines; 6th dist, Asahel W. Hubbard, Sioux City. 
XL Congress — 1867 to 1869. 

Senators — James W. Grimes, Burlington ; James Harlan, Mt 
Pleasant, elected January 13, 1866. 

Representatives — 1st dist, James F. Wilson, Fairfield ; 2d dist, 

Hiram Price, Davenport ; 3d dist, William B. Allison, Dubuque ; 

4th dist, William Loughridge, Oskaloosa ; 5th dist, Grenville M. 

Dodge, Council Bluffs; 6th dist, Asahel W. Hubbard, Sioux 


XLI Congress — l^m io 1871. 

Senators — James B. Howell, Keokuk, elected January 20, 
1870, to fill vacancy caused by death of James W. Grimes ; James 
Harlan, Mt Pleasant, elected January 13, 1866. 

Representatives — l&i dist, George W. McCrary, Keokuk; 2d 
dist, William Smyth, Marion ; 3d dist, William B. Allison, Du- 
buque ; 4th dist, William Loughridge, Oskaloosa ; 5th dist, Frank 
W. Palmer, Des Moines; 6th dist, Charles Pomeroy, Fort Dodge. 

* Vacated seat by acceptance of commission as brigadier general, and J, 
F. Wilson chosen bis success' t. 

f Became secretaiy of the interior May 1, 1865, and resigned his seat in the 
senate. Samuel J. Kirkwood chosen bis successor as above. 

380 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

XLII Congress— 1871 to 1873. 

Senators — James Harlan, Mt, Pleasant, elected January 13. 
1866 ; George G. Wright, Des Moines, elected January 20, 1870. 

Representatives — 1st dist., George W. McCrary, Keoknk ; 2d 
dist, Aylett R Cotton, Clinton ; 3d dist, W. G. Donnan, Inde- 
pendence; 4th dist, Madison M. Waldon, Centerville ; 5th 
dist, Frank W. Palmer, Des Moines ; 6th dist, Jackson Orr, 

XLII I Congress— I^IZ to 1875. 

Senators — George G. Wright, Des Moines, elected January 20, 
1870 ; William B. Allison, Dubuque, elected January 18, 1872 ; 
term of office commenced March 4, 1873, ends March 4, 1879. 

Representatives — 1st dist, George W. McCrary, Keokuk ; 2d 
dist, Aylett R. Cotton, Clinton ; 3d dist, William Donnan, Inde- 
pendence; 4th dist, Henry 0. Pratt, Charles City; 5th dist, 
James Wilson, Traer, Tama county ; 6th dist, William Lough- 
ridge, Oskaloosa ; 7th dist, John A. Kasson, Des Moines; 8th 
dist, James W. McDill, Afton ; 9th dist, Jackson Orr, Boons- 

XLIV Congress — 1875 to 1877. 

Senators — George G. Wright, Des Moines, elected Jauuary 20, 
1870 ; term expires March 4, 1877 ; William B. Allison, Dubuque, 
elected January 18, 1872, term of office expires March 4, 1878. 

Rei^resentatives — 1st dist, George W. McCrary, Keokuk; 2d 
dist, John Q. Tufts, Tipton ; 3d dist, L. L. Ainsworth, West 
Union ; 4th dist, Henry 0. Pratt, Charles City ; 5th dist, James 
Wilson, Traer. Tama county; 6th dist, Ezekiel S. Sampson, Sig- 
ouruey ; 7th dist, John A. Kasson, Des Moines ; 8th dist, James 
W. McDill, Afton ; 9th dist, Addison Oliver, Onawa. 

Inasmuch as this history will close in November, 1875, it will 
of course be impossible to refer to events, beyond that date. The 
election that took place in October was a spirited one, and resulted 
as before stated, in the election of the republican state ticket 

In treating of the public events of the territorial and state gov- 
ernments, it has been the design of the author, to give an unbiased 
account of public occurrences and measures of public policy. The 
time has not arrived for a writer on the history of this state, to 
give his own views on these matters freely, without giving more 
or less offense. Parties are still on the field of action who came 

Official Directory of Iowa. 381 

to the state in the early days and took an active part in the politi- 
cal history of the territory and state. They were honest and de- 
cided in their convictions whether right or wrong, and it would 
be manifestly unjust to these worthy men to say aught to their 
discredit. The future historian will be better prepared to write 
what is here unwritten in this regard. 

The information contained in this volume has been collected 
from original documents and authorities, and other sources of re- 
liable information. The annals of Iowa published by the state 
historical society have furnished much valuable material, and 
particularly the series of articles on the early history written by 
the late Hon. Charles Negus of Fairfield. Hon. Willard Bar- 
rows' history of Scott county published in this work, has been re- 
ferred to, as well as " Wilkie's history of Davenport," and kin- 
dred publications ; and it is believed that what is herein stated is 
in all respects true, or if there are errors, they will not be found 


Iowa State Capital — State Agricultural Society— Agricultural College — 
The State Prison. 

The permanent location of the capital of the state of Iowa 
was not fixed until a very late date. The first session of 
the legislature was held at Burlington, and, as we have before 
mentioned, convened in a two story frame house, built expressly 
for the purpose by Jeremiah Smith, Jr., a member of the legisla- 
tive council. This building, in the following winter, was burned 
to the ground, and the legislature thereafter met in the Methodist 
Episcopal church, then called " Old Zion Church." Congress 
provided, in the organic act, the sum of $20,000 for the purpose 
of erecting public buildings for the use of the territorial govern- 
ment. Accordingly, on the 21st of January, 1839, three commis- 
sioners were appointed, viz., Chauncey Swan, Robert Ralston and 
John Reynolds, to select a site for the capital within the limits of 
Johnson county. They were instructed to lay out 640 acres into 
a town, to be called Iowa City. They were also to proceed to 
sell lots and to erect public buildings thereon. 

The town was accordingly laid out on the 16th of August. 
1839. The territorial legislature, at its second session, passed a 
law confining the commissioners to an expenditure of $51,000. 
The work on the buildings progressed, and the fourth legislature 
met ai Iowa City on the 6th of December, 1841, as mentioned in 
our legislative history. But this session could not be accommo- 
dated with the new eapitol, but rather the legislature met in a 
temporary frame building, erected for the purpose. On the 5th 
day of December, 1842, the new eapitol having been sufliciently 

384 • Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

completed, the legislative assembly convened in the building. 
A detailed sketch of the building of the first territorial capitol 
has already been given. 

As already stated, Iowa was admitted into the union on the 
28th of December, 1846, and at the first session of the state legis- 
lature the state treasurer reported the capitol building in an un- 
safe condition. At this time the sum of $2,500 was voted to 
complete the building. No sooner was the southern and western 
boundary of the state determined than a question arose as to the 
propriety of relocating the capital. The first general assembly 
accordingly appointed commissioners to locate the seat of govern- 
ment and to select five sections of land, being the amount granted 
by congress for the erection of public buildings. The same act 
granted the half-completed public buildings at Iowa City to the 
newly created state university, to be used, nevertheless, by the 
legislature and state officers until other buildings could be 
erected. These commissioners selected four sections and over, in 
Jasper county. Here a town was platted, called Monroe City, 
and a sale of lots took place, and over four hundred were dis- 
posed of at very low prices. The cash payment of one-fourth, 
however, yielded, $1,797.43, but the claims of the commissioners 
and the expenses of the sale exceeded this amount several hun- 
dred dollars. 

This selection and sale was not satisfactory to the government, 
and Monroe City was thrown aside as the seat of government, 
and further appropriations were made to the public buildings at 
Iowa City. But this did not settle the question of the permanent 
seat of government. In 1851, bills were introduced to remove 
the capita] to Pella, and to Fort Des Moines. 

The measure in favor of the latter point received general sup- 
port, but was defeated in both houses. But the effort was re- 
sumed at the next session, with good results. On the 15th of 
January, 1855, the governor approved the bill relocating the seat 
of government within two miles of the Raccoon Fork of the Des 
Moines river, and providing for the appointment of commission- 
ers for that purpose. The site for the capital was selected in 
1856. Buildings were erected for the temporary occupation of 
the government by private capital, and Gov. Grimes issued his 

State Institutions. 385 

proclamation convening the legislature at Des Moines, and de- 
claring that place to be the capital of the state. 

During the fall and winter the archives were removed to Des 
Moines. On the 11th of January, 1858, the seventh general as- 
sembly convened at Des Moines. The buildings erected at Des 
Moines were soon considered inadequate to the wants of the gov- 
ernment, and in 1870 the legislature took steps looking to a new 
capitol. The board of commissioners consisted of Gov. Samuel 
Merrill, president, ex officio, G. M. Dodge, James F. Wilson, 
James Dawson, S. G. Stein, J. 0. Crosby, Charles Dudley, J. N. 
Dewey, W. L. Joy, A. R. Fulton. The act provides for a first 
class capitol building in every particular. The initial sum appro- 
priated was $100,000. Designs were furnished, and on the 23d 
of November, 1871, the corner stone was laid with imposing cer- 
emonies. The work of construction has progressed finely and 
the basement and walls are now completed. 

The state agricultural society, organized in 1864:, is worthy of 
special mention. The Hon. Thomas Cloggett, of Keokuk, was 
its first president. The first meeting of the society was held in 
1854, at Fairfield, and since that time it has received due en- 
couragement and support. " The law provides an appropria- 
tion of one thousand dollars annually for the benefit of the soci- 
ety, to be paid by the auditor of state upon the order of the 
president of the society. It also provides that a meeting shall 
be held at the capital of the state on the second Wednesday 
of January in each year, at which the directors and ofiicers 
shall be chosen, the place for holding the next annual exhi- 
bition determined, premiums on essays and field crops awarded, 
and all questions relating to the agricultural development of 
the state considered. The premium list and rules of exhibition 
are required to be determined and published by the board of 
directors prior to the first of April in each year, and the board of 
directors are to make an annual report to the governor, embracing 
the proceedings of the society and board of directors for the past 
year, an abstract of the proceedings of the several county societies, 
and a general view of the condition of agriculture throughout the 
state, accompanied by such essays, statements and recommenda- 
tions as they may deem interesting and useful ; the report to be 
8.5 (273) 

386 TvTTLFfs History of Iowa. 

published by the state under the supervision of the secretary of 
the society. The secretary of state is required to distribute the 
reports as follows : Ten copies to the state university, ten to the 
state library, ten to the state agricultural college, one to each 
member of the general assembly, and the remainder to the secre- 
tary of the state agricultural society, by him to be distributed to 
the county agricultural societies ; and one copy shall be sent to 
the board of supervisors of each organized county in which there 
is an agricultural society." * 

The general assembly, in 1858, provides by act for the Iowa 
state agricultural college and farm. " A board of trustees was 
appointed consisting of ex-Gov. R. P. Lowe, John D. Wright, Wm. 
Duane Wilson, M. W. Eobinson, Timothy Day, Richard Gaines, 
John Pattee, G. W. F. Sherwin, Suel Foster, S. W. Henderson, 
Clement Coffin, and E. G. Day. The board met in June, 1859. 
Propositions were received from Hardin, Polk, Story, Marshall, 
Jefferson, and Tama counties, for the location of the college and 
farm. A selection was made at the next meeting in July, when 
the proposition of Story and Boone counties was accepted, and the 
farm and site for the buildings located accordingly." The offer 
made by Story county and some of its citizens, and by the citizens 
of Boone county, embraced $10,000 of county bonds which had 
been voted by Story county, nearly $4,000 in individual notes at 
ten per cent, interest from the date of location, payable in two 
years, and a thousand acres of unimproved land in Story and 
Boone counties, in the vicinity of the farm. 

The lands are dry and rolling prairie of excellent quality, with 
about 150 acres of timber, a never failing spring in the center of 
the farm, a good stone quarry near by, and plenty of clay for the 
manufacture of brick. The farm house and barn were erected in 
1860-61. In 1864, the general assembly made an appropriation 
of $20,000 for the erection of the college building. In June of 
that year the building committee, consisting of Suel Foster, Peter 
Melendy, and A. J. Bronson, proceeded to let the contract. John 
Browne, of Des Moines, was employed as architect, and furnished 

* From a sketch by W. W. Clayton, In Capl. Andreas' celebrated Iowa state 

State Institutions. 387 

the plans of the building, but was superceded in its construction 
by C. A. Dunham. The $20,000 appropriated by the general 
assembly were expended in putting in the foundations and mak- 
ing the brick for the structure. An additional appropriation of 
$91,000 was made in 1866, and the building was completed in 

This educational institution is an important help to the vast 
agricultural interests of the state, and is growing into greater use- 
fulness annually. It is largely patronized, and is exceeding the 
hopes of its earliest supporters. The management of the college 
is under an efficient board of trustees, " no two of whom are elected 
from the same congressional district, and who receive a compen- 
sation of five dollars a day for each day actually spent in the dis- 
charge of their duties. Tuition in this college is made by law 
forever free to pupils from the state over sixteen years of age, who 
have been residents of the state six months previous to their ad 
mission. Each county in" the state has a prior right of tuition for 
three scholars from each county ; the remainder, equal to the 
capacity of the college, are by the trustees distributed among the 
counties in proportion to the population, and subject to the above 
rule. All sales of ardent spirits, wine or beer, are prohibited by 
law within a distance of three miles from the college, except for 
sacramental, mechanical or medical purposes." 

The course of study is ample, and embraces the following 
branches: Natural philosophy, chemistry, botany, horticulture, 
fruit growing, forestry, animal and vegetable anatomy, geology, 
mineralogy, meteorology, entomology, zoology, the veterinary art, 
plane mensuration, leveling, surveying, bookkeeping, and such 
mechanical arts as are directly connected with agriculture ; also 
such other studies as the trustees may from time to time prescribe 
not inconsistent with the purpose of the institution. 

The resources of the institutions have been summed up as 
follows : " Funds arising from the sale and lease of lands and 
interest thereon, five sections in Jasper county, made available 
by act of congress July 11, 1862, and 240,000 acres granted by 
act of congress July 2, 1862, for the endowment of schools of 
agriculture and the mechanic aits. In 1862 and '63, 195,000 
acres of these lands were located by the commissioner, Peter 

388 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

Melendy, in the Fort Dodge, Sioux City and Des Moines districts, 
and since then other portions of these lands have been located by 
other commissioners ; so that the amount patented to the state, 
and under the management of the board of trustees, is sufficient 
to create an adequate fund for the support of the agricultural 

In 1839 the territorial legislature of Iowa took steps to estab- 
lish a state prison and appropriated $20,000 for that purpose. 
The act " provided for a board of directors of three persons 
elected by joint ballot of both houses of the legislature, who 
should direct the building of the penitentiary, which should be 
located within one mile of the public square, in the town of Fort 
Madison, Lee county, on condition that the citizens of Fort Madi- 
son should deed to the directors a portion of land suitable for a 
site, and assign them by contract a spring or stream of water for 
the use of the penitentiary. To the directors were also given the 
power of appointing the warden ; the latter to appoint his own 

" The first directors appointed were John S. David and John 
Claypole. They made their first report to the legislative council 
November 9, 1839. The" citizens of the town of Fort Madison 
had executed a deed conveying ten acres of land for the building 
site. Amos Ladd was appointed superintendent of the building 
June 5, 1839. The building was designed of sufficient capacity 
to contain one hundred and thirty-eight convicts, and estimated 
to cost $55,933.90. It was begun on the 9th of July, 1839 ; the 
main building and warden's house were completed in the fall of 
1841. Other additions were made from time to time till the build- 
ing and arrangements were all complete according to the plan 
of the directors. It has also answered the purpose of the state as 
a penitentiary for more than thirty years, and during that period 
may items of practical experience in prison management have 
been gained." 

There is a second or additional penetentiary or state prison at 
Anamosa, Jones county. This institution was provided for by 
act of the legislature in 1872, when the assembly appointed 
William Ure, Foster L. Downing and Martin Heisey, a board of 
commissioners to locate and pi-ovide for the erection and control 

390 Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

of an additional penitentiary for the state of Iowa. The board 
met on the 4th of June at Anamosa, Jones county, and selected a 
site donated by the citizens within the corporate limits of that 
city. L. W. Foster & Co., arhitects, of Des Moines, were employed 
by the board to furnish drawings and speciScations. The work 
on the building was commenced in September, 1872, and is now 
nearly completed, or so far completed as to accommodate nearly 
one hundred convicts. The building when completed, will 
be a fine structure. " The building, including the warden's 
house, which projects 71 feet from the main prison buildings, 
with its extended wings on either side, will be -±34 feet in length, 
and at the highest point 85 feet in height, the cell rooms being 
42 feet high. In front, upon the street, will be a neat iron fence 
inclosing three acres of ground and extending the whole length 
of the front. This inclosure will be filled with ornamental trees, 
shrubbery, flower beds and walks. The warden's house, prison 
cells, guards' hall, entrance hall to the dining room are the shape 
a cross, and a guard standing in the center of this hall can see to 
the extremity of either wing." 

All of the buildings are of stone, or will be when completed. 
The plan adopted by the board consists of two cell wings extend- 
ing parallel with the front, each 52 by 192 feet, connected by a 
guards' hall, 50 by 50 feet. There are in each cell wing four tiers, 
sixty-two cells to each tier, making a total of 496 cells in the two 
wings, each cell being 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet. The front build- 
ing, or warden's house, is 50 by 80 feet ; total height, 80 feet. In 
the rear of the guards' hall is the dining room, 42 by 112 feet; 
to the right of the dining room is the kitchen ; to the left the 
laundry ; over the dining room is the chapel. The building is 434 
feet front by 800 feet deep. There are to be nine workshops, 
forming a square with the main building fur the front, located 
near 50 feet from each other and the prison walls ; seven shops 
will be 50 by 102 feet, and two will be 50 by 120 feet, with 
wings 40 by 80 feet ; all two stories high, except one half of the 
wings to the last two shop-, which are one story; the whole to 
be inclosed with a substantial stone wall. 




The Iowa State University — Historical and Descriptive Sketch — The De. 
partments — Terms and Conditions — Other Institutions. 

The state university, according to the constitution, is perma- 
nently located at Iowa City. The institution was organized in 
1856. " The objects of the university " says Mr. W. W. Clay- 
ton, "are to provide the best and most efficient means of impart- 
ing to young men and women, on equal terms, a liberal education, 
and thorough knowledge of the different branches of literature, 
the arts and sciences, with their diversified applications. . It is 
provided by law, that so far as practicable, it shall begin its 
courses of study in its collegiate and scientific departments, at the 
points where the same are completed in the high schools of the 
state, and thus articulate with the highest department of the 
graded school system. No pupil is admitted who has not pre- 
viously completed the elementary studies in such branches as are 
taught in the common schools of Iowa. The law provides that 
the university shall never be under the exclusive control of any 
religious denomination ; that it shall be governed by a board of 
regents, consisting of the governor of the state, who shall be presi- 
dent of the board by virtue of his office, and the president of the 
university, who shall also be a member of the board by virtue of 
his office, together with one person from each congressional dis- 
trict of the state, who shall be elected by the general assembly ; 
that the university shall include a collegiate, scientific, normal, 
law, and such other departments, with such courses of instruction 
and elective studies as the board of regents may determine. Un- 
der this last head the medical department is included All speci- 
mens of natural history, geology and mineralogy, which are col- 


392 TvTTLBfs History of Iowa. 

lected by the state geologist, or by anj' others appointed by the 
state to investigate its oatural history and physical resources, be- 
long to, and are the property of the state university, and form a 
part of the cabinet of natural histoiy, which is under the charge 
of the professor of that department." 

The following summar}^ of the departments of the university is 
compiled from the last annual catalogue : There are three depart 
ments, viz : academical, law and medical. The government of 
the university is vested in the president and m the faculty of the 
three departments. The advantages of the university are offered 
to all who desire them with certain conditions : * 

The students of any department may avail themselves of the 
facilities afforded in the other departments to any extent consis- 
tent with their regular studies. It is the purpose of the regents 
and faculties of the university to keep it, as nearly as possible, 
abreast with the most advanced educational spirit of the times. 
With this view they are extending the range of study, increasing 
the number of professors and assistants, improving the facilities 
for instruction, and raising the standard of scholarship, as rapidly 
as the treasury of the institution will allow, and the best interests 
of the students and the commonwealth demand. It is believed 
that the youth of Iowa and adjacent states, who may come hither 
to qualify themselves for their various spheres of life, will find 
here all the means of professional and liberal culture which they 

can profitably employ. 

The programme of study in the academical department covers 

a period of six years. The period includes the subfreshman, or 
preparatory course, of two years, and the usual college curriculum 
of four years. In the college curriculum there are four courses of 
study : classical, philosophical, scientific and civil engineering. 
These courses are intended to be so diverse in their requirements 
and advantages, as to offer a reasonable range of choice to meet 
the different wishes, necessities, or tastes of the students. Every 
student, at the commencement of his freshman year, will be re 
quired to make an election of one of these courses, with the inten- 
tion of pursuing it till graduation, or so long as he may be a mem- 

* " Andreas' Iowa State Atlas." 

State Institutions. 393 

ber of this department. No student will be allowed, without per- 
mission from the faculty, to change his elected course, or to pur- 
sue more than three studies at a time, except as required by the 
programme. Any person complying with the terms of admission 
given below will be allowed to select from the four courses such 
studies as he may perfer, under the direction of the faculty. Irreg- 
ular students will recite with the academical classes, and will sustain 
iii all respects the same relation as other students to the university. 
Graduates of this or other institutions desirous of prosecuting 
studies not included in their undergraduate course, may, on con- 
sultation with the president, become connected with the universi- 
ty for that purpose, and avail themselves of such facilities as the 
several chairs of instruction afford. 

Applicants for admission to this department must present tes- 
timonials of good moral character, and if coming from other col- 
leges, must exhibit certificates of dismission in good standing. 
Those who enter at the beginning of the subfreshman course must 
be at least fourteen years of age, and those who enter at a later 
stage of study must be proportionally older. Applicants of 
every grade must pass an examination in English grammar, 
geography, history of the United States, arithmetic, and intro- 
ductory algebra (Ray's or Robinson's) as far as quadratics. 
Candidates for the freshman class will be examined in the studies 
of the subfreshman course, or their equivalent. Those proposing 
to enter any course at an advanced standing, will be examined in 
such studies of the course as may have been pursued previous to 
their admission. Regular examinations will be held at eight 
o'clock A. M., on the Wednesday next preceding the opening of 
the fall term in September. Examinations will also be granted at 
the beginning of the winter and spring terms, or at any other time, 
to suit the convenience of the applicant ; but it is of the highest 
importance to every student that he present himself for admission 
in September, if possible, so as to begin his studies when the reg- 
ular classes are formed. Any person applying for the privilege 
of pursuing the single line of study taught by any professor, will 
be allowed to do so, on consultation with the president, and with 
consent of the professor, without examination, and on payment of 
the fee for incidental expenses. The board of regents have au- 

394 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

thorized the faculty to receive, without examination, all appli- 
cants for admission bringing certificates of qualification from those 
high schools and academies in which the required course of study 
embraces the branches named in our catalogue as preparatory for 
the subfreshman course, provided the instruction in said schools 
and academies be known to be of such a character as to justify 
this arrangement. The same privilege will be extended to candi- 
dates for the freshman class, on presenting satisfactory testimoni- 
als of scholarship from the principals of such schools as shall be 
approved by the faculty, after a report from a committee which 
shall have visited them at the request of the school authorities. 
This privilege may be revoked at the discretion of the faculty 
whenever the students who may have been received under it shall 
show themselves to have been but poorly instructed in the pre- 
paratory schools. 

By order of the president of the United States, at the request 
of the regents of the university, Lieut. Alexander D. Schenck, 
of 2d U. S. artillery, a graduate of the military academy at West 
Point, and of the U. S. artillery school, has been detailed to the 
professorship of military science and tactics. The object of this 
professorship is stated by the regents, "not to give the students an 
extensive military education, but only so much military training 
and knowledge as will best consist with the required literary and 
scientific purposes of the university. The battalion is composed 
solely of such students as choose to join it. The enlistment is for 
one, two or three academical terras. The duties prescribed by 
the regents are one hour's drill three times a week during the 
fall and spring terms, for the entire battalion ; and for seniors and 
juniors, one recitation or lecture per week through the winter 
term, involving not over one and a half hours' study on the aver- 
age. Cannon, muskets, swords and accoutrements are furnished 
by the federal government. Drums, fifes, flags, and other neces- 
saries, are supplied by the board of regents. Elegant uniforms 
can be obtained by the students, at their own expense, for a much 
lower cost than ordinary clothing. 

It is the intention of those in charge of the study of civil en- 
gineering to prepare students for the same average usefulness in 
the usual affairs in life as other graduates, and in addition thereto, to 

396 TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

enable them, as inclinations direct and opportunities offer, to take 
an active part in the material progress of the times. It is there- 
fore the purpose of those in charge, to make it as thorough and 
practical as possible. With this end in view, frequent reference 
will be made to actual operations and constructions, data will be 
taken largely from real cases occurring in the experience of iu- 
Btructors and others, and the corresponding computations made 
by the students. The course in drawing includes a complete 
knowledge of all the fundamental principles of the science, as 
well as an application of those principles to the various kinds of 
drawing embraced in the course. Students under competent di- 
rection, have extensive, free and unrestricted use of the various 
instruments belonging to this chair, and thus become more 
familiar with them than is possible where such use is in any way 
curtailed. In view of the facts mentioned, it is expected to se- 
cure an easy transition from the work of the class room to the 
duties of the field engineer. 

Students pursuing this course will have the advantage of a 
valuable collection of standard works of reference ; of a good 
supply of instruments; of the valuable charts published by the 
U. S. lake and coast surveys ; of maps and drawings of railroad 
surveys and works; of about three thousand models from the 
patent office, illustrating almost every branch of engineering; of 
numerous drawings and photographic views of machinery ; 
besides a very fine bridge model, exhibiting in an elegant manner 
the strain upon the different parts of such a structure. Students 
in this course have free use of the general library, and all appur- 
tenances of the university. The laboratory of physical science is 
open to students every school day, from 8 to II A. M., and from 
2 till 5 P. M. The laboratory occupies the entire first story of 
the north building, and covers an area of 3,500 square feet. The 
rooms are provided with cases, containing extensive collections 
of chemicals, crystals, minerals, rocks, and a cabinet of physical 
and chemical apparatus. The special laboratory library embraces 
many of the best works and periodicals on the different branches 
of physical science. The following laboratory courses are in ope- 
ration: A. — A GENERAL COUBSE in the elements of physics, 
chemistry, and mineralogy, for students of the sophomore class. 

State IxsTiTUTioys. 397 

B. — Elective courses for juniors and seniors. 1. Theo- 
retical and practical physics, embracing optics, calorics, electricity, 
magnetism, and molecalar physics. (Three terms.) 2. Theoret- 
ical and practical chemistry. 

And now as to the cabinet and means of illustration. The 
Geological department of the cabinet is especially valuable as re- 
gards our own state, from the fact that all the collections of the 
state geological survey were, by law, given to the university. 
From time to time, collections are being added from equivalent 
strata elsewhere, as well as from formations that are not repre- 
sented in Iowa. Besides the university collection, a very fine 
series of duplicates from the private collections of the professor of 
natural science, embracing many of the rarer forms from Iowa, 
with typical species from the more noted localities of other states, 
is kept by the institution, and is accessible to all students of GeO' 
logy. The Zoological department contains several thousand speci- 
mens, distributed among the various branches of the animal king 
dom. A very large collection of crustaceans, shells, star fishe 
corals, sponges, etc., formerly part of the great cabinet of H. T. 
Woodman, Esq., of Dubuque, has recently been added to the mu 
seum, and affords superior means of illustrating the diversified 
forms of the marine invertebrates. Some hundreds of mounted 
specimens of our indigenous mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, etc., 
introduce the student to the fauna of the northwest. The Botani- 
cal department contains a fair and constantly increasing number of 
preserved specimens of native plants. Illustrations for the classes, 
however, are now, and always must be, largely supplied by the 
fresh products of garden, wood and field. A good microscope is 
kept for frequent use in all the classes. A supply of charts, dia- 
grams, models, etc., illustrating the science taught in this depart- 
ment, is unusually complete. The method of instruction in natur- 
al science combines text-book recitations and lectures, with labo- 
ratory practice and field work, the aim being to lead students as 
far as possible to become independent observers of nature. 

The design of the chair of didactics is to prepare teachers for 
advanced schools. Hence only those academical seniors who in- 
tend to become teachers, and special students who may be quali- 
fied to be classed with them, are allowed to pursue the normal 

398 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

studies. Didactics, in the higher sense, includes the philosophy 
of mind, the laws of mental development, and all those branches 
of study and methods of instruction that are employed in general 
education. The course of study and the methods of teaching in 
the academical department are such as would be selected if that 
department were organized and carried forward for the sole pur- 
pose of educating teachers for advanced schools. Such teachers 
need, primarily, accurate scholarship united with liberal culture. 
The instruction given in language, science, mathematics and litera- 
ture meet the demand. 

The exercises in the normal class consist of text-book recita- 
tions, expository readings from standard works on education, dis- 
cussions in which all the members of the class are expected to 
participate, lessons in method, observations in public schools, ex- 
amination of text-books in common use and the reports thereon, 
together with lectures on various subjects relating to the history 
and systems of education in our own and other countries, to the 
organizing, grading and governing of schools, and the duties and 
responsibilities of principals and superintendents. It is believed 
that those who avail themselves of the opportunities thu.s afforded 
in the university will be instructed in all the learning necessary 
to fit them for the work of teaching, and in all the methods that 
will qualify them to do it well. The professors in the academi- 
cal department not only make use of text-books and recitations, 
but vary the exercises of the class room with occasional or serial 
lectures on such subjects — literary, scientific, and historical — as 
relate to their respective chairs, and are adapted to the several 
stages of progress which their classes may have reached. A pub- 
lic examination at the close of each term will decide the rank of 
every student in this department. A record is kept of the 
attainments of every student, and information concerning the 
same will be communicated to the parent or guardian when ren- 
dered necessary by irregularity of attendance or a low grade of 
scholarship. Those who complete the required course in a satis- 
factory manner, will, on receiving the degree of A. B. or B. Ph., 
be entitled to a certified testimonial of qualifications as teachers, 
and after two years of successful teaching, may receive the degree 
of bachelor of didactics. 

State Institutions. 399 

The normal library is supplied with standard educational 
works, reports of city and state superintendents, many of the 
leading educational journals of this country and England, sets of 
common school books, and apparatus for primary, grammar, and 
; high schools, which students are required to read and examine. 
The library of this department contains from six to seven thou- 
sand works, representating the various departments of literature 
and science, besides cyclopedias and other books of reference, pe- 
riodicals, both home and foreign. The University Reporter is a 
sixteen page monthly paper, conducted by the students, and aided 
by contributions from the faculty and former graduates. Terms : 
One dollar per year, in advance. Address, University Reporter, 
box 279, Iowa City. Connected with the university, are the Ero- 
delphian and Hesperian, composed of ladies; the Zetagathean 
and Irving Institute, consisting of gentlemen. 

A thorough knowledge of the history, structure and use of 
our own language is considered by the regents of the university 
and the faculty of this department an indispensable element of the 
higher education. To furnish abundant facilities for gaining this 
knowledge is their steadfast wish and aim. The general plan 
pursued in English literature is as follows : In the fall term the 
origin and growth of the language are carefully studied, together 
with the lives and literary labors of distinguished English 
authors from the earliest times to the present. In the winter terra, 
the writings of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare, Bacon, Milton, 
Addison and others are critically examined with a view to the 
just appreciation of their thought and style. Considerable time 
is also devoted to syntactical analysis and to tracing words to 
their origin in the Anglo Saxon and other tongues. In the 
spring term, the poets, orators and miscellaneous prose writers of 
America receive special consideration. 

The department of law is now in the tenth year of its exist 
ence, having been founded in the year 1865 (as a distinct institu- 
tion at Des Moines, under the name of the Iowa law school), and 
incorporated with the university in 1868. Two hundred and 
fifty-six students have already received the degree of LL. B., and 
the number of graduates, as well as those in attendance for peri- 
ods less than the entire course, increases steadily with each sue- 

400 TvTTLifs History of Iowa. 

cessive year. Law students are subject to the general regulations 
of the university, but not to those designed expressly for mem- 
bers of the academical department. The course of study in the 
department is so arranged as to be completed within a single year, 
beginning in September and ending at the annual university com- 
mencement, the last of June. It is divided into three terms, cor- 
responding with those of the academical departmant The course 
is intended to embrace all branches of a complete legal education, 
so far as practical within the time alloted, and to prepare students 
for the bar of any of the United States — special attention, how- 
ever, being given to the subjects most likely to be useful in west- 
ern practice. An advanced course, requiring another year of 
study, was established in the summer of 1874, and has been in 
operation during the whole of the past year. For the present, 
however, this course will be optional, and no change will be 
made in the requirements for the graduation. As the diploma of 
the school admits its graduates to all the courts of the state, the 
authorities of the university do not feel at liberty to make any 
change in the previous conditions for a degree until the legisla- 
ture have had an opportunity to pass upon such change, and to 
make it a part of the statutory conditions for the practice of law. 
In the meantime every effort will be given to make this optional 
advanced course of value to such students as desire to make the 
most thorough and complete preparations for the practice of law. 
It will be open without additional charge to all students who 
have already completed the regular course, will commence at the 
same time with the latter, and extend through the year. It will 
embrace, first, a thorough revision of all the topics of the first year ; 
second, special applications of the principles of law to the specific 
questions occurring in practice ; third, the study of general juris- 
prudence, and the philosophy of law. This advanced course will 
be henceforth a permanent feature of the school. Graduates of 
this department will be admitted to it without charge for tuition ; 
all others will be expected to pass an examination equivalent to 
that required for the degree of LL. B., and to pay the regular 
tuition fees. Such students, after completing the advanced 
course, will receive their degree as graduates of this institution. 
The library of this department contains about 2,500 volumes ot 

402 TuTTLnfs History of Iowa. 

treatises and reports, selected expressly for the use of the school, 
and will be enlarged as rapidly as the funds granted for that pur- 
pose by the regents will admit. It already includes the reports 
of nearly all the northern states, with a large collection of Eng- 
lish and federal reports. The library is open every day in the 
term, from 8 A. M. to 5 P. M., and students of the department 
have free access to it for purposes of study or reference. Especial 
attention is directed by the instructors to familiarizing the class 
with the contents of the library, and teaching them to look up 
an thori ties, make up briefs — in short, training them to find for 
themselves the law upon any subject desired. 

The plan of the medical department requires the attendance of 
the students through two annual sessions, but should the Ameri- 
can Medical Association recommend an extension of the time to 
three sessions, and a specified amount of preparatory study in or- 
der to admission, the faculty of the institution will cheerfully aid 
in carrying out that object Students of both sexes are admitted 
on equal terms, and afforded in all respects the same facilities for 
acquiring a thorough medical education. The following remarks 
set forth some of the incitements to study and facilities for the 
acquisition of medical knowledge furnished by this school. The 
students are examined every day on the lectures of the previous 
day, and the standing recorded for future reference. Advanced 
students are required to make examinations at the clinics, and to 
prescribe for the patients. All kinds of surgical operations on 
the cadaver are performed by the students in the presence of the 
class, and under the direction of the professor of surgery. Pri- 
vate instruction in all the departments of medicine is furnished to 
all who may wish to avail themselves of such opportunities. The 
department has facilities for clinical instruction unsurpassed in 
the western states. The university hospital, located within two 
blocks of the university, not only affords ample accommodations 
to all who may apply for treatment, but has a large and conven- 
ient amphitheatre where from four to five hundred cases of dis- 
ease have been exhibited to the students during the year. A 
special advantage of the hospital is the opportunity afforded to 
members of the class foi- observing the treatment of cases in com- 
pany with the attending phrsicuiii wlien making his dailv rounds. 

State Ixstitutioxs. 403 

The most thorough study of practical anatomy will be required of 
every student. Facilities for obtaining material are such that an 
abundant supply will always be provided. The professor and 
demonstrator of anatomy will always be ready to aid the student 
in his anatomical studies. The anatomical museum will be opeu 
to students at all hours when lectures are not in progress. The 
qualifications of each graduating class are guarantied by the fact 
that a committee selected from the membership of the state medi- 
cal society takes part in the examination at the close of each an- 
nual session. The chemical laboratory is open six hours daily, 
for the study of practical chemistry. Courses in chemical analysis, 
urine analysis, and pure toxicology have been specially arranged 
for medical students. To students who remain at the university 
after the close of the annual session, an opportunity will be given 
during the ensuing three months for the study of analytical chem- 

The state library is also a credit to the state. It is located in 
the capitol building and contains 12,004 volumes exclusive of 
duplicates. Mrs. Ada North, the present librarian of state, is a 
lady of extensive culture, well qualified for the responsible 

The state historical society was provided for by act of the legis- 
lature in 1857. Its first appropriation was $250. Since then the 
institution has received an annual appropriation of $500. The 
society is under the management of a board of curators, consisting 
of eighteen persons. Nine of these are appointed by the governor, 
and nine are elected by members of the society. These curators 
receive no compensation. The law provides that the society shall 
hold its annual meeting in Iowa City on the last Wednesday in 
June of each year. It is also provided by law that there shall be 
delivered to the society annually twenty copies of the reports of 
the supreme court, and the same number of all other documents 
published by the state, for the purpose of effecting exchanges 
with similar societies in other states. The society has published 
a series of exceedingly valuable collections, including history, 
biography, etc. To these collections the merits of our work is 
largely due. The objects of the society are praiseworthy, and 
ought to receive even more support than they do. 

404 TDTTLifs History of Iowa. 

There are two hospitals for the insane, one at Mount Pleasant, 
and one at Independence. These institutions are a credit to the 
great state of Iowa, and well worthy the high esteem in which 
they are held by the people. The college for the blind at Vin- 
ton is also a well conducted, commodious and efficient institution, 
well provided with skillful, Christian educators. The institution 
for the deaf and dumb, located at Council Bluffs, is in that de- 
partment what the institutions named are in their respective prov- 
inces. It is in a flourishing, efficient condition. The soldiers' 
orphans' home, at Davenport, has done a valuable work in the 
state, and the institution is beloved by the whole people. It is 
a glorious monument to the Christianity of the state. The reform 
school at Eldora has fine buildings, and is in prosperous operation. 



Sketch of the Public School System of Iowa — Statistics — Growth iu Pros- 

The public school system of Iowa is justly a theme for con- 
gratulation to every loyal citizen. The schools have grown from 
the log school house to the modern brick and stone building, 
with all the modern appliances, and the growth has been indeed 
wonderful. No state in the union has better educational pros- 
pects than Iowa. The people have already expended over ten 
millions of dollars for the erection of public school buildings. 
The following statistical table, prepared by the superintendent of 
public instruction, is worthy preserving in history : 



00 • 






!H 'O oi 







ol I2 

° aS 






K E- 


M. 1 F. 









4m 2d 

»22 00 ]?15.68 

$570, 115 







aiJ, 5691117, 378 

5m 5d 

25.12 1 17.60 









om 5U 

31.64 1 22.80 








241, 8271136, 174i5m 4d 

33-60 ; 23.76 







373, 96S 

257, 281 148. eaflism 6d 

35.88 1 24.64 




2,039, 597 



393, 63i: 


160,773(6m 8d 

35.32 1 25.78 



2, 656, 074 



418, 16t 










320, 603 

202, 246 6m 4d 


26 80 


1,046,405 504,583 





341, 938 

211,5ii8 6ml0d 




1,095,903 605,100 




475, 49i) 


214, 905 BmlOd 


28 06 


1,212,723 722,896 






304,a.H6inl0d 36.28 



1,184,082 796,696 


In reference to the above table, the superintendent remarks as 
follows : 

" The most remarkable advance exhibited is that in relation to 
the school expenditures ; the annual amounts paid teachers, ris- 


406 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

mg from §570,115 to $2,248,677, an increase of two hundred and 
ninety-four per cent. Ttie expenditures for new school houses 
and sites, and for libraries and apparatus have increased from 
$160,253 to $1,184,082, and that for rent and repairs of school 
houses, for fuel, for compensation of district secretaries and treasur- 
ers, and for other incidentals, from $31,169 to $796,696. The ag- 
gregate annual expenditures rising from $761,537, in 1863, to 
$4,229,455, in 1873, or four hundred and fifty-five per cent. 

" The significance of these facts is unmistakable. Such munifi- 
cent expenditures can only be accounted for by the liberality and 
public spirit of our people, all of whom manifest their love of popu- 
lar education and their faith in the public schools by the annual 
dedication to their support of more than one per cent, of their entire 
taxable property ; this too, uninterruptedly through a series of years 
commencing in the midst of a war which taxed our energies and re- 
sources to the extreme, and continuing through years of general 
depression in business ; years of moderate yield of produce, of 
discouragingly low prices, and even amid the scanty surroundings 
and privations of pioneer life. Few human enterprises have a 
grander significance, or give evidence of a more noble purpose 
than the generous contributions from the scanty resources of the 
pioneer for the purposes of public education. The cost of sup- 
porting the public schools of the state is a subject of such gen- 
eral discussiou at the present time, that it was thought best to 
publish some facts giving the cost to each person ; to each 
scholar; to each dollar of taxable property, etc., for the past year. 
" These facts are based upon the aggregate expenditures for 
schools, including the interest on the permanent school funds, 
amounts received from fines, etc., so that the actual cost to our 
people is somewhat less than the figures given. From these state- 
ments it appears that the total expense of supporting the public 
schools, exclusive of school house building, is two dollars and 
fifty-five cents to each man, woman and child in the state ; 
eight dollars and eighty-two cents to each pupil enrolled in the 
schools ; also twelve dollars and eighty-three cents to each head 
of a family ; about eleven dollars to each adult male, and eight 
and forty-one one-hundredths mills on the dollar of the taxable 
property of the state. If the cost of building school houses be 

408 Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

added, the expense is considerably increased, as will be seen from 
the foregoing summary. 

" There is but little opposition to the levy of taxes for the sup- 
port of schools, and there would be still less if the funds were al- 
ways properly guarded and judiciously expended. However much 
our people disagree upon other subjects, they are practically 
united upon this. The opposition of wealth has long since ceased 
to exist, and our wealthy men are usually the most liberal in their 
views and the most active friends of popular education. They 
are often found upon our school boards, and usually make the best 
of school officers. It is not uncommon for boards of directors, 
especially in the larger towns and cities, to be composed wholly 
of men who represent the enterprise, wealth and business of their 

" The taxes which are levied to support the schools by our 
people, are self imposed. Under our laws no taxes can be legally 
levied or collected for the erection of school houses until they have 
first been voted by the electors of the district at a legally called 
school meeting. Our school houses are the pride of the state, and an 
honor to the people. If they are sometimes built at a prodigal 
expense, thetaxpayershaveonly themselves to blame. The teach- 
ers' and contingent funds are determined, under certain restric- 
tions, by the boards of directors elected annually in all except inde- 
pendent districts, where the board is wholly changed triennially. 
The only exception to this method of determining school taxes, 
is in case of the county school tax of from one to three mills on 
the dollar, usually the former, which is levied by the board of 

In every sense the public schools of Iowa are on a sound foot- 
ing. The school fund is large, and the financial outlook is one 
of cheering prospect. 



The Agricultural, Mineral, Educational and Manufacturing Resources and 
Developments of the State of Iowa by Counties, with Notes and Statistics 
of the leading Cities. 

In addition to the foregoing chapters, comprising a general civil 
and political history of the state of Iowa, we present the followins 
sketches of the several counties. From these sketches the reader 
may become familiar with the various interests and industries of 
the state, get a view of the principal cities, and observe the rela- 
tive growth of various localities. Iowa is truly a great state in its 
present growth, but its undeveloped resources are almost beyond 
comprehension. The internal improvements of the state are in a 
stage of advanced prosperity, and in every section, may be seen 
evidences of wonderful thrift and industry. 

Adair County. This county is 
twenty-four miles square, containing 
368,640 acres. The surface is nearly 
all prairie, but not level, many of the 
grassy ravines being especially decliv- 
itous. This peculiarity of the coun- 
try prevents complete cultivation at 
present, but the soil being fertile on 
the slopes there will cbme a time 
when every acre must be improved. 
The subsoil retains moisture, and fine 
crops are common where ordinary 
care is exhibited in observing the essen- 
tials of successful cultivation. Na- 
ture has provided nearly all the con- 
ditions for proper drainage, notwith- 
standing the feature just referred to, 
and within a brief period after the 
heaviest rains it is possible to resume 
f;«ming operations. Pastoral pursuits 
must eventually command the atten- 
tion of settlers in Adair county, so 

numerous are the advantages which 
are there placed at their disposal. 

Although the county which we are 
describing forms a portion of the water- 
shed of tlie two great rivers, the Mis- 
sissippi and the Missouri, there are no 
great water courses traversing its area, 
but the aqueous supply for all practi- 
cal purposes is never failing. Springs 
as well as streams will furnish stock 
raisers with all that they require for 
their cattle, even in the dryest seasons. 
Some of the streams are of sufficient 
importance to attract attention for the 
water power which they offer to man- 
ufacturers, but the advantage is not 
very extensively used. Well water 
can, in almost any district, be ob- 
tained by sinking from twenty to twen- 
ty-five feet. It may be mentioned that 
while the well water obtained at the 
depths named, is customarily hard, 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

the springs almost invariably give 
soft water, such as is most desired in 
domestic consumption. 

Following the direction of the water 
courses, this countj' is scantily tim- 
bered, witli here and there a beautiful 
grove, but generally the indications 
point to a time not very remote, when 
wooded country will be at a premium. 
Probably the attention of settlers hav- 
ing been called to the scantiness of 
timber, there may be special attention 
bestowed on forestrj' in Adair county, 
in which case the beauty of its scenery 
and its value will be enhanced.. 

Limestone is moderately abundant 
in some districts, and is made availa- 
ble for building purposes as well as 
for making quick lime, and other 
building stone is found in small quan- 
tities. Granite boulders are compara- 
tively common, being scattered all 
over the soil, as though cast there in 
mere wantonness during the sports of 
some Titan predecessors. Writers on 
the glacial period may suggest some 
theory of wandering icebergs, but the 
giant is more jjoetical. Coal is want- 
ing in Adair, but there are signs 
which have been held infallible else- 
where, which promise abundance of 
that deposit when the discoverer fair- 
ly settles down to his work ; but the 
state geologist. Dr. White, anticipates 
that the carboniferous layer will be 
found at a very great depth. Clay, 
.such as brick makers demand for their 
craft, has hitherto been found in but 
few places, but the quality of the de- 
posits so far (.liscovered has beeu ex- 
ceptionally good 

Thomas N. Johnson was probably 
the first white settler in Adair county, 
as he arrived in that section of the 
country iu 1849, but his claims are 
challenged very confidently by some 
parties. William Alcorn settled at the 
upper crossing of Middle river in the 
following year, in the district now 
known as Jetfer.son township. Vaw- 
ter's Grove had a resident soon after 
that time, a man named Lyon being 
known to have built and occupied a 
cabin near the spring in that locality 
in 1851. That location is now included 
in Jackson township. Lyon did not 
long remain a resident, as he sold 
out his claim to a drover who was on 
his way toward California, and wanted 
wintering ground for his cattle. Vaw- 
ter, whose name is identified with the 

grove, bought the land fi'om Taylor, 
who had succeeded Lyon, and the first 
holders of the soil there are thus lost 
to history. Permanent settlers soon 
followed, and made their homes in 
Adair county, foremost among whom 
we find the names of William McDon- 
ald, Alfred Jones, George M. Holaday, 
Robert Wilson, Jacob Bruce, Joshua 
Chapman, John Ireland, James Camp- 
bell, John A. Gilman and and John 

In the spring and fall of 1855, the 
attractions of the county having be- 
come known in South Carolina, Wal- 
nut township was settled by families 
that emigrated thence. JameiThom- 
son and and Isaac Arledge, with their 
belongings, were among the first to 
arrive, and they were speedily fol- 
lowed by Charles Smith and Lewis 
Underwood, whose names jiromise to 
be continued among the residents to 
an unlimited posterity. 

Jeiierson township comes next in 
chromilogical order, having b'^en set- 
tled in the summer of 1855. Most of the 
early settlers came from the state last 
mentioned, and may have been in- 
duced to plant their stakes so near to 
Walnut township, for the sake of good 
neighborhood among families that 
hailed from their old camping ground. 
The names of Jeremiah Rinard and Sto- 
ver Rinard are remembered among the 
earliest pioneers. From that time the 
process of settlement went on simulta- 
neously in many parts of the county so 
rapidly as to defy particular mention 
which would not seem invidious. 
Some interest must attach to the first 
birth, the first death, and the first mar- 
riage in the newl}' peopled country, 
of course referring to the white popu- 
lation. Margaret Johnson comes un- 
der the first category, John Gilson 
fills the second, both events having 
transpired in 1850, and it was not un- 
til four years later that William Stin- 
son married Elizabeth Crow, under a 
license issued in May, 1854, the county 
judge, George M. Holaday, one of the 
earliest residents in Adair county, 
having ofliciated. 

The organization of the newly set- 
tled district went on with commenda- 
ble rapidity. An act of the general 
assembl3-, which was approved in Jan- 
uary, 1853, attached Adair to the 
county of Cass for purposes of reve- 
nue, election and judiciary, and the 

Sketches of Counties. 


first election uuiier the new act was 
held in the house of Alfred Jones. 
No records of that event have been 
preserved. The following year saw a 
second election, when county officers 
were chosen, and the count}" was defi- 
nitely,' organized. The judge already 
mentioned was then elected, and John 
Gilson was appointed clerk. The judge 
ordered that the first county court 
should be held in his own residence, 
in May of the same year, and on the 
third of July the countj- was divided 
for election purposes, into two town- 
ships, known as Washington and 
Harrison, respectively. The loca- 
tion of the county seat was author- 
ized by the general assembly, Jan- 
uary 15, 1855, the commissioners 
nominated for the purpose being John 
Buckingham, of Page county; George 
B. Hitchcock, of Cass; and Elias 
Stratford, of Madison county ; and 
they selected the spot, having met at 
the Adair post office for the purpose, 
and named the location Summerset. 
From that time the business of the 
county court was transacted at the 
house of J. J. Leeper, pending the 
erection of official buildings. The 
first district court was convened in 
1855, but the first proceedings recorded 
bear date Fontanelle, March, 1857. 

Greenfield, the present county 
seat of Adair, is a village, near the 
geographical center of the county, to 
which place the business records of 
the county seat were removed upon an 
appeal to the popular vote, and a sub- 
sequent decision in the supreme com-t 
in the winter of 1874-5. 

Fontanelle, originally known as 
Summerset, when the county seat was 
first located, was newly named by an 
act of the general assembly in 1856. 
A considerable business is done in the 
town, and it is well situated in an ad- 
mirable locality. 

Nkvinsville, more familiarly 
known as Nbvin, has the double 
advantage of being partly in the coun- 
ty of Adair and partly in Adams. 
New England is largely represented 
in its population, and the settlement 

Casey is a very promising town, 
having the benefit of trafiic and travel 
on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad, but it is only in part includ- 
ed in the county of Adair, the larger 
portion being in Guthrie county. 

From the building of the railroad the 
town has gone on increasing in pros- 
perity, and at no distant day it will be 
one of the wealthiest centres of popu- 
tion in the state. 

Adams County is the third county 
on the east of the Missouri, and con- 
tains four hundred and thirty-two 
square miles, comprising no less than 
twelve congressional townships. The 
east and middle Nodaway rivers drain 
the major part of the area, other rivers 
and their branches coming through the 
county on the south and the eastern 
border. The rivers mentioned above 
aflbrd valuable water powers during 
the greater part of the year, and many 
enterprises have been started to im- 
prove the advantages thus oft'ered. 
During uearlj' nine n.onths of the av- 
erage 3-ear, the water powers of the 
Middle Nodaway are available and are 
used by flouring mills, saw mills, and 
for other purposes which will go on in- 
creasing in importance. Other manu- 
facturing establishments would de- 
serve attention here, but for the fact 
that to do them justice, would divert 
attention from the natural facilities 
now under review. About one tenth 
of the count)' is under timber, mostly 
young, as until recently fires were com- 
mon destroyers of forest growths, but 
since the settlers have used wise pre- 
cautions against the devouring ele- 
ment, groves have steadily increased 
in value. The streams already men- 
tioned and their nameless tributaries 
almost without number aft'ord excel- 
lent water for stock, and the beautiful 
vallies, fertile beyond imagination, give 
illimitable promises of prosperity to 
men of every class. Wells can be made 
in any place with but little expense, 
and immense varieties of timber are 
ready for every industry. Wild fruits 
challenge the skill of the practical and 
skillfurgardener, and coal has been 
found in veins thick enough to war- 
rant the expenditure of capital in 
bringing that valuable deposit to a 
market. One vein nearly two feet 
thick traverses the county from the 
southeast to the northwest corner, and 
before long much labor may be em- 
ploved in realizing that promise of 
wealth. Already much coal has been 
removed from some parts of the seam 
to supply local demands, and Adams 
county has sent portions of itscarboni- 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

ferous riches to moie distant fields. 
As fuel it if not of the first class, being 
much impregnated with sulphur, but 
it bm-ns well aud blacksmiths use it 
Ireely. Up to the present time there 
has been no mining in the larger 
meaning of that term, the main opera- 
tions having been a kind of quarrying 
along the banks of the different rivers. 
The discovery of a workable coal bed 
on the Missouri slope is a feature of 
more Uian local importance, but that 
aspect of the subject cannot be consid- 
ered on this occasion. The main value 
for Adams county consists in the pos- 
sibilities of manufacturing eminence 
which lie buried with the forests and 
entombed sunshine of the centuries 
before Adam himself, in that rich vein. 
Steam sawmills and a woolen factory 
already in operation dimly outline the 
prosperous future which may liftevery 
petty town into importance as an en- 
trepot of wealth. Men who are wise 
enough to assess at their ti'ue value the 
coal measures of England, see in their 
prospective failure within a century at 
the farthest, the complete eclipse of 
the manufacturing greatness of that 
kingdom, with, as an inevitable con- 
sequence, the transfer of empire to this 
continent. The possession of coal 
must eventually resolve all questions 
as to national and commercial pros- 
perity, as only the people that have 
coal can afford to work iron, and those 
who are the masters of iron command 
the gold of the world. Building stone 
of excellent quality has been found in 
various parts of the county, and the 
supply will be ample for all purposes. 
Limestone is plentiful aud first class 
bricks have been at all times available. 
The eastern half of the county consists 
of prairie, and is very valuable for ag- 
ricultural pursuits; the western half, 
equally rich in soil, being less even in 
surface, and therefore not so immedi- 
ately available. Generally the county 
might be described as undulating, with 
occasional valleys which must in the 
course of time, with the advantages 
which accrue from wealth aud civili- 
zation become surpassingly beautiful. 
The early history of Adams county 
carries us back no further than 185o, 
when the first separate organization is 
recorded with Samuel Baker as county 
judge. The first settler, Elijah Wal- 
ters, lived in the district four years 
earlier, but when game grew scarce he 

wandered to " fresh woods and pas' 
tures new " beyond our range of obser- 
vation. There was a considerable in- 
crease of population from without un- 
til the year 1858, but after that time for 
a period of eight years there was hard- 
ly any change in numbers, but since 
1866 the increase has been steady and 

The Icarian community deserves 
special mention as well from the prom- 
inence of that body in Adams countj- 
as from the peculiarity of the organiza- 
tion. The communitj' of interest 
which Robert Owen preached many 
years ago and tried to reduce to practice 
in New Harmony is actually realized 
by this peculiar people led by M. Cabet. 
The French novelist procured for his 
followers the name " Icarian," hy 
writing a work which bore that title 
in part, in which he preached social- 
ism as the cure for every ill which 
aflBicts the nation and society. That 
book was published in 1842, and soon 
after that date an attempt was made to 
establish a colony upon the communis- 
tic basis in Texas, under M. Cabet's 
prestige. The colony sailed from 
Havre for Red River in 1848, but when 
in the next year the would be founder 
followed, it was his misfortune to dis- 
cover that the community had been 
decimated and scattered by sickness 
and misfortune. After much effort the 
colony was moved to Nauvoo, from 
whence the Mormons had been ex- 
pelled, and subsequently a location 
was seemed in Adams county. 
M. Cabet returning to France was im- 
prisoned in that kingdom and detained 
for a longtime from the personal over- 
sight of his important venture. The 
prosperity of the scheme, as a whole, 
did not bring happiness to the propaga- 
tor of the enterprise, who eventually 
withdrew from the work in conse- 
quence of some misunderstanding, aud 
died in St. Louis while trying to form 
a new community. Every male adult 
among the Icarians is required to vote 
in all matters affecting the commun- 
ity, and women's rights are so far 
recognized that the lady members are 
allowed to discuss such questions as 
concern their interests. The manage- 
ment of the business of the commun- 
ity is delegated to a president and four 
directors who are chosen annually. 
Equality and fraternitj' are the ruling 
ideas of Icaria. New members may 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

be admitted after six moutlis pruba- 
lion, upon their handing over all their 
property to the directorate, for the 
benefit of the mass, after which all 
parties share alike in the labors and 
profits of every venture, but no money 
is given in return for labor. There is 
no provision for public worship 
among these peculiar people, but 
music, dancing and recreations of var- 
ious kinds are cared for with special 
favor by them, pai'ticularly on Sun- 

Adams county is not yet full}- sup- 
plied with railroads, but the Burlington 
and Missouri Ri\er Railroad traverses 
the county from east to west, and with 
little difliculty all portions of its area 
can procure facilities for transporta- 
tion to the best markets on this conti- 
nent. Schools have been cared for by 
the settlers, with exemplary foresight. 
The common school is within easy 
reacli of every considerable assemblage 
of residents, and teachers of the best 
kind are generally secured for the 
school houses, which are scattered 
broadcast over the land, to fit the 
youth for the onerous functions of free 
government. As might naturally be 
anticipated, the community which is 
wise enough to prepare so well for the 
children, has exhibited an equally 
commendable spirit in its war recrd. 
Corning is the countj- seat, and the 
town attracts favorable notice from all 
travelers in Iowa. Its railroad ad- 
vantages are first-class, its situation 
beautiful, and the enterprising spirit 
of its citizens is beyond praise. Ele- 
gant sites for villa residences, within 
easy reach of the town, have already 
tempted its business men to build cot- 
tages for their families away from the 
bustle of commerce ; and, as their 
wealth continues to develop, more will 
be done in the like direction to in- 
crease the beauty and eS'eciiveuess of 
the surrounding countiy. Parks, al- 
ready worthy of the name, have been 
secured as the lungs of the future city. 
QuiNCY was the county seat oefore 
Corning arrived at that distinction, 
and it is still a place of very ccmhid- 
erable importance, with man}- church- 
es and sufficient educational facilities 
for its population. 

Brooks is beautifully situated, about 
si.x miles south of Quincy, on the 
north of East Nodaway river. 
Queen City pi-omises to be some I 

I day worthy of its name, being well 
placed in the center of an excellent 
farming country, with all the advan- 
tages of good building material in 
abundance near at hand. 

Nevinsville has already been de- 
scribed, being partly in Adair county, 
and it is unnecessary to repeat such 

Mt. Etna, Nodaway, Icaria, Car- 
bon, Cave and Prescot are villages 
which will eventually enrich their 

Allamakee (bounty is in the extreme 
northeast of Iowa, with Minnesota and 
the Mississippi river as its boundaries. 
The scenery of Allamakee is varied 
and beautiful, and whenever the land 
becomes densely peopled, its facilities 
for drainage will be appreciated. Blutfs 
rise from the ri-sers, precipitously, to 
great iieights, in some cases as much 
as four hundred feet; and the center of 
the county is nearly seven hundred feet 
above the level of the river. But, al- 
though this is the general topographi- 
cal feature of the county, there are 
several marked exceptions, which are 
known as sloughs, extending here and 
there into lakes, such as Marshy and 
Big lakes. Lansing is almost reached 
by a series of sloughs, extending from 
the northern boundary of Allamakee. 
Harper's Channel is an important 
slough in the lower series, which ex- 
tends from La Fayette to Johnsonsport. 
The lands adjoining Harper's Channel 
are very rich and productive. The 
soil is varied, but generally good 
throughout the county, consisting of 
a deep black loam, practically inex- 
haustible. Burr oak openings, prairie 
lands, hazel thickets and river bot- 
tom, varied by occasional hickory and 
white oak openings, give all that 
could be wished in variety. Farmers, 
who are wise enough to use fertilizing 
compounds and to utilize their com- 
post heaps, can draw almost without 
limit from such lands, and usually the 
agriculturist is ready enough to em- 
ploy all his advantages. 

Meteorologically, this county has 
few superiors. Its air is almost en- 
tirely devoid of miasma, and its in- 
vigorating influences visibly affect the 
death rate of the locality. It is claimed 
that the atmosphere of Allamakee 
county is specific in the earlier stages 
ot consumption, but, on that point, it 

Sketches of Counties. 


is ouly fair to say that doctors dis 

The agricultural products of the dis 
ti'ict are various and prolitic, the sea- 
sons being extended and the soils rich. 
Corn, wheat, potatoes, onions and ev- 
ery kind of fruit (not tropical) can be 
raised with ease and profit, and it 
would be easy to show, from statistics, 
that the growth of the county in wealth 
and importance is as great as it is con- 
tinuous. Fruit will by and by com 
mand a much more extended employ- 
ment of capital and labor; but already 
the number of hands profitably en- 
gaged in that avocation shows that in- 
telligent farmers are not slow to dis- 
cover their best opportunity. 

Manufacturers have not been slow to 
discover the advantages which are of- 
fered by the streams and water courses 
in this county. The upper Iowa, the 
Yellow river, Paint creek. Village 
creek, French creek. Silver creeli, 
Waterloo creek. Harper's ferry and 
several other localities which need not 
be particularized, have been made 
the sites of important establishments 
which bid fair to increase, within a 
few years, to proportions all but gi- 
gantic, with corresponding advantage 
to the state. Many excellent sites are 
still unoccupied, but careful observei's 
are calculating their way along toward 
the full employment of all these natu- 
ral wealth producers. 

The county seat of Allamakee has 
been changed no less than three times, 
having been at first located at Columbus 
in 1851 ; thea removed to Waukon, in 
1853, and then, in 1861, transferred to 
Lansing by the vote of the people, and, 
in 1867, returned to its permanent rest- 
ing place at Waukon. Lansing pro- 
cured the change in its favor by donat- 
ing valuable properties to the county, 
which still continue to be held by the 
county ofl5cials on behalf of the peo- 
ple, who have gone back from their 

Johnsonsport is supposed to have 
been the site of the first settlement in 
this county, and " Old Mission " the 
next. An Indian trading station and 
boat landing, probably attracted set 
tiers with some ideas of permanency. 
The name is assumed to have been 
derived from one Henry Johnson, who 
gave his very common appellation to 
the post. The " Old Mission House," 
as it is called, is said to have been built 

in 1835; certainly, it was an old build- 
ing in 1848, when the surveyors used 
the chimney of that erection to take 
their bearings from. Thos. Listen was 
the first permanent settler, the older 
identities having been lost in the fog. 
Makee township was selected as "a 
residence by Patrick Keenau, who was 
cotemporary with Liston, in 1848. 
That settler, following his straj-ed 
oxen, came by accident upon what 
seemed a special revelation of beauty 
in the fine land which he wiselj- 
made his home, and has had no difljcul- 
ty iu causing to " blossom as the rose.'- 
The sun may be said to have shone 
upon him ever since. The later ar- 
rivals need not be specially named. 
It is enough to say that they were for- 
tunate in finding material advantages, 
which more than seconded all their 
endeavors, so much so, that the farmer 
must needs flourish upon a soil which 
required only "to be tickled with a 
hoe, and it laughed with a harvest." 

Education prospers in Allamakee 
county, the people being earnestly re- 
solved upon the projier training of 
their youth, and the teachers well 
qualified for their task. The cost of 
tuition per pupil is estimated at only 
seventy-five cents per month, but the 
results attained by concentrated effort 
and beneficent emulation among those 
engaged in the work have surpassed 
the most enthusiastic hope. 

Other institutions in the county have 
striven with some effect to keep pace 
with the schools, and there is a county 
agricultural society as well as a district 
association for similar purposes, hold- 
ing first-class fairs. The county farm- 
ers have also a trading association, 
and the county poor house and farm 
has less than a score of occupants, al- 
though the same establishment serves 
as a refuge for the insane. This record 
is admirable. 

Waukon, already named as the 
county seat, is located near the center 
of the count}', on rolling prairie land. 
Apart from the smaller benefits which 
accrue from the administration of jus- 
tice, and the location of county ofilces 
in the town, Waukon would flourish 
by virtue of its surroundings of pros- 
perous agricultural country. The town 
is well laid out, adorned by shade trees, 
and the buildings are substantial 
tokens of the wealth of the people. 
The public oifices, school building 


Tvttle's Histoey of Iowa. 

aud churches are very fine, being, in 
the main, excellent specimens of archi- 
tecture. The supply of spring water, 
for which Waukon is noted, is said to 
have attracted its first settler, G. C. 
Shattuck, who came from Indiana, 
and is now believed to be in Kansas. 
That gentleman occupied the site of 
the present town, and he gave forty 
acres of land to the county on condi- 
tion that the county seat should be lo- 
cated on the ground which he has since 
left. The population is not large, be- 
ing estimated at one thousand onlj' ; 
but it contains within itself the possi 
bilities of growth, in the manifold oc- 
cupations and enterprise of its traders 
and manufacturers. 

Lansikg can well afford to dispense 
with the minor advantages of being 
the county seat, as it is undoubtedly 
tile best commercial center in Allama- 
kee county, being situated (jn the Mis- 
sissippi, where the river has a bold 
shore, well adapted to the wants of the 
largest steamers, and sufficiently dis- 
tant from other landing places to make 
the site desirable. The town has rail- 
road accommodation all through the 
year, as well as the facilities of the 
river during the navigable season, and 
a large amount of business is trans- 
acted. The town is built on land 
which rises gradually from the river 
banks to the bluffs back of the busi- 
ness portion, hence the Mississippi is a 
never failing receptacle for its drainage. 
The first buildings were mostly of 
wood, but, since the fire of 1862, the 
best part of Main street, where mer- 
chants most do congregate, has been 
reconstructed of stone and brick. The 
town site was originally the property 
of H. H. Houghton, who located his 
claim in 1848, and laid out the town 
three years later. The day of small 
things soon passed away, and the av- 
erage of business now transacted in 
Lansing is very considerable. There 
are eleven churches in the town, mostly 
creditable buildings, and well organ- 
ized for Christian worship. There are 
several manufactories in full operation 
here, producing turbine water wheels, 
saw mills, mill gearing and steam en- 
gines, with other such works inciden- 
tal thereto. Such employments, ad- 
ded to the continuous movement of 
large masses of goods in the way of 
merchandise, give Lansing a very 
busy aspect, and the general prosper- 

ity is commensurate with appearances. 
The town was incorporated in 1804, 
and three years afterwards a city char- 
ter was adopted. There are now three 
weekly papers well sustained by the 
city and its surrounding population. 
One of the papers is German. The 
graded school in Lansing is a fine, 
substantial building, well adapted to 
its purpose, and wisely administered. 

PosTViLLE is a small but flourish- 
ing town in the southeast corner of 
the county on the line of the Milwau- 
kee and St. Paul railroad at the junc- 
tion of three counties, Clayton, Win- 
neshiek and Fayette, with Allamakee. 
The town takes its name from its first 
settler, Mr. J. Post, who dates his loca- 
tion from 1841. Until that date a few 
soldiers from Fort Crawford were the 
only white men that visited the ground, 
and the noble red man had almost un- 
disputed possession. The first post 
office was established there in 1848, 
and from that time to the present the 
town has progressed. The Cedar 
Rapids and Minnesota railroad con- 
nected the great world with Postville 
in 1871, since which time its growth 
has been more marked as it has be- 
come the depot for the traffic of an ex- 
tensive and fertile district. It was not 
until 1873 that the town was incorpo- 
rated, but since that date, municipal 
improvements have been pushed ahead, 
and many valuable buildings have 
been erected. 

The public school is a two storied 
building of brick and the manner in 
which the grounds have been laid out 
does credit to the taste of the man- 
agers. The school is graded, having 
a primarj', an intermediate, and a 
grammar department, each of these 
being under competent instructors, 
and the attendance is such as to war- 
rant all the care expended in the pro- 
vision of the essentials for first class 
training. The town of Postville is on 
the high road to great prosperity. 

Appanoose County ij in the south 
tier of Iowa counties extending twen- 
ty-four miles east and west and is the 
lourth county west of the Mississippi. 
Its extension north and south is about 
twentj'^-two miles or rather less. Its 
area approximates to 516 square miles. 
Charlton river is the great riparian 
feature of the countj', giving many val- 
uable mill sites which have already 

Sketches of Counties. 


attracted the attention of capitalists. 
The affluents of this river, which are 
all tributary to the Missouri, give good 
water tor stock purposes at all seasons 
of the year and the country is well 
drained. Good timber can be found 
in all sections of the countj', the 
groves of white oak along Charlton 
river and Shoal creek being such as 
the state of Iowa can hardly excel any- 
where. Black and burr oak, hickory 
in its several varieties, white and b!ack 
walnut, maple, hard and soft, cotton, 
elm, linn, buckeye and other varieties 
of wood supply all that the artist or the 
builder could desire for use or orna- 
ment in the future of this countJ^ 
More than one-fifth of the county is 
covered with valuable woods, and the 
sight from the cupola of the Center- 
ville court house from whence nearly 
the whole area can be seen on a clear 
day is very beautiful. The great Iowa 
coal field gives of all its wealth and 
promise to the county of Appanoose 
without the necessity for very expen- 
sive works, consequently the future of 
the several townships may be consid- 
ered as assured. 

Geologists assert that a shaft put 
down in the Charlton valley near the 
county seat would pass through all the 
coal bearing strata within four hun- 
dred feet, but up to the present time 
all the fuel that has been required has 
been obtained without very extensive 
workings, and the supply is said to be 

Building materials of all kinds are 
easily obtained within little distances 
of every center of population. Lime- 
stone is abundant and sandstone quar- 
ries are largely used, besides which 
sand and clay for bricks can be pro- 
cured in plenty for all purposes; of 
timber we have already spoken. 

The soil of the county is very favor- 
able to agriculture; the prairies are 
extensive and the streams all that 
could be desired ; many excellent farms 
are in the hands of men who know 
how to make the best of nature's boun- 
ty. There was a time when it was 
feared that the bottom lands along the 
Charlton river would be found too wet 
for beneficial use, but with the ad- 
vancment of enterprise and the adop- 
tion of a few simple expedients for 
drainage, that anxiety has been dispel- 
led and the bottom lands are now 
sought with avidity. Luxuriant crops 

of every kind of grain can be raised 
in the countj', and farmers in the tim- 
bered country who unite stock rais- 
ing with their other avocations have 
before them a prosperous time. Win- 
ter wheat can be obtained with great 
advantage under favor of the surround- 
ing timber, and, as might be anticipate 
ed the soil adjoining these fine lands 
is excepticmally adapted for grain 
crops, when well used. Wheat is not 
extensively cultivated in Appanoose 
county, corn and oats being prefer- 
red, as *hey are found to give much 
larger profits and grass lands are in 
great request. Timothy, clover and 
blue grass flourish abundantly and all 
tame grasses thrive. Fruits are now 
cultivated to some extent, but for some 
years it was supposed that orchards 
would prove a failure. That idea is 
now entirely exploded, and the small 
fruits have been largely raised. It 
will be seen from the several items 
noted, that every branch of human in- 
dustry has some bearing on the future 
of the settlers of Appanoose, and it 
would be ditficult to find a county 
more variously endowed. 

Charlton river was the attraction to 
the first settler in this county, and Col. 
Wells made his location here in 1840, 
when he erected a mill in the south- 
eastern part of the county. William 
Cooksey was his first white neighbor. 
The early days of the settlement were 
marked hy some irregularities, the ter- 
ritory being a kind of "no man's 
land " for a time, but eventually all 
the elements were brought to order, 
and what had been supposed to be 
Missouri, was found to be Iowa be- 
yond question. The names of the 
earliest settlers in every township lie 
before us, but to enter into such detail 
at present would be foreign to the pur- 
pose of our history, although a most 
instructive lesson might be drawn on 
every page, from the hair breath es- 
capes and momentous enterprises of 
of pioneers, wrestling with nature and 
the savage, to subdue new regions to 
the purposes of civilization. 

It was not until 1844 that the first 
election was held in Appanoose coun- 
ty, and organization was not perfected 
until October 1, 1846. Until that date, 
Davis county had held jurisdiction 
over the early settlers. For some two 
years previous to that event, specula- 
tion had been rife as to the location of 


Tvttle's His toby of Iowa. 

the county seat, terminating at length 
in the selection of the present site, 
which was named Clialdia, but 
was subsequent!}- changed to Cen- 
terville by an enactment. The court 
house since erected is a very ad- 
mirable building of brick, with fire 
proof vaults, and spacious apartments 
for each department of the service. Art 
has been called into requisition, to ex- 
press the aspirations of the citizens of 
Appanoose county, and the inclosure 
of forest trees near the building chal- 
lenges the admiration of all observers. 

The Chicago Rock Island and Paci- 
fic railroad traverses the countj', hav- 
ing stations at Centerville, Unionville 
and Mima. The Burlington and South- 
western has stations at Moulton, Sedan, 
Caldwell and Cincinnati, and there are 
two other lines of road, which com- 
pete for the support which the farm- 
ing community and merchants engag- 
ed in traflBc there, can advantageously 
afford. The advantages of so much 
and such diverse competition need 
hardly be enforced. 

There are no less than one hundred 
and fifteen public schools sustained 
in the county, a fact which bears 
much significance. 

Centkrville was first laid out in 
1846-7, and the first house was com- 
menced soon after by S. F. Wodling- 
ton in whose store the first religious 
services were afterwards celebrated. 
The town is very near the geographi- 
cal center of the county, and its situ- 
ation says much for the good taste of 
the early selecters, who may have been 
attracted bj- the fine grove which 
stands where Centerville now flour- 
ishes. Timber and other building 
materials are within easy reach, and 
coal is plentiful, while the country 
round being farmed by enterprising 
men, there are never ceasing improve- 
ments in which Centerville must par- 
ticipate. The railroad facilities offer- 
ed to the town by three competing 
companies, each having stations with- 
in its bounds, have been already men- 
tioned, and b)- the means just named, 
east and west can be readily reached. 
The banking accommodation enjoyed 
by Centerville is excellent. The town 
is beautifully laid out, and the build- 
ings which grace its streets are sub- 
stantial ; the railroad depot deserves 
special mention, and is the more no- 
ticeable in consequence of the charm 

which it borrows from the fair 
grounds of the county agricultural 
society adjacent to its track. 

MouxTON is a considerable town 
two miles within the eastern boundary 
of Appanoose. The junction of the 
Burlington and Southwestern railroad 
with the St. Louis, Kansas City and 
Northern railwaj- occurs here. The 
town is surrounded by well timbered 
agricultural land, largely occupied by 
farmers and stock raisers, who avail 
themselves of the advantages offered 
by Moulton as a post of shipment. 
Coal, wood and stone supply all the 
requirements for the manufacturing 
and general growth of this very spirit- 
ed communitj-. 

Ukionville is a village twelve 
miles northeast of Centerville in, Udell 
township, much indebted for its im- 
portance to a rich body of Dunkards 
established in the vicinity, and having 
a church near the village. Its sur- 
roundings are very pleasant. 

Cincinnati is a village ten miles 
southwest of Centerville, beautifully lo- 
cated, and further improved by a station 
of the R. «& S. W. R. K., to which, with 
coal and wood, its rapid development 
may be indebted. Jerome, Kirkwood, 
and Grifflnsville are post offices in the 
county, around which villages are 
slowly aggregating. Albany, Hubbs- 
ville, Livingston, Sedan, Hilltown, 
Dean, Caldwell, Moravia, Iconium, 
Millidgeville, Walnut City, Bellair, 
Mima, and Orleans, are villages rap- 
idly increasing in importance, con- 
cerning which the historian of the fu- 
ture wHl have much valuable matter 
to record. 

Audubon County stands third east 
from the Missouri, and has a super- 
ficial area of about 446 square miles. 
The county contains twelve congress- 
sional townships, and it is in the fourth 
tier from the southern boundary of 
Iowa. The county is free from swampy 
or marsh land, but it enjoys the ad- 
vantage of a river, the East Kishna- 
botany flowing through its whole 
length. The valley through which 
that river takes its way is unsurpassed 
in fertility, and its gentle slopes from 
the banks of the river are charming 
locations for the future homes of 
wealthy manufacturers and merchants, 
but for the present they are made avail- 
able for farming and grazing with 

P^^, C/^^i,*^^^^^<^t^<t^tr^''i^ *")i^ll 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

great gaiu. Other streams ^'hich me- 
ander through the county in various 
directions, partake in a less degree of 
the characteristics of the great valley. 
The soil, generally a dark loam mixed 
with sand, is very rich, and will grow 
almost all cereals. On the divides 
and prairies the soil is described by 
geologists as bluS" deposit, and is found 
to be very productive. It is of a light 
chocolate color. Blue Grass, Gifibrds, 
Davids, and Troublesome are tributary 
creeks which swell the volume of East 
Nishnabotany river, and help to drain 
the country through which they flow. 
Hamlins, Frost and Crooked creeks 
are tributaries to the Troublesome, 
which in some seasons well deserves 
its name. South Raccoon river rises 
in the northeast of Audubon county, 
and there are many other creeks and 
streams which do not call for detailed 
mention. With such streams flowing 
almost everywhere, and the geological 
formation indicated, Audubon is the 
paradise of farmers, who give part of 
their attention to stock, and the soil is 
of a character which preserves the sur- 
face from accumulations of stagnant 
water. There are valuable springs in 
the county which may some day be- 
come famous, and the Nishnabotany 
is the site of several mills which avail 
themselves of its few but considerable 

Along that river there are several 
bodies of good timber, more especially 
near its southern section. One grove, 
known as Ballard's, contains about 
2,000 acres, chiefly of oak, walnut, linn, 
hickory, elm, and cherry. Wild fruits, 
such as are common in the state gen- 
erally,, abound in Audubon. 

The first settlers in the county who 
came with an intention to remain, lo- 
cated themselves in Hamlin's Grove 
in 1851. The grove was named after 
one of the new comers, but it is unne- 
cessary to pursue the individual ad- 
vantages of the families in question. 
A separate county organization was 
authorized, in 1855, by the county 
judge of Cass, to which the early set- 
tlers had adhered until they felt them- 
selves warranted in standing alone. 
In the same year commissioners were 
nominated to locate the county seat, 
and thej' selected a spot which was af- 
terwards named Dayton, but although 
many attempts were made, the parties 
failed to prove the fitness of their 

choice by procuring the sale of lots in 
the projected town. On the first day 
only one lot was sold for half a dollar, 
and although subsequently other lots 
were disposed of, the town is still in 
the future. Count}' business could not 
be done there. After two attempts by 
appeal to the votes of the people, the 
town ot Exira, first named Viola, was 
located as the county seat, and in that 
place oflicial business is transacted for 
the county to this day. 

Exira is on the east side of David's 
Creek near its junction with the Nish- 
nabotany, and its situation is very 
pleasant. Rolling prairie, fine groves 
and rich farming land diversify the 
prospect and multiply the probabili- 
ties of wealth for the little town. Ex- 
ira was surveyed in 1857, but it was 
then called by another name, which 
was abandoned in favor of its present 
cognomen, because another plac had 
already adopted the first chosen appel- 

Oakfield is five miles from Exira on 
the same side of the river Nishnabot- 
any, and is located in a grove of oaks. 
The town was laid out immediately 
after Exira in 1857, and the first store 
in the county was opened there. There 
were settlers on the site of Oakfield 
three years before the town was locat- 
ed there. 

Audubon City, notwithstanding its 
ambitious title, can hardly be found 
except on paper. It was founded in 
1855, but seems to have foundered soon 
after, although at one time it possessed 
a publishing oflice and a newspaper. 
It is a small village on Troublesome 

Louisville is another small village 
but two and a half miles from Exira, 
and it seems to have nothing beyond 
its name and its pleasant surroundings 
to entitle it to extended notice. The 
names of a few prominent men are 
identified with both the last named 
places, and it is evident that Audubon 
looks to a great future. 

Benton County is thirty miles in 
length by twenty-four in width, em- 
bracing an area of 470,800 acres, or 720 
square miles, containing twenty con- 
gressional townships, Ij'ing near the 
center of the state. The boundaries of 
the civil townships correspond with 
those of the congressional. Benton * 
county presents to the observer an at- 

Sketches of Counties. 


tractive landscape, rolling prairie bro- 
ken here and there with belts of tim- 
ber and numerous streams, giving an 
aspect full of beautj', and a promise of 
unlimited advancement. Agriculture 
has no insuperable obstacles to en- 
counter in the broken surface of the 
more elevated prairies, and the bot- 
toms toward which these higher lands 
gradually slope are fertile in the ex- 
treme. Groves of timber in some 
places native, and in others the result 
of careful planting, contribute largely 
to the eftectiveness of the panorama. 
Vegetable deposits, decaying j'ear after 
year during many centuries, have giv- 
en a rich black mold to the hands of 
the farmer, and his labors seldom fail 
of a copious reward. Stock raising 
has been one of the favorite pursuits 
of settlers here from the earliest rec- 
ords, and the land responds liberally 
to all culture, whether for grasses, 
grain, fruit, or vegetables for the table. 
The Cedar and its tributaries at once 
water and drain the northern portion 
of the count}'. The river rises in Min- 
nesota, and passes through Taylor and 
Benton counties, giving a clear and 
enticing stream, which flows with a 
strong current which turns about in 
its course until nearly forty miles of 
river bears its name in Benton county. 
Johnson and Bear creeks are its prin- 
cipal tributaries on its left bank with- 
in the boundaries named, while on the 
opposite bank the principal creeks are 
South Bear, Pratt, Big, Rock, Crooked, 
Mud, and Wild Cat. Prairie Creek is 
also tributary. The extreme south- 

, west corner of the county is watei'ed 
by the Iowa River, a stream not nearly 
so large as the Cedar. Among its 
tributaries are the Salt and Buckeye 
creeks. This county is not well fur- 
nished with water powers, but there 
are some on the Cedar which will be- 
come very valuable as capital expands. 
The Iowa river is of secondary im- 
portance, but still valuable and of great 
beauty in some localities. The county 
is on the whole well timbered, bearing 
generally the woods heretofore men- 

■ tioned as predominant in the counties 
•which have been described. Taj'lor, 
Harrison, Benton, and Polk townships 
in the northeast are well supplied from 
the banks of the Cedar, and there are 
numerous small groves which it would 
be tedious to specify. Big Grove is 
one of the largest, as it contains not 

less than twelve thousand acres. Farm- 
ers, generally, in the district, plant 
groves of greater or less extent, usually 
of fast growing woods, which become 
speedily valuable for many purposes, 
without considering their beneficial 
infiuence on the climate and on agri- 
cultural industries. The further ex- 
tension of that practice is much to be 
desired. There are fine quarries of 
building stone at Vinton and along 
the Cedar, inexhaustible as to quantity, 
and in quality equal to the best afford- , 
ed in the western states. The Vinton 
stone when first quarried is soft, and 
can be readily moulded, but after ex- 
posure to the atmosphere it grows hard, 
and the brown color changes to an al- 
most marble like whiteness. This ma- 
terial is largely used in building, and 
it disintegrates very slowly. Quick- 
lime can be made from Vinton stone, 
and the quality is said to be excellent. 
Good sand and clay fit for brick mak- 
ing and for the manufacture of earthen- 
ware, have been found in various 
places, and at ShuUsburg there is an 
extensive pottery. Belle Raine, Blairs- 
town, and some few other places have 
found coal, but up to the present writ- 
ing, not in such abundance as to justify 
mining operations. Granite boulders, 
quite distinct from the strata of the 
countiy, are plentifully scattered on its 

Stock raising is a remarkably safe 
speculation in almost every part of 
Iowa, and in Benton county this is es- 
pecially the case. Rolling prairies, 
with groves of considerable extent at 
brief intervals, and water abundant, 
flowing through well grassed country, 
offer every inducement to that form of 
enterprise. Thoroughbred and blood- 
ed stock have won special attention in 
Benton county, and the future history 
of the state will not fail to demonstrate 
the wisdom of such care and skill as 
has been manifested. Benton County 
Fine Stock Association has won gold- 
en opinions from those best qualified 
to speak on such matters, and it de- 
serves to be mentioned here, that the 
society named was the first of its kind 
organized west of the Mississippi. 
Many, since its formation, have been 
established upon its model. Seeing 
that stock must be raised as the most 
convenient way of shipping produce 
to the markets of the world, Iowa farm- 
ers liave wisely concluded that the best 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

breeds obtainable in tlie world could 
alone meet their demands, and they 
have acted on that decision with re- 
sults as satisfactory as have ever been 
realized elsewhere. 

The court house is of course the 
principal count}' building, but it will 
be more convenient to mention its 
beauties when speaking of Vinton, the 
county seat. Pew western counties 
have greater facilities for railroad com- 
munication w'ith the rest of the world 
than Benton. The Cedar Rapids and 
Missouri Railroad, leased by the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern company', has 
for years past supplied the wants of 
the communit}'. The Burlington, Ce- 
dar Rapids and Minnesota railroad, 
the result of many combinations and 
consolidations, also runs through the 
Cedar Valley, so that Benton county 
is connected by lines, north and south, 
with the main arteries of railroad traf- 
fic, toward Maine on the one hand, 
and the Golden Gate on the other. 

School houses and good teachers 
have also been objects of commenda- 
ble solicitude among the pioneers, and 
they have succeeded to an extent which 
has justified their aspirations. 

The year 1839 saw the first perma- 
nent settlement in Benton county and 
after that date for many years there 
was little progress, such as would de- 
mand notice. Tradition alone tells of 
the doings of the earliest comers to 
the territory, and a few names of places 
such as " Hoosier Point," tell of the 
locality from which the pioneers found 
their way into Iowa. Amid the many 
uncertainties incidental to the claims 
of men, who came near about the same 
time to the newly peopled region, and 
were slow to learn who were their 
neighbors, it is not desirable to load 
our pages with the names of an entire 

Horse thieves and other depredators 
became so daring in this portion of Io- 
wa a few years after the settlement was 
organized that the constituted authori- 
ties were deemed incapable of dealing 
with their demerits, and in conse- 
quence lynch law became the rule dur- 
ing what were known as " The Dark 
Ages." Bands of regulators paraded 
the country wreaking vengeance on 
suspected persons, and after complet- 
ing the ruin which the pursued cul- 
prits had commenced, short shrift 
and a long rope stood too often in those 

wild days instead of justice. County 
oflBcials were supposed in many cases, 
to have been among the most active of 
the " Regulators," and it was believed, 
that the thieves were occasionally to 
be found among the most clamorous, 
for the death of some innocent persons, 
upon whom, for revenge sake, they had 
contrived to center unanswerable sus- 
picions. Happily that condition of 
aft'airs came to an end soon after 1851, 
and since that time duly elected coun- 
ty' ofBcers have sufficed to meet the 
demands of justice in the once troubled 

Benton county survey was eom- 
menced in 1845, but did not get com- 
pleted until 1847. Organization was 
however efl'ected in 1846, Vinton being 
named as the county seat. There was 
at a later date some considerable sharp 
practice, to procure a change of the lo- 
cation, and for a time the schemers 
won some measure of success, but in 
the long run Vinton kept the honor, 
and the present court house was built. 
It is a substantial brick building, two 
storied, with excellent accommodation 
for county business and good provis- 
ion for the safety of important docu- 
ments. The court house stands in the 
public square at Vinton, and is sur- 
rounded by an ornamental inclosure 
planted with trees. The first election 
of officers after the organization of the 
county took place in April, 1846, and 
the district court held its first term in 
the following August, but unfortunate- 
ly no judge put in an appearance. In 
the following May a court was duly 
held with all the formalities possible 
in the then infantine condition of tha 

Vinton contains over three thous- 
and inhabitants on the west bank of 
Cedar river, occupying the finest site 
for a city obtainable near that stream. 
The banks are high and never subject 
to overflow, and the ground on which 
Vinton is built rises gradually for some 
distance, hence the beautj' of each 
building can be always seen. On the 
north bank is a forest nearly two miles 
wide, and on the south bank a strip of 
beautiful prairie comes down to the 
river's brim. It will be readily seen 
that nature offered at this spot an ex- 
ceptional site for building a town, 
aud the people who have taken up their 
abode there have ably seconded the 
exquisite suggestion. Vinton depends 

Sketches of Counties. 


mainly upon the farm lands, which 
have been eagerly taken up by agricul- 
turists, and improved to the highest 
point. Originally the site was called 
Fremont, but it was changed to com- 
pliment one of the eaily settlers. The 
laying out of the town took place in 
1849, but the post office had been es- 
tablished there one year before. Vin- 
ton was incorporated as a city in Au- 
gust, 1869, and it is noteworty that the 
city has never licensed the sale of in- 
toxicants, nor has there been a saloon 
within its borders since the year 1857. 
The public school stands in a well 
wooded park where it is easy of access 
to all jjarts of the town, and the organi- 
zation of the institution is creditable 
in the extreme. 

Iowa college for the blind is a mar- 
vel of excellence and in it a full corps 
of teachers is maintained for the be- 
nevolent purposes indicated by the 
name of the institution. The build- 
ing itself is an honor to Vinton and 
to the state, and but for the seeming di- 
gression from the purpose of this his- 
tory, would well deserve some pages 
of encomiastic description. The beau- 
tiful stone obtained from the Vinton 
quarries, a kind of maguesian lime- 
stone, has been used in the building, 
which stands on a block of forty acres 
of land given for the purpose by the 
city. The beauty of the site, the splen- 
dor of the erection, and the noble pur- 
pose to which the whole of the outlay 
is directed, unite to make the college 
one of the grandest monuments possi- 
ble, of the essential Christianity of 

Belle Plaine is an incorporated 
city, thirty-five miles from Cedar Ra- 
pids and twenty-five miles fromViuton. 
It stands in the southwest corner of 
the county, and is served by the Chica- 
go and North Western Railroad. This 
city stands next to Vinton in county 
importance. It was laid out in 1861, 
in a beautiful location and almost from 
its infancy has had tlie benefit of rail- 
way communication witli the great cen- 
ters, but there have been no great events 
in its history to date. Its pojiulation 
exceeds two thousand, and it stands in 
the center of a beautiful farming coun- 
try which in the march of events will 
enrich those who assist the husband- 

Blaikstown is a thriving village on 
the line of the Chicago and North 

Western with a population of nearly 
one thousand. The village was platted 
in 1861-2, and has increased steadily 
ever since. The inhabitants take much 
interest in their graded school which 
they endeavor to maintain in the high- 
est degree of efficiency. The build- 
ings for business and residence are 
handsome, and the streets are well laid 
out. There are no less than seven 
churches in Blairstown, and in other 
respects the mental and spiritual wants 
of the population are well catered for. 

Shellsbukg has a population of 
about seven hundred and it is situated 
on the line of the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids and Minnesota Railroad, on 
the north side of Bear creek, about ten 
miles southeast of Vinton. The town 
was laid out in 1842, and its growth if 
not rapid has been satisfactory. There 
is a fair average of business done in 
Shellsburg now, and it is slowly im- 

Norway is the original name of a 
village with about five hundred inhabi- 
tants which now aims at being called 
Florence. The Chicago and North 
Western Railroad serves the interests of 
the little town in everything except 
the one idea of changing its name, and 
it has no other catise of disquietude. 
Norway, or Florence, for the place is 
known by both names, the station re- 
maining under the original appella- 
tion, is situated in the^outheast part 
of the county. The station was built 
in 1853, on five acres of land donated 
for the purpose, on condition, among 
other provisos, that the name Nor- 
way should remain in perpetuity, and 
that feature makes the station an eye- 
sore to the Florentines. The town is 
beautifully situated and must thrive. 

Black Hawk County is in the north, 
eni part of Iowa, already populous and 
wealthy, containing in all 566 square 
miles. This county lies in the valley 
of the Cedar surrounded by all that 
goes to make up the sum total of pros- 
perity for a western population. The 
beauty of the outlook from any com- 
manding position could hardly be 
overrated; the rolling prairie, clothed 
in eternal green, repeats itself in a 
thousand undulations.telling of charms 
which will grow more and more de- 
lightful with advancing years. Groves 
of fine timber vary the monotonj' of 
beauty with a changing excellence in 


Tuttle's Histobt of Iowa. 

■which nature hourly renews her 3'outh. 
The soil is a deep black vegetable 
mould, with a mixture of sand which 
improves its value. Wheat and corn 
■will succeed each other on this land 
for any number of seasons without 
sign of exhaustion, and fruits, grasses, 
indeed, all growths proper to a temper- 
ate clime flourish in this region. 

Black Hawk county is well watered 
by the Cedar river, the Wapsipinicon, 
and their numerous tributaries. The 
Cedar flows from northwest to south- 
east through the center of the county, 
seldom less than two hundred yards 
wide, and two feet in depth. The value 
of such a stream needs no exponent. 
The waters are beautifully clear and 
as good as beautiful. The fall of the 
river bed is considerable, and as aeon- 
sequence there are many mill powers 
available, but up to this time only a 
few attempts have been made to utilize 
these desirable advantages. Thi; Shell- 
rock river flows into the Cedar in the 
northwestern part of the county where 
the river itself divides into the east 
and west branches. The southwestern 
section is drained by Black Hawk 
creek and the most delightful farming 
land available in the state is watered 
by that stream. The tributaries of tlie 
Black Hawk are Miller, Beaver, Rock, 
Big and Prairie creeks, besides many 
of "less volume which fall in from the 
west. Elk Run spring, Silver and 
Po3'ners creeks, with minor tributaries 
fall in from the east, so that the whole 
remainder of the county is amply pro- 
vided for as to drainage and water 

The Wapsipinicon receives in this 
county the tribute from Brush, Camp 
and Crane creeks, and by its agency 
the northeastern township is made 
fruitful and pleasant for the farmer. 

Well water can be obtained, anj'- 
•where within a depth of twentj'-five 
feet, and the whole county has unsur- 
passed facilities for stock raising. The 
manufacturing advantages of Cedar 
river will command attention from 
capitalists within a few years; alrea- 
dy some mills are located there but 
good positions are yet unoccupied. 

Timber is not so plentiful in this 
county as in some others, the estimate 
as to quantity being about one acre of 
■wooded land to every thirteen of prai- 
rie. That proportion continues to be 
maintained, and it is anticipated that 

an increase is being slowly effected by 
planting groves ■n'hich will more than 
compensate for daily consumption. 
The pine forests of Minnesota are large- 
ly drawn upon for lumber at present, 
and the coal fields of Illinois supply 
fuel to a very large extent, consequent- 
ly the farmers who turn their attention 
to planting care only for the best 
growths available. The Cedar river 
used to be famous for its red cedar 
groves, but that valuable feature of the 
country's wealth was destroyed by ad- 
venturers from St. Louis. The depre- 
dations of these jiredatory lumbermen 
continued as of right, even after white 
settlers came in, but a few indications 
of their determination to make a fright- 
ful example of the spoilers, put an end 
to the traffic after a short time. 

The county contains valuable stone 
for building purposes, and some kinds 
which may be found of great use in 
lithography. Geologists find in the 
strata in this section of the state a 
great treasure of ancient organic re- 
mains, but our space will not allow of 
details on that purely scientific basis, 
and we leave the interesting records of 
the world past in abler hands. There 
is no difiiculty in procuring excellent 
limestone almost anywhere within easy 
distances, and clay, fit to make the l)est 
kind of bricks, is plentiful. Sand also 
is abundant. 

Apples and pears, wlien the hardier 
varieties have been selected, have pros- 
pered tolerably well in this county; 
but, in the enumeration of its claims 
upon attention, the honest and pains- 
taking historian will not describe 
Black Hawk county as a first class 
fruit growing district. There is a large 
variety of small fruits raised with 
moderate care, but there are other at- 
tractions upon which the practical 
farmer may more confidently rely for 
returns in a commercial sense. Per- 
haps, when the peculiarities of the re- 
gion have been more closely studied, 
it will be possible to reap large profits 
from well chosen orchards. The cli- 
mate is very salubrious, the atmosphere 
being clear of miasma in a remarka- 
ble degree. During winter the cold is 
severe, but it is tolerably steady, and 
can be provided for. Rain, during 
summer, comes ■with great regularity 
to gladden the heart of the husband- 
man, and gentle breezes prevail dur- 
ing nearly the whole of the season. 


TvTTLifs History of Iowa. 

Droughts and damaging floods are 
comparatively unknown. 

The record is already made of rivers 
and streams which meander through 
this fertile region contributing so much 
moisture to air and soil, that grasses 
of all kinds, whether wild or tame, 
spring up with great profusion, and 
stock can be raised in this county with 
great profit, although much care has 
to be bestowed during winter in pro- 
viding for their protection and feed. 
The best breeds to be found in the 
state have been introduced into this 
country with great advantage, and 
fairs are held iii Waterloo and else- 
where every year, helping both the ag- 
riculturist and the stock producer by 
additional incentives to profitable emu- 

The site of the beautiful city of Ce- 
dar Falls seems to have been visited 
for the tirst time by a white settler, in 
the year 1844, when William Chambers 
built his cabin on the banks of the 
Cedar river. He was mainly a hunter 
and trapper, and, in consequence, he 
loved a solitarj' life, so that he moved 
further afield when neighbors ap- 
proached his camping ground. Tra- 
dition and probability alike say that 
the same country had been hunted and 
trapped over before ; but other names 
are problematical — William Cham- 
bers is known. The Indians were 
hardly more unsettled than the early 

The first claim for settled occupa- 
tion appears to have been made in 
1845, and, since that time, the indubit- 
able charms of Black Hawk have not 
been lost sight of by advancing civili- 
zation. The homes of the first comers 
were rough and rude, such as would 
barely cover the necessities of fron- 
tiersmen — hardy and careless amid 
the toils of the wilderness; but the 
names of the few score of families, wilh 
which the infant settlement began, re- 
main among the county records to this 
da}-, and are identified with the high- 
est legal attainments which have 
adorned the courts, and the best states- 
manship yet e:;hibited in the legisla- 

Indian titles to the land have been 
but recently given up, and the red- 
skins were naturally slow to leave a 
section of country so well adapted to 
their modes of life. But when the 
white man came with the busy hum 

of ceaseless labor to haunt the soli- 
tudes in which the savage once delight- 
ed, the magic spell which of old 
bound them to their hunting grounds, 
was broken, and they followed the 
slowly vanishing game. Their depar- 
ture was not regretted by their white 
neighbors, who could not recognize 
the poetry of Indian depredations, 
and were quite inclined to apply the 
rough-and-ready remedies of irontier 
law to perpetual peculations. An In- 
dian is now a phenomenon in the ter- 
ritory which was once his own, before 
the days of modern improvements. 

The territorial legislature of Iowa 
settled the bounds of Black Hawk 
county in 1843, but Delaware county 
exercised judicial functions in that re- 
gion for some time afterwards. Sub- 
sequently there was a transfer of the 
powers in question to Benton county, 
in 1845, and, still later, to Buchanan 
county. When steps were taken to lo- 
cate the county seat, Bremer, Grundy 
and Butler were attached to Black 
Hawk county for purposes of revenue, 
election and the exercise of judiciary 
powers, and the village of Cedar Falls 
was selected as the county seat. The 
orginization of the county went on 
during all the time that these several 
transfers were being made, and the 
first election actually occurred in Au- 
gust, 1853. In the same month and 
year, the first term of the county court 
was held by Judge Pratt, in the same 
village, and taxes were levied to meet 
the wants of the time. Since that date, 
when the real and personal property of 
the county was assessed at little more 
than $91,000, and the tax levied was 
only $873, the wealth of the people 
has kept pace with their organization. 

The settlers tell, with much interest, 
moving incidents "In' flood and field" 
connected wilh the Indian war in the 
summer of 1854 ; but it is well under- 
stood that many of the best stories are 
unworthy of credence. Companies 
were raised to prosecute a campaign, 
but, with the exception of one Winne- 
bago boy who was killed in a street 
quarrel, no blood was spilt in the long 
series of manoeuvers. It is rumored 
that some of the warlike defenders of 
the soil were more frightened than 
hurt, but there can be no doubt that 
prodigies of valor would have been 
exhibited if there had been occasion. 
The speed with which some retrograde 

Sketches of Counties. 


evolutious were eflected cannot be too 
highly praised. 

The county seat having been located 
at Cedar Falls gave great dissatifaction 
to the citizens of Waterloo, that place 
being much nearer the geographical 
center of the district, and after much 
debating and a little fighting, it was 
resolved that the matter be referred to 
the vote of the people. Waterloo won 
the appeal in April, 1855, but in spite 
of that indication of the popular will, 
the relocation was resisted on various 
pretenses, legal and illegal, for many 
months, one of the judges being sus- 
pected of personal bias in the final 
termination of the debate. The popu- 
lation of the county increased very 
slowly during the first seven years of 
its settlement, there being only about 
three hundred inhabitants in Black 
Hawk county in 1853. The present 
population has not been numbered, 
but in 1873 a census showed a grand 
total of 23,136. 

Black Hawk county is well provided 
with railroads ; the Illinois Central 
runs nearly east and west through the 
county, and the Cedar Falls and Min- 
nesota company runs in a nothwest 
direction from a point only one mile 
east of Cedar Falls. The Burlington, 
Cedar Rapids and Minnesota also tra- 
verses the county, running northwest 
up the Cedar Valley on the west side 
of the river. Besides these accom- 
plished works, other enterprises have 
from lime to time been projected, and 
it will be seen that there is no lack of 
competition to supply the wants of the 
community in matters of traffic and 
travel. The first line constructed com- 
menced to run in 1861, and the last 
named was built in 1870. The amount 
of business done already more than 
compensates the outlay, and the growth 
ofthe whole state augurs well for Black 

Schools have been establishad in 
every district, and well appointed 
buildings are already the rule, with 
staffs of trained and accomplished 
teachers equal to the demands of the 
most critical participants. 

Waterloo is quite a large city. 
The court house has been located 
somewhat inconveniently, away from 
the business quarter, but it occupies a 
pleasant site, and the growth of the 
city will soon render its position less 
objectionable. It was erected in 1856 

at a cost of ^30,000, and is a covenient 
two storied structure, equal to all de- 
mands for man}' years to come. The 
poor house is situated near the court 
house, and is well adapted for its pur- 
pose. Waterloo has also the offices of 
a very successful county agricultural 
association, which held its first elec- 
tion in 1856, and its first fair in the 
following year. The Cedar Valley Dis- 
trict Association, having similar ob- 
jects in view, was established about 
the same time, and continued until 
very recently to hold annual fairs. 
Some idea may be formed of the gen- 
eral prosperity of the acricultural 
class from these facts, adcled to the 
steady growth of cities in this county, 
and the value set upou the small rem- 
nant of wild lands, which range from 
$18 to as high as $60 per acre. 

The city stands very near the geo. 
graphical center of the county, occu- 
pying both banks of the Cedar river, 
and is very beautifully situated, with 
timber close at hand opening out into 
fine rolling prairie, which promises 
well for the future health, wealth and 
prosperity of the inhabitants. Busi- 
ness premises occupy one side of the 
river, and residences chiefly the other; 
the lower lauds being just above high 
water mark, gradually increasing in 
altitude as they recede from the water. 
The streets are well laid out, and the 
value of the buildings erected testifies 
to the common estimate set upon the 
assured future of Waterloo. The river 
is about nine hundred feet wide with 
a lime rock bottom, over which the 
water flows as clear as crystal. There 
are good water powers available near 
the city ; some few have been improved, 
but the outlay of more capital will 
be amply rewarded, and the citizens 
knowing how entirely the value of 
their properties must, in the long 
run, depend upon manufactures, will 
very liberally respond to proposals for 
further improvements. The west con- 
tains hardly one town more enterpris- 
ing than the county seat of Black 

The first building in the town was 
erected in 18-16, by a family coming 
from Illinois, and the town was laid . 
out in 1853, improved and enlarged 
plans being afterwards adopted to 
form the base of the present city. 
The place was originally named Prai- 
rie Rapids, and it cannot be easily de- , 


TvTTLtfs History of Iowa. 

termined why or by whom the ad- 
vancing township was named Water- 
loo. It is asserted that the name of 
the Belgian battle field was not in- 
tended m the secondary name, but 
only the altitude of the stream, which 
was indicated by the appellation Wa- 
terZoto, since changed by use and wont 
to Waterloo. This theory is, however, 
strongly denied by some of the inhab- 
itants, and the question will probably 
remain undetermined to future gene- 

The first improvements on the river, 
with a view to mill purposes, were 
made in 1854, by constructing a rude, 
temporary dam for a saw mill. There 
had been a mill run by horse power 
for similar purposes, before that date. 
In 1856, a flouring mill was erected, 
and other improvements of various 
kinds have since that time been prose- 
cuted with such steady growth in 
number and value, as to forbid partic- 
ular mention in these pages. 

In 1850, a steamer of one hundred 
tons burthen was built by the citizens 
of Cedar Rapids, for the trade of the 
upper Cedar, and its launching was a 
great event for the whole district, but 
eventually the naval enterprise was 
abandoned, in consequence of the 
water being too low for the continu- 
ance of the flotilla upon the Cedar. 
At one time it was almost determined 
to destroy all the dams which impeded 
navigation, but fortunately before pro- 
ceeding to extremities, it was resolved 
that the captain of the boat should try 
to approach the first dam, in the 
Course of obstacles, and his failure to 
do so caused the citizens to abandon 
their predatory designs. Guns were 
fired, flags were hoisted, banquets 
were eaten, and many libations poured 
out to the success of the new venture, 
which, however, was unsuccessful. 

The incorporation of the cit}-, first 
agitated in 1854, was eventually deter- 
mined upon four years later, and com- 
pleted in July, 1858. Churches of al- 
most every denomination are repre- 
sented now within the city limits, the 
first having been established in 1852, 
by the Methodist Episcopal. Other 
institutions attest the wide awake 
mental condition of the people of Wa- 
terloo, but to give a detailed descrip- 
tion of their names and merits, would 
transcend our limits completely. The 
IlUuois Central R. R. Co. located their 

workshops in this city, in 1870, and 
an average of one hundred and forty 
men are emploj'ed the whole year 
round in that enterprise. The citi- 
zens were wise in giving the necessary 
lands to secure the establishment of 
the works in question, which result 
through various channels in an expen- 
diture in wages, of nearly $20,000 per 
month. Other extensive works which 
would deserve more extended notice, 
if space would permit, employ large 
numbers of hands, and contribute 
largely to the industrial and commer- 
cial success of the city. The press of 
Waterloo partakes in the general pros- 

Cedar Falls, at one time the coun- 
ty seat, is a little northwest of the 
center of the county. The city was at 
first known as Sturgis' Rapids, after 
an early settler. The Iowa division 
of the Illinois Central Railroad inter- 
sects the main line of the Burlington, 
Cedar Rapids and Minnesota road, at 
this point, and of course that combi- 
nation of facilities places Cedar Falls 
at a premium as a port of shipment. 
When the city was first located it 
stood in a beautiful grove, which has 
long since disappeared, except that the 
city park and a few minor inclosures, 
preserve some few traces of the um- 
brageous bounty of nature. The city 
stands on slightly undulating ground, 
well adapted for drainage, and excel- 
leutly subserving the love of the beau- 
tiful which is manifested in the resi- 
dences of its wealthy citizens. The 
fertile country surrounding the city is 
occupied by an intelligent class of 
agriculturists, who know how to turn 
all modern improvements to account 
upon their farms. The country is in- 
tersected with streams, dotted with 
groves and enriched with orchards, 
which enable the occupants of the 
substantial farm buildings to enjoy 
many comforts, once supposed to be- 
long only to great cities. The falls 
which give their name to the city 
have become an enormous power in 
the hands of some capitalists, but 
there is still room for many additional 

The first cottage built upon the site 
of Cedar Falls was erected in 1845, 
and the town was laid out six years 
later, but it was not until 1853 that the 
platting was fully carried out. Schools 
have been conscientiouslj' provided 

Sketches of Counties. 


from the earliest days of the organiza- 
tion of Cedar Falls, which have gone 
on increasing in a manner commensu- 
rate with the demands of the younger 
populace. The system of graded 
scliools, for which the city is now fa- 
mous, will bear favorable comparison 
with the best educational establish- 
ments in Iowa, and the organization 
contains within itself the promise of 
continuous expansion. 

The log cabin grew into a sturdy 
hamlet, and the small trading station 
has become a commercial city, with 
possibilities second to none in the 
state, and it is satisfactory to note that 
intellectual culture has kept pace with 
material progress during the great 

The village organization was elFected 
in 1857, and in the following spring a 
bridge was erected over the river, the 
first ever erected in this part of the 
county. The work was carried out 
by means of an issue of scrip, against 
which many of the prominent men in 
the community made a protest, and 
the feud thence arising does not die 
out, although the value of the bridge 
is beyond cavil. The city incorpora- 
tion took place in 1865, and Cedar 
Palls is now recognized as a city of 
the second class. 

This city contains " The Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home," a state institution, 
of which Iowa may well be proud. 
This home was first located, in 1865, 
in Cedar Falls, and over eight hundred 
persons have been provided for by 
that beneficent enterprise. The tem- 
porary building has given place to a 
handsome brick structure, within 
which is full provision for the educa- 
tion and religious culture of its resi- 
dents as well as for their domestic 
protection. Tlie residence of the chil- 
dren of the brave defenders of their 
country is beautifully situated in en- 
closed, well-wooded grounds, and the 
influence exerted by this institution 
is felt in the schools and in mercan- 
tile establishments throughout the 
state of Iowa. In no way can patriot- 
ism be better stimulated, than by such 
wise provision for the offspring of 
those who fell in the path of duty, 
who are thus snatched up from the 
deleterious surroundings which too 
often destroy neglected little ones by 
converting them into pests, that in 
later days must be more expensively 

combatted by the slow-moving hands 
of justice and repression. 

La Porte City is a very pleasant 
village, on the south bank of Big 
Creek, near its confluence with the 
Cedar river, in the midst of a rich 
farming country which is bound to 
enrich the peojjle identified with its 
improvement. The Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids and Minnesota Railroad has a 
station in this village, and its popula- 
tion of twelve hundred inhabitants 
will go on steadily increasing. The 
town was laid out in 1855, being called 
La Porte, after a place of that name 
in Indiana, from whence the founder 
of the village came to Iowa. The 
town organization was efl'ected in 
1871, and the names of tlie first found- 
ers are still prominent in oflicial cir- 
cles. There are good graded schools 
in La Porte City, well ofiScered, and 
taught by most efficient men and wo- 
men who identify themselves with the 
mental progress and growth of their 

Boone County contains five hun- 
dred and seventy -six square miles, and 
is in the middle tier of counties in 
Iowa, a little west of the state's center. 
It is a compact county, twenty-four 
miles square, with the Des Moines 
river for its principal stream, dividing 
into two nearly equal parts the block 
of country which it waters and drains. 
The river has an equal width of about 
one hundred yards, almost throughout 
the county, having several tributaries, 
the largest of which are, Blufl' Creek 
on the west and Honey Creek on the 
east. Squaw Creek rises in the north- 
east and the country is drained by 
that beautiful little stream in the re- 
gion through which it runs, and Bea- 
ver Creek, running from north to 
south, discharges the same beneficent 
functions for the country through 
which it flows. These manifold 
streams of various dimensions, aided 
by an endless supply of well water, 
which can be had wherever the earth 
is tapped, provides all that is required 
in the way of aqueous supply for 
stock-raising purposes, and very fino 
springs burst forth in many parts of 
the county. 

The Des Moines river has given 
strength to a very fine belt of timber 
which follows its banks nearly across 
the county, the belt varying in width 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

from four to five miles, and there are 
ottier valuable groves, of less extent, 
composed of very valuable timber, 
near the principal creeks which have 
been mentioned. To name the woods 
which flourish in Boone county would 
be mere surplusage; sufiice it to saj', 
that the forest wealth of the region 
now under review- does nut differ in 
any essential particular from thai of 
the other counties already particular- 
ized. The peculiar advantage en- 
joyed by Boone is in the greater vol- 
ume of its wooded growths which fol- 
low its watercourses everywhere in 
rich profusion. 

Along the Des Moines river the sur- 
face of the country is somewhat 
broken, but generally the surface un- 
dulates as though a smooth sea, 
heaved by a ground swell, had been 
transformed into fertile soil read}- for 
the farmer's skill. Mineral Ridge is 
a singular chain of hills which trav- 
erses this county, and the name was 
bestowed upon the range in question 
because the magnetic needle is arbi- 
trarily deflected and disturbed by its 
influence in a very eccentric manner. 
Probably the region will some day 
give wealth, by its mineral treasures, 
to some enterprising band of capital- 
ists. Pilot Mound is a prominent 
mound in the hill system of this 
countj', and near its base great Indian 
battles are said to have been fought, 
that view being sustained by the fre- 
quent exhumation of human remains, 
as the farmer drives his plowshare 
through the soil. From the top of the 
mound a very extended view- of the 
country can be obtained. Jfumerous 
mounds of lesser elevation were 
doubtless in early days the locale on 
which sacrifices were culminated and 
the dead buried with the relics of 
their forgotten past. Of these the 
largest, about fifteen feet high. Is one 
of a chain of such heaps situated near 
Honey Creek, and so far as there have 
been excavations made, the contents 
are found to be identical with those 
left by the Mound Builders in other 
localities. Some day, by careful ex- 
humation of men and things, and the 
wise collation of results, we may rise 
to a fair comprehension of the Mound 
Builders as a people. 

The practical farmer, and the astute 
manufacturer of to-day will necessa- 
rily care more for the possibilities of 

the future than for the relics of the 
past, and to them it will be of much 
greater interest to say that the soil of 
the country watered by the Des Moines 
is deep and rich, and where not cov- 
ered bj- heavy growths of timber, can 
be at once brought under cultivation, 
giving iu return for moderate labor 
skillfully directed, good crops of corn, 
wheat, and other cereals. The prairie 
lands are also fertile although not so 
deep and lasting in that respect as the 
river bottoms from which the streams 
have been slowly deflected or narrowed 
by natural processes long ago. 

Coal has been found in some few pla- 
ces in Boone county near the center, but 
not in such quantity up to date, as to 
warrant a large expenditure of capital ; 
yet the geological strata of the country, 
and its relation to surrounding lands, 
where that desideratum of the manu- 
facturer is abundant, leads to the ex- 
pectation that Boone county will by 
and by give coal in large measures. 
Some banks have been worked near 
Boonsboro and elsewhere, the coal be- 
ing shipped to Council Bluffs and 
Omaha on the Chicago and North 
Western Railroad. Much coal has al- 
so been obtained from the same local- 
ities to supply demands for fuel nearer 
home. It is distinctly ascertained that 
there are two beds of coal, the lowest 
and best in quantity being four feet 
thick, the upper bed being about three 
feet in thickness, but equal in quality 
to the lower deposit. When shafts 
shall have been sunk in convenient 
places on the prairies to reach this 
source of wealth by the proper means 
and appliances of mining skill, Iowa 
is bound to take a very high place 
among manufacturing states, seeing 
that the intelligence of the people is 
of a high average, and that all the es- 
sentials to marked success are ready 
for their use. 

Elk Rapids is already noted for its 
quarry of building stone, from which 
some of the best public buildings, and 
yet more substantial business houses 
and residences have been erected. 
Some other districts have been found 
rich in building materials but that is 
not the strong hold of Boone county. 
Enough can be procured to meet the 
requirements of the day, and with 
further realization of the supply in oth- 
er parts, no doubt the future will have 
all the stone that may be wanted with- 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

out going beyoud tlie bounds of Boone. 
Good lime can be made from almost 
all the samples of stone that have been 
tried, and lirst qualities of brick clay 
have been found in quantities practi- 
cally without limit. Iron ore has been 
found, and there are indications such 
as no scientist can overlook, that Min- 
eral Ridge is rich with that metal. 

Boone county was first settled at 
"Peas Point" in 1846, a jutting of 
prairie land into the belt of timber on 
the east side of Des Moines river near 
the site of Boonsboro. The place of 
earliest settlement was named after its 
first holder, and the pioneers who loca- 
ted themselves in that region showed 
sound judgment in choosing their 
homes. Tlie Pottawattomie Indians 
remained in the county until after the 
winter of 1846-7, but there are no re- 
cords of strife between them and their 
white neighbors. The Sioux were not 
quite so peaceably disposed, as when 
a family desirous to trade with them 
settled in their country now known as 
Webster county, his property was de- 
stroyed, his family left helpless and 
one member of the group died through 
exposure to inclement weather, when 
attempting to reach " Peas Point " to 
procure assistance against the red 
men. The savages limited their op- 
erations to the destruction of the prop- 
erty which they believed had no rights 
on their soil, which they were bound 
to respect. Out of that act of war, 
came two subsequent massacres, the 
first by the injured settler and his son 
upon a band of Sioux in Humboldt 
county, and the last more widely 
known as the Spirit lake massacre, 
in which the tribe already named led 
by the brother of the chief, murdered 
with his family at Humboldt, took 
summary vengeance in the year 1857. 

Boone county was organized by the 
state legislature in 1846-7, being named 
after a nephew of the great Kentuck- 
iau, who served in the first regiment 
of the United States dragoons. That 
gentleman explored the country and 
ascertained its principal features be- 
fore the first effort at settlement. In 
August, 1849, an election was held and 
self government began to be exercised 
in the county. The arrangements con- 
tinued to be of the most primitive or- 
der, successive meetings of the official 
body being called in the residences of 
the early settlers until the year 1851, 

when the first meeting was convened 
in the school house at Boonsboro. The 
county was then divided into school 
districts and it became manifest that 
it was not the intention of the people 
that the brains of children or adults 
should lie fallow. The labors of that 
early day have been well followed up 
in that respect, the school system of 
Boone county being very creditable to 
all concerned. The location of the 
county seat at Boonsboro was approved 
in January, 1851, a time ever since fam- 
ous as " the rainy season," many of 
the representatives of the people reach- 
ing the place of their first meeting at 
imminent peril of their lives in swim- 
ming the swollen streams which inter- 
sected the country between their re- 
spective homes and the center upon 
which they converged. The course of 
good government in the county since 
that date has been, however, worthy of 
all the troubles thus braved by the 

Boonsboro is situated on the east of 
the Des Moines river, protected by 
considerable bodies of timber on the 
west, north and south. Coal as well as 
timber abounds in the locality, and the 
land permits of thorough drainage at 
a merely nominal expense. Good 
schools assist to make the town a de- 
sirable place of residence for families, 
and in many other respects there are 
signs of mental and spiritual progress 
in Boonsboro. 

Boone contains a population of 
about two thousand, five hundred per- 
sons, and is a town full of enterprise. 
Immediately east of Boonsboro, the 
county seat; it is on the line of the 
Chicago and Northwestern railroad, 
and is largely resorted to by farmers 
who desire an easily reached place of 
shipment for their produce. In course 
of time, it is inevitable that Boonsboro 
and Boone will grow into one large 
city. The first laying out of the town 
took place in 1865, but at that time the 
intention of the founders was, that the 
locality should be named Montana. 
The railroad compan}', already men- 
tioned, has constructed extensive work- 
shops in Boone, and many persons are 
steadily emploj-ed on their works. 

MoiNGONA is five miles southwest of 
Boone, on the west side of the river 
Des Moines. Its principal industry 
consists of coal mining; and large 
shipments are made from this center 

Sketches of Counties, 


of industrj- to distant points east and 
west. The town was laid out in 
1866. There is a good future for 

Ogden is a shipping place for pro- 
duce, about fire miles west of Moin- 
gona; the farmers and stock raisers 
of the surrounding country using Og- 
den because of its railroad facilities. 

Bremer County is one of the small- 
est, territorially considered, in the state 
of Iowa, and is situated in the north- 
western part of that state. The surface 
of the county is generally open, rolling 
prairie. Its soil is an alluvial deposit, 
averaging about three feet, resting up- 
on clay of great but varying depth. 
A rich dark loam, well appreciated by 
farmers, is the chief agricultural fea- 
ture of the couutr3', subsoiled by gravel 
and clay. Limestone, which admits 
of an excellent and enduring polish, is 
of great value for building purposes, 
as well as in other respects. Sand and 
clay, admirably adapted for brick 
making, can be procured with very 
little labor; and there are corals, crys- 
tals, and petrifactions, among the geo- 
logical features sought for in this 
county. Many streams, various in di- 
mensions, mostly bearing toward the 
southward, intersect every township ; 
and the count}- is as well watered as 
could be wished. The same formation 
of country, which secures the river 
si'stem named, gives good drainage to 
Bremer, and assists very materially to 
sustain the favorable health-rate for 
which the county is remarkable. Ce- 
dar river, already mentioned in the 
brief history penned in these pages, 
flows through this county, crossing 
into Black Hawk, where we have al- 
ready traced its course and volume. 
The bed of the Cedar is limestone, and 
and its waters beautifully clear. The 
banks of the river rise almost abruptly 
beyond the chance of inundation by 
freshets, and the bottom lands are ex- 
ceedingl}' fertile. 

Any quantity of machinery can be 
driven by means of this valuable 
stream in the countj- now under de- 
scription ; and even "when the river is 
at its lowest, the power would suffice 
for any desirable purpose. The value 
of the Cedar river is greater now than 
it was when the wood growing upon 
its banks drew plunderers from the 
surrounding states; and it must con- 

tinue to increase indefinitely for cen- 
turies to come. 

The Wapsipinicon river ranks next 
in importance to the Cedar, and like 
that river, it flows through this county 
into Black Hawk. This river offers 
a succession of powers which, in part, 
have and, in still greater part, will be 
made available as mill power.s. The 
bottom lands of the Wapsipinicon are 
liable to be overflowed occasionally, 
and, in consequence, the farming com- 
munity seeks residence elsewhere, 
while still appreciating the fertility 
which comes from the incidental wan- 
derings of the stream. The Little 
Wapsipinicon runs through Bremer 
county in two directions, continuing, 
after its second departure, to flow with 
the main Wapsipinicon, along within 
easy distance of the county line. Buck 
creek is a considerable watercourse, 
having its rise in the northwestern part 
of Bremer, and running through the 
eastern tier of townships, Sumner, 
Dayton and Franklin, is of much value 
for stock raisers and agriculturists. 
This creek empties into the Little 
Wapsipinicon at a considerable dis- 
tance from its source. Crane creek 
runs parallel with the main Wapsipin- 
icon, and eventually falls into that 
stream, after watering the tcjwnships 
of Warren, Maxfield and Fremont, and 
finding its way into Black Hawk coun- 
ty. Shell Rock river is only second 
in size to the Cedar; and it comes, like 
that river, from Minnesota, flowing 
through Bremer into Black Hawk, and 
affording on its way, much aid to the 
farmer in his several pursuits. There 
are many inferior streams which do 
not need to be specified. 

As might have been anticipated by 
any person conversant with the wealth 
of water supply in Bremer, the region 
was at one time prodigally supplied 
with timber; fully one-sixth of the 
whole region being covered with val- 
uable wo'ods. There has been, unfor- 
tunately, much destruction of groves, 
within the memorj' of the oldest inhab- 
itants, and if the work of denudation 
goes on, the residents in Bremer may, 
within twenty years, have to look be 
yond their own borders for lumber and 
fuel. The groves now remaining are 
less extensive by one-half than they 
were, and only in a few cases are agri- 
culturists giving their attention to for- 
estry. In eastern countries, so great is 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

known to be the importance of trees, 
that the sanctions of religious usage 
are occasionally invoked to preserve 
forests from destruction ; and the ab- 
sence of such precautions have re- 
sulted from times immemorial in large 
regions of country becoming desert. 
The experiences of M. Lesseps, in 
planting quick growing trees across 
the line of ci;uutry in which he carried 
out his great canal enterprise, may, 
with advantage, be remembered by 
farmers everywhere, as a means of in- 
creasing their own wealth. 

The soil of Bremer county produces 
wheat, corn and oats, in abundance, 
and indeed the same may be said of 
barley, rye, sorghum, potatoes, hay and 
grass seeds. Fruits, and all kinds of 
garden vegetables return large profits 
to their growers, and much attention is 
given continually to horses, cattle, 
swine and sheep. Nearly two-thirds 
of all the land now assessed in Bre- 
mer county is improved, and the time 
cannot be far distant when the propor- 
tion will be still greater. The Ger- 
man population in Bremer is about 
equal to the native American, the 
gross total being a little over 16,000. 
Other nationalities are represented, 
but generall}' the foreign admixture 
has given attention to agriculture, 
while the Yankee from New England, 
and other Americans, devote them- 
selves to manufactures, trade and mer- 
chandise. The intermixture promises 
to work well in building up a popular 
tion remarkable for stamina and intel- 
ligence, among which education will 
come to be considered the highest ob- 
ject, when it is understood to mean a 
thorough course of mental and phy- 
sical training, such as will give the 
highest results in the future of the 

Winnebago Indians held the land 
now covered by Bremer county as their 
reservation in May, 1845, when the 
first white man staked out his location 
in the Big Woods. The first settler 
soon removed his family to the same 
locality, and his example being fol- 
lowed by men of like mould, it was 
lound possible to establish a commu- 
nity, which, for many years, flourished 
without doctors, lawyers, judges or 
preachers; every man being a law un- 
to himself. 

The work of organization at last be- 
came necessary, as the nearest post 

oflice was for many years, twenty miles 
distant, and schools were hardly to be 
found at a less distance; consequently, 
in 1847, the survey was commenced, 
and in 1851, the government lauds came 
into the market. The territory was at 
the same time added to Buchanan coun- 
ty for purposes of taxation and rule, 
and the Winnebagoes left their reser- 
vation for Crow River, Minnesota. 
The county was organized when there 
were only eighty voters within its lim- 
its, and the county seat was located at 
Waverly, in 1853. The progress of the 
county, never very rapid, has been 
steady ever since. The troubles of the 
early settlers were sometimes consid- 
erable, as for instance, the first couple 
that desired to perpetrate matrimony, 
were forced to travel to Linn county 
to procure the ratification demanded 
by law, and they were snow bound on 
their journey five days and nights, be- 
fore the connubial bonds were forged. 
The first frame house erected in the 
county is said to have been the Meth- 
odist Episcopal parsonage at Janes- 
ville, and the first school taught in the 
county dates from 1853. The name of 
the county was given in honor of the 
authoress. Miss Frederika Bremer, 
who perha[)s never knew of the re- 
markable fact, but the circumstance is 
none the less creditable to the people. 

The work of organization has gone 
on steadily from the first rude begin- 
nings, and there is only one record of 
judge Lynch being called upon to ad- 
judicate, when a man named McRob- 
erts, accused of horse stealing, was 
hanged by a mob. 

The great rebellion fouud the settlers 
in Iowa thoroughly imbued with the 
patriotic ideas which animated Lin- 
coln and his coworkers. Like him 
they had hoped against hope for a 
peaceful solution of all difficulties un- 
til Sumter fell, and with the first hos- 
tile shot fired from the southern bat- 
tery, there was a reaction indicative of 
the final result through all the free 
states, and more especially among the 
best. The county rose like one man 
to sustain the governuieut; and not 
content with mere verbal sympathy, 
military companies were formed and 
officered in Waverly, Horton, Bremer 
and in other towns. Besides all this, 
a fund was raised to provide for the 
wives and families of men who might 
be induced to volunteer for the war. 

Sketches of Couxties. 


Such wurks went on as long as the war 
lasted, and it is a fact patent to the 
world that when the cruel war was 
over, provision was made and contin- 
ued tor the children of slain soldiers. 
Small as the population of the county 
was, in April, 1861, when the first meet- 
ing was called, no less than five hun- 
dred soldiers enlisted from Bremer 
county, and their good deeds were 
noted on many bloody fields. 

The county is well provided with 
railroads. The Cedar Valley branch 
of the Iowa division of the Illinois 
Central Railroad runs through the 
western tier of townships. The 
branch road known as the Cedar Falls 
and Minnesota Railroad is completed 
to Waverly, with a station at Janes- 
ville, and other extensions are being 

The Iowa Pacific Railroad traverses 
Bremer in a southwesterly direction, 
crossing the Cedar Valley road at Wa- 
verly, where it is carried by a bridge 
and trestlework, in all nearly two 
thousand eight hundred feet long. 
The mention of these items will give 
our readers a fair idea of the provis- 
ions for travel and traflic enjoyed by 
the residents in Iowa generally, and of 
Bremer in particular. 

Waverly is the capital of the coun- 
ty, and the public buildings, for the 
dispatch, of county business, are of 
course located here. The court house 
is a verj' fine building, not ornate, but 
convenient and substantial, and the 
principal county olfices are provided 
for in a fire proof building. The scen- 
ery surrounding these buildings is 
very fine, and the positions chosen 
could hardly be improved upou. The 
court house was built in 1857, at a cost 
of $23,000, and this money was well 
invested. Numerous committees have 
been appointed during a succession of' 
years to establish what is known as '" a 
poor farm," in which the poverty 
stricken might be sheltered without 
being entirely a charge upon the coun- 
ty; but after numerous protracted en- 
deavors, the scheme has not proved a 
success; but lauds have been pur- 
chased, and a tenement house built, 
which may become hereafter the nu- 
cleus of a considerable success. Wa- 
verly is the home of the Bremer couu- 
ty agricultural society, ft'om which in- 
stitution great results may be expected 
as the county expands. 

Waverly occupies both banks of the 
Cedar river, and is surrounded by well 
timbered land, and two railwa3's com- 
pete for the honor and profit of sup- 
plying its demands. The first settler 
on the site of Waverly came there in 
1850, and he was soon joined by oth- 
ers. The forest which now protects 
Waverly then covered its site. Mill 
dams were soon afterwards construct- 
ed, a sawmill built, and the town laid 
out sold readily. All the incidents 
which follow each other in rapid suc- 
cession in the establishment of frontier 
towns, came in due course to the resi- 
dents of Waverly, but to give even the 
briefest graphic delineation of such 
events would occupy more space than 
can be afforded. One item which 
commands attention from its preemi- 
nent importance, is the fact that in the 
year 1858, a Teachers' Institute was 
convened in the court house at Waver- 
ly, and no less than fifty teachers were 
present during a session which extend- 
ed over one week. The fact that edu- 
cation commanded so much interest 
on the part of all concerned, as that 
the trainers of the young were induced 
to form a society for their own im- 
provement, testifies to the culture which 
prevailed iu the common mind, and 
prepared the way for the highest ap- 
preciation of the labors of those best 
ministers to national progress. The 
town of Waverly was incorporated in 
1859, and in 1868, when the population 
had increased to two thousand, the 
charter was changed to that of a city 
of the second class. In the year 1859, 
the first Sunday school was opened in 
the city, and the demand for churches 
has gone on increasing ever since, but 
in October, 1867, the board of super- 
visors ordered that all buildings and 
lots, the property of ministers of what- 
ever denomination, should be taxed the 
same as all other properties in that city. 

Janesville is situated six miles 
south of Waverly on the east bank of 
the Cedar, and is the second town in 
the C(mnty. A beautiful grove skirts 
the town, which is built on rising 
ground. The Cedar Valley branch 
railroad finds here its southern termi- 
nal station, and the town has attained 
a verj' gratifying measure of prosperi- 
ty. The populaliou of the place num- 
bers a little more than 400. 

PlainfiellD comes next in rank, its 
population being about two-thirds ot 



that ascribed to Janesville. It is lo- 
cated about ten miles north of Waver- 
ly, on the west side of Cedar river, and 
this town is the northern teminal sta- 
tion of the before mentioned brancli 
railroad. The town was laid out in 
1855, when a sawmill and a gristmill 
were established. There are two 
churches in the little village, and the 
educational wants of youth have been 
provided in a manner which might 
give an example to many larger places. 

Sumner, with a population of two 
hundred, comes next in order. It 
stands on the line of the Iowa Pacific 
Railroad, half a mile west of the Little 
Wapsipinicon. The first settler came 
to the site of the village in 1873, and 
two years later the railroad company 
laid out the town, and gave it the name 
of the statesman whom all America 
honored. The progress made by Sum- 
ner has been very steady. 

Tripoli is located on the west side 
of the Main Wapsipinicon, twelve 
miles from the county seat, and it has 
a population ot one hundred. The 
town was originally the site of a saw- 
mill, and was called Martinsburg, in 
1855, but when a post oflBce was estab- 
lished there, the name was changed to 
its present appellation. 

HoRTON is a small place with about 
fifty people on the east side of Cedar 
river, ten miles north of Waverly. 

Jefferson City was laid out in 
1855; it is eight miles southeast of 
Waverly, and its progress has been 
slow, mainly depending upon one 
Bteam sawmill. 

Fhederika is fifteen miles east of 
Waverly, on the Main Wapsipinicon; 
it has a population about equal to Jef- 
ferson City, and its dependence is upon 
a similar enterprise, but it has gi'own 
more rapidly, having been established 
as late as 1868. 

There are postoflBces located at Buck 
Creels, Grove Hill, Dayton. Leroy, 
Maxfield, and Mentor, near all of which 
a few residences are beginning to ag- 

Buchanan County is in the north- 
east sectian of Iowa, and it comprises 
an area of five hundred and seventy- 
six square miles. The surface of the 
county is such as to preclude the pos- 
sibility of stagnant water remaining 
upon the soil, yet the rolling, uneven 
country does not oflfer any obstacles 

worth naming to the work of the farm- 
er. The land is warm, free and easy to 
be cultivated, and it is the more beauti- 
ful for having broken away from the 
sameness of the level prairie. Tlie 
landscape scenery of Buchanan county 
enraptures all competent .judges of 
American loveliness. Near the waU-r 
courses, where the timber is most luxu- 
riant, the land is more broken than in 
remoter regions, but even the precipi- 
tous heights add excellence to tlie 
scene without detracting from the ag- 
ricultural value of the country adjoin- 
ing Swamps and marshes are almost 
unknown in the county, and there arc 
hardly a thousand acres of land in the 
whole region which is not capable of 
the very" highest cultivation. Black 
loam is the characteristic soil of Bu- 
chanan county, with a subsoil of blue 
or yellow clay. Good farmers can 
work wonders with this richly pro- 
ductive soil, obtaining golden returns 
for tlieir skilled labor. Root crops, 
cereals, fruits, garden vegetables in al- 
most endless variety, and every descrip- 
tion of grass, wild or tame, can be 
raised rapidly and with profit by those 
who seek their livelihood as cattle 

Buchanan county is well watered, 
having within its bounds no less than 
eight considerable streams, with al- 
most numberless branches and tributa- 
ries. The Wapsipinicon takes first 
rank among the rivers, passing through 
the countj' from northwest to south- 
east. The valley drained and fertilized 
by this river, within the boundaries of 
the county, is, for its size, one of the 
most fruitful in the world. West of 
the Mississippi there is nothing to 
compare with it for richness, always 
allowing for the fact that it is not very 
extensive. The river is fed by many 
springs, and it flows over a rocky bed, 
which preserves the limpid clearness 
of its water through nearly the whole 
of its course. It has an average de- 
scent of more than two feet to the 
mile, and that fact will not fall, later 
in its historj', to bring mills and fac- 
tories to its banks, which must sullj' 
its silvery brightness to produce the 
gold of commerce. Nature seems to 
have constructed special sites for the 
location of mills at moderate distances 
along the line of this stream, but with 
little expense the number of mill sites 
may be indefinitely increased; and. 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

when that has been accomplished, Bu- 
chanan county will be one of the 
wealthiest portions of the state of 
Iowa. The name of this bright and 
shining river comes from the con- 
joined names of a fond couple of In- 
dian lovers — Wapsi-Pinicon — who, 
being denied happiness on earth, 
nought the happy hunting grounds 
together by plunging beneath the sil- 
very stream. The liighest water ever 
known in this sUx-am can never over- 
top the commanding banks that im- 
prison its course. The water has grad- 
ually worn its own course through an 
almost continuous rock, and the banks 
remaining have, therefore, an excep- 
tional value for the location of mills. 
The river has an eastern branch which 
joins the main body in the northwest 
portion of the county-, and is still fur- 
ther increased in bulk by the waters 
of Buck creek. 

Otter creek drains the north and 
west of Buchanan county, and pro- 
vides additional power for mills and 
factories. Pine creek is a great stream, 
serving the double purpose of drain 
and fertilizer; and Buffalo creek is 
the second best water power in Bu- 
chanan county, eventually becoming 
tributary to tlie Wapsipinicon. Spring 
creek, Lime creek and Bear creek (trib- 
utaries of the Cedar), supply the south- 
west of the county. A map of the 
county, adequately representing the 
size and value of these several streams, 
with the conformation of the coimtry, 
would show a territory singularly well 
provided with all that is needed to 
make up the sum total of a nation's 
progress. A s(jil, rich even to profu- 
sion, made living green by springs, 
creeks and rivers, yet protected by the 
fall of its surface toward its water 
courses, from any lodgment of stag- 
nant pools. No bog, no morass, no 
marsh to diffuse malaria through the 
atmosphere; a climate invigorating, 
even in its rigors, which says to the 
strong man, this is your region, here 
is full scope for your powers of body 
and brain; no garden of idle delight, 
where the powers of the soul may rust, 
but a world full ol trial and adventure, 
which may be conquered and pos- 

Iowa is a prairie state, and it is an 
efisential for the settler that, in such 
territory, he should find timber suffi- 
cient for his daily use and his pros- 

pective emergencies. Buchanan coun- 
ty offers him an acre of timber for 
every seven acres of prairie, and, as 
these woodlands are denuded, it is only 
necessary that the youni-er growths 
should be preserved to secure the like 
proportion for any conceivable dura- 
tion. The woods indigenous to the 
soil are just as good as can be found, 
all things considered, in any part of 
the world, but should changes of tim- 
ber be wished, for luxury or to meet 
the new necessities likely to arise in a 
community developing new features 
every day, the climate and the soil 
need only lapse of time to produce 
anj' growth not tropical, which the 
iniagination of man may compass or 
desire. The woodlands in the count}' 
of Buchanan are well distributed, so 
that there is not to be found a section 
of the territory in which wood may be 
reached without trouble. The Wapsi- 
pinicon timber belt is, on an average, 
over one mile wide throughout, being, 
in some localities, fully six miles broad, 
and in no instance less than half a 
mile. Some parts of the timber iu the 
belt named are very fine indeed, and 
all are valuable for building purposes 
or as fuel. The old belts and groves 
bordering on the lesser streams differ 
from those already described oul}- in 
being less abundant, but the average 
of one acre in seven applies to the 
whole county. 

The climate of northern Iowa is 
tolerably uniform. Cold is so'metimes 
severe, falling occasionally from ten 
to twenty degrees below zero, but the 
changes are not sudden, and the weath- 
er has a quality of steadiness which 
makes its rigor easy to bear. The air 
if cold is crisp and pure, the snow 
gives good sleighing, and damp foggy 
weather, the annojance common in 
softer climes, does not come there to 
mar the happiness of mankind. Per- 
sons suffering from pulmouarj diseas- 
es have often been recommended to 
try the brisk invigoration of the win- 
ter in Iowa, in preference to the more 
insidious, if softer airs of the south, 
and in many cases such advice has 
been followed by good results. Sum- 
mer in Ifiwa calls out all the beauties 
of earth and sky, and the atmosphere 
has then a charm entirely its own. Au- 
tumn, with its richl)' tinted foliage, 
every tree trying to present to the 
mind's eye, the burning bush, which 

Sketches of Counties. 


told of holy ground, must l)e experi- 
enced to be comprehended. The pen- 
cil of the word painter fails to convey 
even the faintest idea of that exquisite 
season. After all that has been said 
of the climatic influences prevalent in 
Buchanan county, our readers will be 
quite prepared for the concluding state- 
ment on this subject, that the rate of 
mortality Is exceptionally low, and 
that the average of health among set- 
tlers there is such as might well cause 
the medical faculty to despair. 

The people who have come to possess 
this terrestrial paradise are exceptional- 
ly well qualified to make the best of 
its good features and to minimise the 
undesirable. The New England states, 
Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio 
have given of their best to make up the 
sum total of the population, and these 
people each in their several degrees, 
have brought with them their wull 
compacted ideas of the value of edu- 
cation which are seen every day mould- 
ing the youthful intellect for new con- 
quests. Such men, surrounded by in- 
fluences which do not cramp their en- 
ergies, and seconded by noble souled 
women, who have outlived the tute- 
lage which once stunted and oppressed 
the sex, will give to this country a bet- 
ter race than the poor specimens of 
humanity, that lurk iu the alleys of our 
cities ; children that will grow up to be 
frugal and Industrious members of so- 
ciety, and from whose ranks in the fu- 
ture will come the saving patriotic 
thought of every age. 

Irish and Germans are present iu 
Buchanan county, but not in control- 
ling numbers, and under the influences 
which mould society around them, they 
are among the best iu industry and in 
illustrating the manners of free men. 

The resources of this county have 
already been indicated if not cata- 
logued. The land clothed with grass 
at all sea.sons and capable of bear- 
ing in almost any quantity, the va- 
rities of food best adapted for stor- 
age to supply the wants of Cattle dur- 
ing winter, cannot fail to enrich stock 
raisers and dairj- farmers who know 
how to pursue their avocation. Sheep 
grazing offers another opeuing for en- 
terprise, and all the meaus that can be 
availed of by agriculturists anywhere, 
are speciallj' adapted to the powers of 
Iowa culture, climate and endurauce. 

Iowa grapes and plums will before 

long become specialties in the market, 
commanding good prices wherever 
obtainable, and other fruits also pros- 
per when due care has been observed 
in selecting the varieties best adapted. 
It would be superfluous to go through 
with a list of the other productions of 
farm and garden which flourish in Bu- 
chanan county. Everything thai cau 
be raised iu the temperate zone cau be 
produced at pleasure in almost 
every county in this slate. 

Magnesiau limestone is the chief 
mineral resource of this county for 
building purposes, and that is abund- 
ant. Granite boulders are more numer- 
ous here than in any other county in 
this state, varying in color from black 
to red, or what is more commonly 
known as Scotch granite. Many of 
the stone foundations in Buchanan 
county have been formed from the 
broken fragments of these lost rocks 
from what is described by Prof. Ow- 
en as " the Cedar Drift." Among 
other foundations thus built may be 
mentioned that of the state capitol at 
Des Moines, and part of the buildings 
of the asylum for the insane at Inde- 
pendence. Quick lime in endless 
quantity, good sand, and clay of the 
very best description for brick mak- 
ing, make up a sum total of buildiug 
material which may suffice for the 
present, and to which the future is 
sure to add very largely when men 
have time to make a perfect inventory 
of nature's beuefactions. Much moie 
might be said of the mineral wealth of 
Buchanan county, but enough is as 
good as a feast. 

Scarcely more than thirty years have 
elapsed since this fair territory was a 
terra incognita to the civilized world. 
There "wild in woods the noble sav- 
age ran," with all that there can be of 
nobility in his untaught, or rather ill 
taught, and treacherous nature. Sud- 
denlj- the face of the white man was 
seen in the forest, surveying its unim- 
proved wealth, and preparing the way 
for a greater and mightier nation. The 
taciturn, gruntiug savage, heard the 
unwonted sound of laughter, in regions 
where that melody might not have 
been heard, since the long forgotten 
days of the mound builders, and he 
prepared to move further afield, away 
from his aggn-ssive and more power- 
ful brother. The sound of the axe and 
the crash of falling tinibei- spoke of 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

new life and animation. For tlie new 
comer there was in every bubbling 
spring a music full of the sweetness of 
the voices of children. The ripple of 
the river, flashing against its sides, 
spoke of towns that spring up amid 
the sterner sounds of daily toil, for a 
rich reward, in which all natural for- 
ces must become tributary to man's 
well doing. The territory of Iowa 
speedily won its advancement to the 
ranli of a state and well deserved to 
partake in the struggles of a patriotic 

The lirst white settler in Buchanan 
county is supposed to have built his 
rude cabin in Quasquiton, or rather to 
be more precise, on the site which now 
bears that name, in 1843. His dwelling 
was on the east side of the Wapsipini- 
con, and verj- soon afterwards other 
white men followed in his steps. Some 
of those who came early to Iowa 
were of poor character, but in the na- 
ture of things, men of that stamp were 
speedily erased. 

The first school taught in the county 
was held in a little log house in Inde- 
pendence, by a doctor of medicine, in 
1848, while the French, under the 
subtle spell of Lamartine's eloquence, 
were dreaming of an impossible per- 
fection in government, among a people 
untaught and untrained for the realiza- 
tion of the highest good. Dr. Bennett 
began more wisely than the French 
poet, and we trust that his good works 
still follow him. 

Buchanan county appears to have 
been named and to have had its bounds 
defined by the first territorial legis- 
lature, which was convened in Iowa 
in 1837-8. The name was, no doubt, 
bestowed as a compliment to president 
James Buchanan. The location of a 
county seat was proceeded with in 
1847, when Independence, the present 
site, was fixed upon, and that name of 
happy augury selected. The first elec- 
tion took place in August, 1848, after 
which the county was dissevered from 
Delaware county, which, until then, 
liad exercised some of the functions 
of government. The first regular term 
of court commenced in April, 1840, 
and was a remarkably unpretentious 
aftaii', ill a log cabin ; but the simplest 
efl'orl at self government among a free 
and enlightened people has more na- 
tive dignity than the operations of the 
most enligntened jurists, directed by 

the personal will of a tyrant, who rules 
without the concurrence of his sub- 
jects. Courts still more irregular, 
without the intervention of lawyer or 
witness, without plaintiff or defendant 
being heard, are said to have preceded 
the session of 1849 ; but the records are 
barren, and it is not easy to procure 
reliable evidence on the subject. 
Independence, as already mentioned, 
is the count}- seat, and the principal 
town in Buchanan county. The Iowa 
division of the Illinois Central rail- 
road, forms its junction here with the 
Milwaukee division of the Burlington, 
Cedar Rapids and Minnesota railroad. 
The town stands on both banks of the 
Wapsipinicon river, occupying a site 
of much natural beauty. The ground 
upon which tlie county seat is placed, 
slopes upwards sufficiently to afford 
some very conspicuous building sites; 
and, of course, that conformation of 
the ground suffices to secure full and 
eflScient natural drainage for the area. 
Where the town stands was a grove 
of oaks, some of them very fine indeed, 
and many stand, untouched to this 
hour, to attest how striking must have 
been the scene which suggested the 
name, Independence. The streets are 
broad and well graded, with numerous 
shade trees to render their special 
charm to business premises and the 
choice residences, where Lares and 
Penates are defended. In every direc- 
tion, far as the eye can reach, are roll- 
ing prairies, with here and there a 
glancing stream, making sunlight ex- 
quisite, and following the margins of 
each river and creek, a line or belt of 
consecutive groves of timber, to which 
have since been added farm houses, 
villa residences, and blooming orchards 
rich in promise, with all other insig- 
nia of agricultural excellence. Inde- 
pendence is conceded to be one of the 
best built towns in northern Iowa; and 
the streets being laid out at right an- 
gles, all that is most charming in style 
and substantial work, can be seen to 
perfection from every " coigne of 'van- 

As before stated, the site of Inde- 
pendence was selected in 1847, and a 
portion of the town was surveyed and 
laid off" in lots that same year. Hunt- 
ing and trapping was the pursuit which 
drew to this region the man to whom 
common rumor and tradition allots 
tht- founding of the county seat. After 

Sketches of Counties. 


luauy excursions in Iowa and the 
ueigliboring states, lie had the good 
taste to preter the site upon which the 
town is situated, to any other that he 
might have chosen. Lacking the 
means to avail himself of the oppor- 
tunity which thus lay before him, he 
returned to Janesville, Wis., and there 
enlisted some capitalists in his design. 
That movement proved a success, both 
for the projector and his friends, and 
since that date the county seat has 
prospered beyond the most sanguine 
dreams of the ex-trapper. A sawmill, 
driven by water power, came soon into 
requisition, to supply lumber better 
adapted to the wants of comfort loving 
men, than half squared logs. Circum- 
stances, for a time, made against the 
town, as there were malarious diseases 
consequent on the river being dammed, 
and stagnant water having to be used 
in daily diet; but as soon as the dis- 
turbing causes had been ascertained, 
there were means found to render 
their continuance unnecessary, and 
DOW there are no signs of malarious 
disorders at Independence. Many 
families left the township after the 
first year, believing that good health 
could never be realized there, and very 
wisely preferring sound constitutions 
in good working order, to any possible 
increase of material wealth without 
these concomitants. Those who re- 
mained upon the ground reaped the 
reward of their faith. The first school 
ever taught in the county was held 
here ; and as the prospects of the coun- 
ty brightened, scholastic opportunities 
kept pace with the growing import- 
ance of the community. A better 
school being erected, the building was 
used in turn as church, school, court 
house, and place of assembly for every 
public use. The greatest difficulty 
with which the people of Independ- 
ence had for some time to contend, 
was irregularity in the dispatch and 
receipt of mails, the service being a 
secondary matter in the hands of the 
postmaster of Quasquiton, who wished 
to discourage the new town; but 
eventually that trouble came to an 
end. The city of Independence was 
incorporated in 1864; the first election 
being held in December of that year. 
Public schools in that city have, from 
the first, been matters of emulation, 
and may now be considered a justifi- 
cation for some pride. The buildings 

used are, in themselves, excellent; but 
the organization, arrangement, and 
efficiency of the stafi' of teachers, most 
heartily deserve commendation. The 
graded school was established in 1857, 
and has been growing in value ever 
since, winning reputation wherever its 
pupils have had an opportunity to 
show what Alma mater has done for 

The public buildings of the county 
consist of a court house, an asylum for 
the poor, and a jail ; all these are good 
of their kind, the first and last named 
occupying the center of the original 
plat in the original ground plan of 
Independence. They are so placed as 
that the visitor can see therefrom an 
extensive panorama of natural beauty, 
improved now by industry and taste. 

The Buchanan County Agricultural 
Society was organized in 1870, and has 
succeeded admirably as a joint-stock 
company, having extensive grounds 
and a very valuable property. In every 
way the association has been a public 
benefaction, and it is likely to become 
more useful every year. 

In November, 1873, fire visited In- 
dependence disastrously; and, in the 
spring of the following year, a similar 
visitation, yet more destructive to prop- 
erty, swept over the city, but the recu- 
perative powers of the rising city 
speedily efi'aced the marks of ruin. 

The asylum for the insane for Iowa, 
built in 1869, is situated on rising 
ground, about two miles from Inde- 
pendence. Where the building was 
erected, is an eminence nearly one 
hundred feet above the surroimding 
country ; consequently drainage is se- 
cured, and there are numberless springs 
of good water. The building was 
planned and drafted by a citizen of 
Madison, Wisconsin, and is a hand- 
some edifice, constructed of the beau- 
tiful limestone of the state, which re- 
sembles marble in the fineness of its 
general aspect. 

Quasquiton is an Indian name, sig- 
nifying " Rapid Waters." The town 
is situated near an old Indian ford, 
and upon its site, crossed by innumer- 
able trails of the red man, the first set- 
tlement in Buchanan county was 
planted in 1843. Litigation super- 
vened almost immediately after the 
town was platted, and for want of sat- 
isfactory titles there wei-e few improve- 
ments for nearly six years. After that 


TvTTLtfs History of Iowa. 

time, changes for the better came rap- 
idly, and large hopes swelled the 
hearts of the people, but for want of 
railway communications, since that 
time the town has retrograded very 
considerablj', and the water power 
which solicits use is but partly im- 

Jestjp is a village on the prairie, 
near the western borders of the coun- 
tj', but having been built where the in- 
terests of agriculturists can be fur- 
thered by transit of their produce on 
the Illinois Central Railroad, the town 
grows. The population of Jesup is 
rapidly nearing one thousand souls, 
and a lively newspaper is published 

Winthrop is eight miles east of In- 
dependence, and the village contains 
about eight hundred inhabitants. It 
is pleasantly situated, and will rise in- 
to importance. 

Fairbanks is situated in the north- 
west of Buchanan county, and a good 
county trade is done there, but there 
does not seem to be any prospect of 
very rapid growth. 

Buchanan county is but half way on 
the road toward a good commence- 
ment, but already the name and wealth 
of Iowa have owed manj' good marks 
to the enterprise of this county, and 
there are signs which cannot be mis- 
taken, that, ere another quarter of a 
century shall have passed away, this 
section of countrj' will have aggre- 
gated to itself and produced enormous 

Bnena Vista County is a compact 
section of countrj" containing twenty- 
four square miles, or 368,640 acres, in 
the northwest of Iowa. The Little 
Sioux river meanders through the north 
of this county, furnishing, incidentallj', 
a large body of timber for the settlers. 
The tributaries of this river, and sev- 
eral other streams not very considerable 
in themselves, give abundance of water 
for stock, and the drainage of the sur- 
face is almost perfect. 

Storm lake, in the southern part of 
Buena Vista, is a fine bodj' of clear 
water, with steep banks rising to the 
level of the beautiful prairie which 
stretches around in all directions to a 
great distance. Many such lakes, of 
smaller dimensions, dot the county, ad- 
ding to its charms as well as to its fer- 
tility. The soil is very good, and 

nearly all cereals and root crops flour 
ish. The su))ply of timber is not so 
great as in some other counties named 
and quarries of building stone are few 
and small, but the granite boulders, 
distributed with a liberal hand over 
the surface of the countiy, supply all 
needs. There is a plentiful supply 
of clay in what is known as the " Blufl' 
deposit," and from that source build- 
ing materials can be obtained to al- 
most any extent. The streams and 
lakes are populous with excellent fish, 
some of which are, or seem to be, pe- 
culiar to this section of country. 

Government surveys preceded settle- 
ment in Buena Vista county, as it was 
not until 1856 that the first stakes were 
driven for the residence of a white 
family', and the survej'ors had gone 
over the ground in 1855. The bloody 
massacre of Spirit Lake eventuated in 
1857, and that incident had the effeet 
of considerably dampening the ardor 
of settlement. The Indians, for that 
time, carried all before them, destroj'- 
ing property, driving ofl' cattle, mak- 
ing prisoners of men and women, re- 
serving for the climax the terrible 
deeds which have given Spirit Lake a 
fearful memory. Some of the very 
earlj- settlers had ideas which were 
not compatible with civilized admin- 
istration of justice, but their own vio- 
lence provoking reprisals, eventuated 
in the county being rid of them at 

Sioux Rapids was the first town 
platted in Buena Vista county, and is 
located on the south bank of the Little 
Sioux river. This is the county seat, 
and much business is done in the 
town. The raid of the Indians through 
this county had a bad influence on the 
growth of this city; but, since 1859, 
such alarms have been unknown, and 
the industrial enterprises of many- 
thriving capitalists keep the best in- 
terests of Sioux Rapids in a flourish- 
ing condition. 

Storm Lake is the name of a town 
built on the north bank of the beautiful 
lake, from which it is named. It is 
about eighteen miles from Sioux Rap- 
ids. The lake is about two miles 
across, and is altogether about five 
miles long, if the smaller lake adjoin- 
ing is taken into account. The origin 
of the lake cannot be easily traced, 
unless it is a small part of the great 
lake system which once stretched from 


TuTTLifs HisTosr OF Iowa. 

the Wahsatch mountains, in the Sail 
Lake country, to beyond Lake Erie, 
ilap makers, drawing from their in- 
formation from traditions rather than 
from actual observations, describe the 
body of water as immensely larger 
than at present. Sometimes there are 
severe storms upon the lake, but usu- 
ally it is a favorite resort for sports- 
men and pleasure seekers, who like 
the peaceful pursuits of Izaak Walton, 
and do not agree with the satirist in de- 
scribing piscatorial delights as, "an 
operation with a stick and a string, 
having a worm at one end, and a fool 
at the other." There is an iron steamer 
on the lake, and a large assortment of 
shore boats, for which there is a con- 
siderable demand. 

The town has numerous fine build- 
ings and established industries, and 
"he railroad company has a large de- 
pot and station, the best between Fort 
Bodge and Sioux City, which was com- 
pleted in ISTO. The Buena Vista 
County Agricultural Society has fine 
grounds and substantial buildings at 
this point, having been organized in 
ls7a, and the operations of that associ- 
ation promise to be of great value to 
the county and to the state. 

Newell is a thriving town, situated 
on the railroad line, in the eastern part 
of the county, in the midst of a very 
rapidly improving agricultural region, 
for the convenience of which its value 
as a shipping point, gives it import- 
ance. The first house was built in 
1S69, and it has now a paper, as well 
as a mill, many business houses, and 
a church. 

Alta is seven miles distant from 
Storm Lake, to the west, and although 
the town was only platted in 1S72, it 
has already commenced a very pros- 
perous career. The railroad reaches 
its greatest height at this point be- 
tween the Mississippi and the Missouri, 
hence the name; and substantial build- 
ings erected by the Iowa Falls and 
Sioux City Railroad Land Company, 
attest the expectation and resolve of 
those immediately interested, that Alta 
shall have a very prosperous future. 
The lauds surrounding Alta are well 
adapted for farming, and improvements 
are being pushed ahead with much 

Butler Conntj- is in the third tier 
from the Minnesota boundarv, from 

which it is distant forty miles. The 
area of the county comprises five hun- 
dred and seventy-six square miles, con- 
sisting of sixteen congressional town- 
ships. The county is a perfect square, 
and consists of 367,070 acres, mainly 
of rolling prairie, very little of the sur- 
face being level, yet none precipitous. 
The main river, now known as the 
Shellrock, used to be known as English 
river. The course of this stream has 
been already noticed. The flow: of 
this stream is rapid, and it passes over 
a bed of sand and limestone, with a 
fall so rapid that its value for water 
powers must prove immense. The 
banks of the river are high, and well 
timbered, and much fish is found in 
the stream. The Cedar river has its 
west fork in this county, and the junc- 
tion of the two streams is effected in 
Black Hawk county. The stream is 
sluggish, and its bed muddy, with 
many marshes and morasses on its 
banks. Wild grass flourishes in the 
rauk soil of these regions, but when 
cultivation is wisely pushed along the 
borders of this stream, good drainage 
will much improve the land. The 
Cedar has numerous small tributaries, 
which empty into thejwest fork of that 
river, in this county. Beaver river 
flows through the southern tier of 
townships, in Butler county, distant 
about two miles, on an average, from 
the boundaries of Grundy county. The 
stream is small and slow, generally, but 
in some localities it can be made availa- 
ble for milling purposes. The country 
is liable to occasional inundations 
along its course, and its borders are 
often marshy. Numerous beavers were 
settled in this stream from time imme- 
morial, but, for sufiicient reasons, they 
have changed their camping grounds, 
of late years, and are not expected to 

Coldwater creek is a branch or feed- 
er of Shellrock river, running through 
the extreme northwest of the county. 
Marshes are not common in the coun- 
try drained by this creek, and much 
valuable land is improved along its 
banks. Hood creek is an eastern trib- 
utary of the same river, and there are 
other creeks and tributaries, such as 
Otter creek, which flow into the west 
fork of the Cedar river and the Beaver. 
The country is, as a whole, well 
drained, and well water, of the best 
kind, can be found at the average 

Sketches of Counties. 


depth of a little over twenty feet. Tim- 
ber can be found on almost all the 
streams, and many of the early settlers 
have improved their properties by 
planting groves of considerable size. 
The timber is generally valuable for 
building purposes, but we have no 
room for detailing descriptions. 

Wheat and oats do not come to great 
perfection on the light soil common 
in Butler county, but corn gives a fair 
crop generally. Away from the streams 
there is a rich black loam, which pro- 
duces cereals in almost any quantity. 
The subsoil is of yellow clay, in some 
parts, and gravel in others. Building 
materials are plentiful, and limestone 
quarries can be opened almost any- 
where. Boulders, from the glacial pe- 
riod, crop up through the soil in all 
directions. Clay and sand are abund- 
ant, and bricks of good quality can be 
made to meet and supply the local de- 
mand. Less than half the country is 
under tillage, but there will be a much 
larger proportion withiu a few years. 
Germans, Irish, English, Scotch, 
Norwegians and Swedes, with a few 
other admixtures, help to make up the 
population of 13,00u in Butler county, 
but the native American is a very con- 
siderable item in the aggregate, the 
main proportion coming from the New 
England states, and from New York. 
The atfairs of the county are adminis- 
tered with economj', and the commun- 
ity is clear of public debt although the 
taxes collected are small. The Iowa 
division of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, the Burlington Cedar Rapids and 
Minnesota, the Iowa Pacific Railroads 
and the Cedar Vallej' branch of the 
Iowa division of the Illinois Central, 
are competitors for the service of the 
county with all that is required to keep 
this community abreast of civilization 
elsewhere, and it will be admitted that 
there is no present orprospective likeli- 
hood of a dearth of transit, however 
much the productions of the county 
may increase. Some of the roads men- 
tioued have been assisted by local 
taxes and subscriptions which make 
a sum total of $116,568. 

Shellrock valley attracted the atten- 
tion of trappers and hunters from an 
early day, and as a consequence, the 
first settlements in the county were 
made in that delectable region. The 
first cabin is said to have been built 
there in 1850 on the site of Shellrock 

village. Many of the earliest settlers 
came with their families from Milton, 
Wisconsin, aud that fact alone may be 
taken as evidence that they were an in- 
dustrious, patient, law abiding people. 
The wife of one of the earliest set- 
tlers was an expert with a rifle, and 
could "talk Injun" with the skill of 
an interpreter. Organization was 
eflected in 1853 when the county seat 
was located at Clarksville, but in spite 
of the election of officers, the persons 
nominated refusing to qualify, it was 
not found possible to organize perma- 
nently until October, 1854. The early 
days of the settlement were marked by 
considerable privations, some of the 
men having to do the work of pack 
mules in conveying provisions from 
distant points to their families. Coon 
Grove, now known as Clarksville, was 
the location of the first post office in 
the county, and the same spot was ■ 
chosen at first as the county seat, but 
that honor now belongs to Butler 
Center. The first attempt at removal 
was made without avail in 1858, and a 
second eflbrt was put forth in the fol- 
lowing year, when the vote gave the 
preference to the present location, but 
certain irregularities determined the 
courts to hold over the decision until 
the following year, after which upon a 
third vote, the removal was eflected. 
The first court house was built in 1857 
in the center of Clarksville, but when 
its glory had departed with the remov- 
al of the records, the building became 
the property of the school district at a 
small price, little more than one eighth 
of the first expenditure, and it has be- 
yond doubt done more service to the 
county in its second term of usefulness 
than was po.ssible during its first. The 
court ht.use now in use in Butler Cen- 
ter is a very unpretentious affair, but 
enough for present demands. In the 
year 1874. there were two hundred and 
twenty-nine schools in Butler county, 
with fifty-five male teachers and oue 
hundred and seventy -two female teach- 
ers, attending to the wants of more 
than three thousand six hundred pu- 
pils, of whom a little more than 
one-half attend on the average. There 
are three graded schools in the 
county, in Clarksville, Parkersburg 
and New Hartford. Butler county 
made a good record during the great 
rebellion ; the whole population of the 
county at the commencement of that 


Tvttle's History of Iowa. 

terrible event being 3,724, and there 
were nearly three hundred volunteers 
enrolled, of whom many reenlisted, the 
rush to the front being considerably in 
excess of the quota. The families of 
those who went on service were liber- 
ally cared for during their absence by 
the county, and those who fell in the 
struggle were not forgotten nor their 
little ones neglected. 

Clabksville has a population of 
about eight hundred souls. The loca- 
tion of the town is very pleasant, and 
it has a good future in the near per- 
spective. The town is situated on the 
east side of Shellrock river, where the 
first settlements in this county were 
made, but this point is a long way 
from the geographical center of the 
county. The town was laid out in 
1853. The Iowa Pacific and the Bur- 
lington, Cedar Rapids and Minnesota 
railroads intersect each other at tliis 
point, and there is no other railroad 
crossing at present in the county. The 
position of tie town, its prosperous ag 
ricultural surroundings, the facilities 
oflered for shipment, and the enterprise 
of its people will long continue to up- 
hold the precedence won by Clarks- 

Shellkock village is eight miles 
south of Clarksville, and both sides 
of the river are occupied by the village 
in question. The village was founded 
and stands in a beautiful grove. The 
Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Minne- 
sota Railroad has a station in the vil- 
lage, and the Iowa Pacific passes the 
town at a short distance east. The vil- 
lage has several mills and some other 
permanent industries besides its chief 
reliance, the surrounding agricultural 
land. Population six hundred. 

P-*.KKERSBURG is in the southern 
part of the county and is situated on 
the Iowa division ofthe Illinois Central 
Railroad, having a population equal to 
to that of Shellrock village. The Du- 
buque and Sioux City Railroad Com- 
pany first platted the village in 1805, 
and its facilities for shipments make 
it the depot for a very wide range of 

Nev? Hartford is situated nine 
miles east of Parkersburg on the Iowa 
division of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road. The original platting took place 
in 1855, but the population is only 
about three hundred. 

Aplington is on the Illinois Central 

Railroad, five miles from Parkersburg 
to the west, and boasts of about two 
hundred inhabitants. 

Greene was laid out in 1871 on 
both sides of Shellrock river, and is 
served by the Burlington, Cedar Rapids 
and Minnesota Railroad, but the pop- 
ulation is only about 350. 

West Point is a pleasant village in 
the west part of the county toward the 
center, with a population of about 300. 

Bdtler Center is the county seat 
and is situated near the geographical 
center, but its population hardly ex- 
ceeds one hundred and fifty persons, 
and it has no commercial, manufactur- 
ing, or other features which would ren- 
der it of any moment but for the digni- 
ty ofthe seat of administration being 
there located. The town was laid out 
in 1856, but it has not progressed and 
probably will never go ahead very ra- 
pidly. There are two other towns in 
the county, Dumont and Allison, but 
they are only towns on paper to.this 

Calhonn County is twenty-four miles 
square, and therefore contains 368,640 
acres, but less than twenty-seven thous- 
and acres appears to be under cultiva- 
tion, according to the census of 1875. 
Timber is scarce in this county, the 
average being one acre of wooded land 
to one thousand of prairie. The coun- 
ty is wholly on the Mississippi slope, 
the western portion being drained by 
Coon river and its tributaries. Lake 
creek, Camp creek and other streams, 
which are inconsiderable. Lizard riv- 
er sends its south fork to the north- 
east, draining several townships. There 
are some narrow valleys with fertile 
bottom lands, but the paucity of tim- 
ber is a reliable commentary on the 
general value of the soil. The Twin 
lakes are beautiful and somewhat ex- 
tensive, embracing an area of about 
seventeen hundred acres. The most 
northern of the twins is about two 
miles and one half long, and on an 
average about half a mile wide. The 
shores of the lakes are studded with 
boulders of limestone and of granite, 
which present in some places the ap- 
pearance of a wall very rudely heaped 
up. The beds of the lakes are mixed 
of sand and gravel, and the depth of 
water seldom exceeds twenty feet. 
Probably the two lakes were one at no 
distant date. There are several other 

Sketches of Counties. 


lakes of smaller extent but similar in 
their general characteristics, which do 
not call for more particular mention 
at present. The county is not rich in 
stone, there being but few quarries 
available, but the boulders already 
named give a supply not readily ex- 
haustible. Clay for brick making pur- 
poses is plentiful, and there is no lack 
of sand, consequently there will be no 
dearth of building materials of that 
kind, and when the county becomes 
more closel_v settled the agriculturist 
will see the benefit likely to result from 
planting groves. The several streams 
have terraces along their course, af- 
fording what arc locally known as 
" second bottoms," and on these may be 
found the best farming lands in Cal- 
houn county. Grazing lands will con- 
stitute the first great attraction to set- 
tlement in this county, as the native 
grasses are plentiful and nutritious, 
and water can be relied on in any part of 
the district. The prairie lands undu- 
late considcrabl}', and the higher eleva- 
tions are covered by a dark loam some- 
what intermixed with gravel, from 
which fair average crops can be ob- 

The first white settler came to the 
site now embraced by Calhoun county, 
in 1854, and he was obliged to trans- 
port provisions from Fort Des Moines, 
a distance including necessary detours, 
of over one hundred miles, and as the 
crow flies, nearly eighty-five miles. 
The county was organized in 185.5, and 
the first election held in August, of that 
year. The first school was taught in 
this county near Lake City in 1856. 

Lake City is the county seat. It is 
located in the southern part of the 
county, in the midst of a fine agricultur- 
al country near North Coon river, and it 
stands on high prairie land. The first 
house in the city was built in 1857, and 
a weckl}' paper is published here, 
but the place does not advance very 

Mansor is built in the northeastern 
part of the county, and being situated 
on the railroad line is destined to pros- 
per. The village is young, but it stands 
where it commanas the shipment of a 
wide range of fertile country. 

POMEROT is built on the railroad line 
in the extreme north of the center of 
Calhoun county. The town was pro- 
jected and laid off by the Iowa Falls 
and Sioux City Railroad and Land 

Company, and the country surround- 
ing Ponieroy being exceptionally fer- 
tile, farmers have been rapidly drawn 
thither, and the village grows. In 
some favored districts settleme;it pro- 
ceeds rapidly-. 

Calhodn Center is, as the name 
implies, very near to the geographical 
center of the county, and may some 
daj- become the seat of administration. 
The Iowa and Pacific railroad will 
pass through Calhoun Center when it 
is completed. 

Carroll County is made up of beau- 
tiful prairie country, and is twenty-four 
miles square, contaiuing sixteen con- 
gressional townships. The eastern por- 
tion of Carroll has a rolling surface, in 
some parts considerably broken, so that 
there is no monotony to be complained 
of in its scenery; and to the westward 
the face of the county is still more un- 
even, but the farmer finds little diffi- 
culty in accommodating himself to 
these inequalities, where the soil is of 
such a character as to repay his labor 
and outlay. In this county, the water- 
shed which divides the streams flow- 
ing toward the Mississippi from those 
running into the Missouri, has its 
highest ridge, which attains the alti- 
tude of 858 feet above the level of lake 
Michigan. The fertile valley of the 
Raccoon rivers can be seen from this 
pinnacle, glowing in the sunlight with 
a promise of plenty, and turning from 
east and southeast to the south, Nishna- 
botany rivets the attention of observers, 
while towards the west, the valle3' of 
the Boyer supplies its quota of love- 
liness to the varied scene. Most of the 
streams are small as they flow through 
this county to their respective destina- 
tions. The North Raccoon flows across 
the northeastern corner of the county. 
The Middle Raccoon is next in volume. 
Brushy P( irk comes next. Storm creek 
is a tributary of Middle Raccoon and 
it drains the northern central sections, 
and the Willow creek serves the same 
purpose in the east. The North Rac- 
coon has excavated for itself a deep 
channel in the drift deposit, and its 
sometime broader stream must have 
dug out largely from the earth to make 
the fruitful valley through which it 
makes its course. In some places the 
sides of the valley rise with consider- 
able suddenness to heights of nearly 
one hundred feet. The Middle Rac- 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

coon is bounded by high bluffs on the 
west, by drift hills on the east, and 
the country gradually rises to greater 
elevations. The same configuration 
of surface is repeated at Brushy Fork, 
where the valley is surrounded by ac- 
clivities, and by the land on either side 
of the East Nishnabotany, the Boyer 
river and Whitteds creek. Nearly all 
these streams are but little larger than 
brooks in their upper courses, but as 
they roll onward to their final destiny, 
they increase by every rill, and by 
numerous springs until they become 

Wells may be sunken in about any 
part of the well watered county with 
1 certainty of success, but in some parts 
it is necessary to carry the sinking to 
much greater depths than in others. 
There are peat formations in some 
parts of this county, forming what are 
known as spring mounds, very inter- 
esting to students of natural pheno- 
mena, but we are precluded from giv- 
ing to these items more than a brief 
word in passing. 

The soil of Carroll county on the 
east side of Middle Raccoon is loam 
mixed with gravel, and very produc- 
tive, and on the west of that stream the 
bluff formation prevails, fruitful but cer- 
tainly peculiar. Timber may be found 
in greater or less quantity on the mar- 
gins of most of the streams, and there 
are many groves of great extent in dif- 
ferent parts of the county. Coal has 
not yet been found in situ, but in 
sinking wells there have been un- 
earthed many fragments which may 
have come from remote distances dur- 
ing the drift period, or may be due to 
much nearer sources. It is not im- 
probable that coal measures will be 
found in such positions as will give 
employment to large masses of labor. 
Peat will, in course of time, be utilized 
as fuel in Carroll county, but all the 
discoveries yet made in this line have 
been so mixed with gravel and sand as 
to be practically valueless. Good build- 
ing stone is a desideratum, as the sand- 
stones, which generally prevail, are 
too easily disintegrated to be used 
with advantage. Clay for brickmak- 
ing can be had with little trouble, but 
some of the clays are so mixed with 
debris from the limestone formations, 
that the bricks are not burnable with- 
out converting the stone into quick- 
lime, which afterwards, on coming 

into contact with moisture, bursts the 
brick asunder. 

The first settlement in Carroll county 
took place in 1854, and an election 
was held in the following year; the first 
school being organized in 1856. An 
old Indian trail straight as the flight 
of an arrow, and known to old settlers 
as the " War Path," is still distinguish- 
able. It was the line of demarkation 
between the hunting grounds of Sioux 
and Pottawattomies, and any red man 
that dared cross, that path to hunt in 
the grounds of other tribes did so at the 
risk of his life. The tribes mentioned 
are said to have fought a terrible bat- 
tle once near the Crescent lake; but, 
perhaps, it would be difiicult to find a 
lake, a valley or a watercourse, where 
such conflicts have not occurred. The 
battle in question is said to have re- 
suited very much like the war between 
the Kilkenny cats, who fought until 
nothing remained but the tail of tho 
victor, and in this fight near Crescent 
lake, an old warrior asserts, that the 
attacking party of Sioux was all de- 
stroyed, but not until the Pottawatto- 
mies were all killed with the excep- 
tion of three wounded braves. 

C-iRROLL is the county seat, and it 
is situated on the line of the Chicago 
and Northwestern Railroad, a little 
north of the geographical center of the 
count}-. The country round Carroll is 
very fertile, but settlers are yet at a 
premium. The town was laid out in 
1867, and its progress has been satis- 
factory. The shipments by the line 
mentioned are large and increasing, 
and a very good business is effected in 
supplying the wants of agricuiturists. 
The school system of Carroll county 
has had much attention wisely given 
to its furtherance, and the results are 
visible. Places of worship have also 
been provided from almost the earliest 
days of the settlement, and other in- 
stitutions have kept pace. There are 
three newspapers published in Car- 
roll, one German and two English. 
The town is evidently destined to make 

Glidden is on the Northwestern 
Railroad in the eastern portion of the 
C(juuty,and its principal reliance is on 
the advantages which it can offer to 
the farmers as a place of shipment for 
their produce. The town was laid out 
in 1856, and is the center of a large 
agricultural district. 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

Cahrollton was at one time the 
county seat, and is the oldest town in 
the count}", having been laid out in 
1856. It stands in the southeastern 
part of the count}' and forms the cen- 
ter of a fine farming and grazing 
country, which will eventually com- 
mand every facility for transit and com- 

Arcadia, Browning, Coon, Rapids 
and Elbe, are villages and postofBces of 
various importance in the county, but 
all dependent on the future for a celeb- 
rity that must yet be won. 

Cass County is situated on the Mis- 
souri slope and it contains the custom- 
ary twenty-four square miles of terri- 
tory. The position indicated will show 
at a glance that Cass county is a well 
drained and tolerably well watered 
section of the state of Iowa. Among 
the larger streams may be mentioned 
the East Nishnabotany, Indian Creek, 
Turkey creek, and Seven Mile creek 
which take rank in the order in 
which they stand and atford good 
water powers for milling and facto- 

The altitude of this county at its 
highest point is nine hundred and 
twenty feet above the low water mark 
of the Mississippi at Davenport ; hence 
it will be seen that the prevailing 
characteristic of the region is the re- 
verse of tame and level. Undulating 
prairie is the feature most striking. 
Away from the rivers, and near every 
water course may be found belts of 
timber and detached groves which ag- 
gregate twelve thousand acres in the 
whole area. This gives a very liberal 
per centage of wooded land; enough 
for all needs, and it is the more valuable 
because it is distributed throughout 
the county. The soil is rich and pro- 
ductive, farmers finding little or no 
difficulty in producing root crops, 
cereals, and fruits of every kind prop- 
er to a temperate climate. On either 
side of the principal streams are val- 
leys of various extent in which are lo- 
cated some of the most luxuriant farms 
that can be found in Iowa. The Nish- 
nabotany valley is especially noticea- 
ble for this feature, and it may be said 
further, that almost every acre of land 
in the county will pay for the very 
highest cultivation. 

Cass county is well adapted for 
stock raising as well as for farming, 

many of the farmers having timber 
shelter for their cattle as well as water 
for all requirements, so that an active 
minded, enterprising man can make 
summer and winter play into each 
others' hands for his profit. Thousands 
of locations can be found where all 
these advantages conjoin, and among 
intelligent agriculturists, such bene- 
fits do not go a begging. The number 
of stock farmers already settled in 
Cass is a good commentary on the fore- 
going facts, and most of the men who 
have gone into that line of business 
have come out of the big end of the 
horn. Grasses, native, as well as im- 
ported are well nourished by the soil 
and genial rains of Cass county, and 
the sleek coats of the cattle tell of 
their prosperity under their liberal 
dietary scale. 

Growing timber is quite a pursuit 
among farmers who have turned their 
attention to stock, and substantial 
hedges are to be seen on every hand. 
Osage orange hedges were at one time 
thought valueless in Cass county, but 
improved systems of cultivation have 
brought them back into repute, and 
they are now in high favor. Such 
hedges on prairie land have a beauti- 
ful efiect, and they are of great utility 
as well as charming to the eye. Ap- 
pies, pears, cherries and small fruits 
generally, are produced in this county 
with comparatively little trouble, and 
much profit, as might easily be sup. 
posed by the most cursory observer, 
noting the large average of country 
employed in their growth.. 

The county has good roads, conse- 
quently there is no difficulty in con- 
veying produce to local markets or to 
ports of shipment, a matter of very 
great importance to the agricultur- 
ist. The community is well supplied 
with school houses near every center 
of population and within easy dis- 
tance of every aggregation of farms. 
The school buildings are good and the 
teachers, as a rule, keep school for 
nine months in every twelve. That 
fact is creditable to the good sense of 
the population, and it says a great deal 
for the perseverance of those engaged 
in tuition. 

There are good quarries in the 
county, the dark brown sandstone ob- 
tained' in the Nishnabotany valley be- 
ing prime favorite. The town of 
Lewis is very near to the best quarries. 

Sketches of Counties. 


Good stone fur the manufacture of 
lime is also procurable. A deposit of 
mineral paint has been found in Edna 
township, and the material in ques- 
tion is in great demand. So far as the 
suppl}- can be gauged at present there 
is no fearof its speedily running out, as 
it covers a large area and varies in from one foot Id three. Coal 
has not yet been found, but the strata 
that usually overlie the coal meas- 
ures are commonly found, and it is 
is probable that when deep mining is 
resorted to, tlie carboniferous stratum 
will give an entirely new direction to 

The county has no public debt, nor 
Las there been an incubus of that kind 
to be carried by the communitj' dur- 
ing the last decade. This circum- 
stance deserve more notice, because 
the result has not been attained by 
mere stinginess, as the liberality o"f 
Cass county in school matters is al- 
most proverbial. 

In the year 1873, when the popula- 
tion of Cass count3' was only seven 
thousand all told, the sum expended in 
school buildings and organizations 
showed a grand total of $45,000, in 
that year, and since that date there has 
been no falling off. 

The early traditions and records 
show that when in 1845-6, the Mor- 
mons came through their troubles at 
Nauvoo, they came to the high lands 
on the west of the Nishnabotany river 
and there established a station which 
they named Indian Town. The Potta- 
wattomies had a village near their lo- 
cation and the Mormons always made 
it a point to stand well with their red 
neighbors, whom they complimented 
in naming their location. That Mor- 
mon settlement remained long after 
the saints had made their departure 
across the continent toward the setting 
sun, and found their permanent home 
In Salt Lake City. Indian Town was 
the principal trading station for many 
years, and being on the track most 
used between the two great rivers, the 
Mississippi and the IVtissouri, a large 
measure of prosperity was realized by 
residents therein. Well cultivated 
farms are now to be found where the 
Mormons tarried in Iowa, and the 
furrows of innumerable plows have 
erased their foot prints, as though it 
were resolved that no sign of their 
presence should be handed down to 

posterity. During their stay in the 
territory, they were not bad neighbors 
to any oiher class, for none but the 
Indians lived near them, and the fol- 
lowers of Joe Smith and Brigham 
Young were wise enough to know 
that they could not steal much from a 
tribe of Indians without making a 
trade in scalps. 

As late as 1854, a store was kept at 
Indian Town, but since that time the 
commercial importance of the site has 
departed. Permanent settlement had 
already commenced, and the " Cold 
Spring" post office at Indian Town 
was the first in the county. The first 
settlers date their coming from the 
year 1851. Organization commenced 
in 1852, when the first election was 
held, and thirteen votes were polled by 
a community which numbered one 
hundred possible electors. County or- 
ganization dates from the following 
year. Lewis was located as the county 
seat in March, 1853 ; but, after a spir- 
ited contest, in which electioneering 
zeal did its best on both sides, the seat 
of administration was changed, in 
1869, after sixteen years' enjoyment of 
the sweets of empire. 

Atlantic is the county seat of Cass 
at the present time, and will probably 
continue to enjoy that distinction. 
The population of Atlantic numbers 
two thousand. The town was laid out 
in 1868, and, in January, 1869, there 
was rejoicing beyond measure among 
the pioneers upon the arrival of the 
first railway train. The county seat 
was changed to Atlantic the same year, 
and from that time Atlantic has been 
marching on as persistently as the 
spirit of John Brown. The Chicago, 
Kock Island and Pacific Railroad 
makes Atlantic the point of shipment 
for an immense extent of agricultural 
land, and that secures a large amount 
of business of every kind for its traders. 
The town is located on high ground, 
which gradually rises into beautiful 
hills facing the north. To the south- 
west is a fine grove of timber, and its 
western limit almost touches the Nish- 
nabotany river. There is a beautiful 
public park in the main business street 
of the town, and many excellent build, 
ings have been erected for residence 
and for commerce. There are good 
schools in Atlantic, well built, of brick, 
and administered by men and women 
thoroughly imbued with the most ad- 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

vanced thought on popular instruction. 
There is no place in Iowa, all things 
considered, with which Atlantic might 
not advantageously compare in the 
matter of school accommodations and 
efficiency. There are three newspapers 
published in the town, and two banks 
are engaged in profitable business, 
which attracts clients from surround- 
ing counties to this county seat. 

Lewis, once the county seat, is on 
the east side of the Nishnabotany river, 
seven miles southwest of Atlantic, the 
successful rival. The town was once 
on the main line of travel, but the ad- 
vent of railways has put the place on 
the side track. The course of events 
will some day advance Lewis again to 
the front. 

Anita is a prosperous little railroad 
town on the northeast of the county, 
and it is growing rapidly. 

WiOTA lies between Atlantic and 
Anita, being a station on the same line 
of railroad, and being supported by a 
fine range of agricultural land, it will 
rapidly increase. 

Marne is a station six miles west of 
Atlantic, and it grows rapidly by rea- 
son of its advantages. 

Newlan's Grove, Whitneyville and 
Wilson's are post offices only. 

Cedar County is one of the counties 
on the eastern boundary of the state, 
the counties which bound it lying on 
the Mississippi river. The county is 
twenty-four miles square. The Cedar 
river gives its name to the count}', 
which is very well adapted for farm- 
ing and stock raising. Drainage and 
water supply are alike secured by the 
configuration of the country. Some 
small tracts of land may be found 
which are too level, but generally the 
rolling and broken surface does for the 
agriculturist what must be secured by 
heavy expenditure elsewhere, and it is 
rare to find a section of country in 
which the skill of the farmer will not 
procure good returns upon wise in- 
vestment. The valley of the Cedar is 
noted everywhere throughout the slate 
for its fertility, and this county oflers 
no exception to that rule. Farmers 
who are located there, need only time, 
if they are moderately industrious, to 
become flourishing men, with goods 
and gear in abundance. 

In the bottoms, the soil is a rich, 
dark loam mixed with sand, and hav- 

ing great depth, to which subsoil plows 
can reach with advantage. In the 
higher lands the same description of 
soil is found, minus the sand, and not 
quite so deep. Oak openings, and 
some few sandy knolls may be named 
among the poorest soil in the county, 
but even these, when the best lands 
have been occupied and improved, will 
be found possible to cultivate success- 
fully, and prepare the way for an ever- 
increasing population. 

Clay, without any hard pan, is the 
subsoil generally, and that stratum is 
well adapted for all seasons, wet or 
dry, as it avoids extremes, and seconds 
the labors of the farmer. It would be 
difficult to name a description of crop 
which may be grown in temperate 
climates and which does not flourish 
in Cedar county, consequently it is not 
necessary to give a detailed list of pro- 
ductions. The farm and the orchard 
are alike fruitful, and stock will flour- 
ish there abundantly. Indeed, as a 
stock raising country it cannot be 
excelled, and the farmers here have 
turned their attention to the procure- 
ment of all the best breeds of cattle, 
knowing that the poorest animals cost 
as much in care and feed as the most 
valuable, while the returns are beyond 
comparison in favor of the breeds that 
unite all excellencies. 

The Cedar river is the largest in the 
state, with the exception of the Des 
Moines, and its importance to the 
county which bears its name cannot 
be overstated. Rock and Sugar creeks 
are among the main tributaries of the 
Cedar river, and there are numerous 
other and smaller streams which in- 
crease its volume, many of these being 
springs. The Wapsipinicon river also 
flows through the county, receiving 
confluents which drain the northeast- 
ern part of the country. At Cedar 
Bluff's there is a remarkably good wa- 
ter power, which has not yet been taken 
up fur manufacturing purposes, but 
competent engineers say that the state 
has nothing to excel the location now 
under review. 

A power capable of operating one 
hundred and sixty run of millstones, 
or other machinery equivalent thereto, 
will not long wait for proper employ- 
ment. Other powers will also com- 
mand attention, when capital and la- 
bor are brought into closer commu- 

Sketches of Counties. 


Along tlie Cedar and its tributaries 
there is a supply of timber, as also 
along the course of the Wapsipinicon, 
but, generally, the wooded wealth of 
the county is not great. Some valu- 
able groves are sparsely scattered over 
the territory, and there are indications 
that the farmers, appreciating the 
value of trees for other reasons besides 
the worth of the wood, will give 
mucli attention to the increase of 
groves upon their estates. 

Stone for building purposes is sim- 
ply inexhaustible along the several 
streams, and there is no end of stone 
from which quicklime can be ob- 
tained. Light colored magnesian lime 
stone can be procured from a quarry 
near Cedar Blufls, wliich will be im- 
mensely valuable when it can be 
cheaply landed in Chicago and other 
metropolitan cities, where beauty and 
durability in building materials are 
duly appreciated. For the present, 
that form of wealth is merely waiting 
for cheap transit. Sand and clay fit 
for brick making are easily accessible. 

Railways are desiderata in the 
growth of newly settled countries, be- 
cause by their means those who desire 
80 to do can come from any distance 
to examine the people and places with 
which they propose to associate their 
fortunes, and those who are on the 
spot can procure all the aid that they 
desire to increase their efficiency. 

The Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
road passes east and west through the 
northern townships in Cedar county, 
and has a branch running to the coun- 
ty seat, which leaves the main line at 
Stanwood. The Chicago, Rock Island 
and Pacific also contributes the civiliz- 
ing influence of its facilities to a part 
of the country. The Burlington, Ce- 
dar Rapids and Minnesota Railroad 
passes tlirough Springdale and Gower 
townships, and the Davenport and St. 
Paul passes through the northeast cor- 
ner. Besides these several lines there 
is a new line projected which will 
pass east and west through the county, 
striking Tipton, the county seat. 
These several roads may be taken as 
an indication that the people of the 
district named are in accord with the 
spirit of the age. 

The school house at Tipton was, at 
one time, considered the best building 
in the state ; it was erected at a cost of 
f45,000, is centrally situated in a beau- 

tifully shaded park, and attracts ad- 
miring notice from every visitor. The 
public schools of the county approach 
a very high standard of excellence, 
and the teachers are far in advance of 
many who are located in metropolitan 
positions. Institutes are ver}' often 
held in the county, and by such means 
a very desirable spirit of emulation is 
maintained, from which all classes 
must eventually obtain excellent re- 
sults. In the rural districts the schools 
are seldom costly structures, but they \ 
are customarily well adapted and sub- 

There are no reliable records as to 
the earliest settlers in Cedar county, 
but tradition usually comes near the 
mark in such matters, and such ru- 
mors and evidences have been consult- 
ed for our history. It seems probable 
that the earliest permanent settler 
came to the territory in 1836, but the 
improvements at first projected were 
not very extensive. It was the day of 
small things, but the new comers made 
the best of circumstances. 

The county was organized in the 
spring of 1838, an act to that effect 
having been passed by the territorial 
legislature in the preceding year, and 
the first election was held in March, 
1838, and the county seat was located 
at Tipton, in the center of the county. 

TrpTON, the county seat, is very hand- 
somely situated in the geographical 
center of the county, and it has three 
papers devoted to the interests of the 
city and county. The citj' comprises 
an area of over four hundred acres, 
located upon a high, gently rolling 
prairie, surrounded by farming lands, 
which are in the hands of men well 
qualified to make them do their best. 
The town was laid out in 1840, and set- 
tlement followed with little delay, but 
the growth has not been rapid. 

Clakbnce is located on the line of the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 
in the northern part of the county. 
The town is incorporated, and is grad- 
ually increasing, its main importance 
arising from the fact that it is the de- 
pot used by agriculturists in a flourish- 
ing country, pending opportunities 
for shipment, and that fact leads to 
other business. 

Mkchanicsvii,le is a town of con- 
siderable size, which will rise into 
still greater importance in the course 
of the next decade. There is a station 


TuTTLj/s History of Iowa. 

cf the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
road at Mechanicsville, and a large 
business is transacted; it is destined 
to be the depot of the northwest of Ce- 
dar county. 

London is an incorporated town, not 
yet very large, but being situated on 
the railroad, on the eastern line of the 
county, it will probably have consid- 
erable growth. 

Stanwood is situated on the same 
line of road, eight miles north of Tip- 
ton, near Clarence. 

DuRANT is a good shipping station 
on the Chicago, Kock Island and Paci- 
fic Railroad, in the southeast of the 
county. A large business is done there, 
and the town is incorporated. 

Downey is situated about forty 
miles west of Davenport, on the line 
of road last named. 

Centerdale is a station on the Bur- 
lington. Cedar Rapids and Minnesota 
Railroad, in the southwest of Cedar 

West Branch, on -the same line of 
road, does a good and increasing bus- 
iness in the midst of a good country. 

Massillon is a station on the Dav- 
enport and St. Paul Railroad, in the 
northeast of the county, and a good 
shipping business is transacted there. 

Rochester at one time might have 
been the county seat, but for the fact 
that Tipton came out ahead. It is one 
of the old towns located on Cedar riv- 
er, eight miles from the county seat. 

Cedar Blutfs, Gower's Ferry, Ireland 
and Springdale, are the small villages 
and postal stations in Cedar county. 

Cerro Gordo County is a county of 
twenty-four square miles, sixteen con- 
gressional townships, with an area of 
368,fi40 acres in northern Iowa. A sur- 
face pleasantly diversitied, more par- 
ticularly in the eastern portion may 
be given as a general description of the 
region. The valleys of numerous 
creeks and streams are excellent local- 
ities for farming operations, and the 
county is altogether well' drained and 
watered. The prairie lands are much 
broken, and in the northwest where the 
lowest range Is found there are exten- 
sive marshes, but as a rule the prairie 
lands are dry, rolling, and high, conse- 
quently well drained. The marshes 
will admit of easy drainage should 
new comers ;hink that work desirable. 
There is no considerable stretch of 

country anywhere in the county unfit 
for agricultural pursuits. 
Clear and rapidly running streams sus- 
tained by springs, may be said to be 
the rule in Cerro Gordo, and this fea- 
ture of the river system affords more 
numerous and valuable sites for mill- 
ing purposes here than in many other 
counties. Machinery drawn by water 
power upon the river banks will in 
the course of a few years at the farthest 
make land here very valuable. The 
east part of the county has the lead in 
the possession of the largest streams, 
in greater number, than the west. Shell- 
rock river, with whose name we are 
already familiar, flows from northwest 
to southeast through the county, and 
is quite a rapid stream, making its way 
through limestone beds and offering 
for improvement a great many excel- 
lent water powers. 

Lime river, also known as Lime 
creek, is a tributary of the Shellrock 
river and the most important stream 
for the county, as it affords a water 
course thirty miles in length, and ex- 
clusive of its numerous tributaries, it 
traverses five townships, draining and 
watering avast area of soil. Limestone 
furnishes the bed over which this creek 
or river meanders, and that fact will 
help our readers to an idea of the geo- 
logical formation of the country. One 
of the most important tributaries of the 
last mentioned stream is Willow creek, 
an outlet in part of Clear lake. The 
northern half of Cerro Gordo is well 
supplied by the streams just enumer- 
ated and their several confluents. The 
southern part of the county is supplied 
by Coldwater creek, Beaver Dam creek 
and their branches. 

Wells from ten to thirty feet deep 
will procure splendid water in any part 
of this count)', and there are few sec- 
tions which have not one or more 
beautiful springs. 

Clear lake is claimed to be the Sara- 
toga of the west, and is the only con- 
siderable body of water in the county. 
Its length is about six miles, its great. 
est breadth three miles, and its average 
about two miles. The greatest depth 
yet ascertained is twenty-five feet, and 
fish in great variety can be obtained 
there. Pike, pickerel, buffalo, bass 
and other descriptions of the finny tribe 
afford employment to some and sport 
to others during the proper season. 
The waves which sometimes dash with 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

great force against the margin of ttie 
lake, have washed away the soil until 
a wall of boulders has been reached 
which etfectually staj's encroachment. 
Several thousand acres of timber are 
massed at the south side and at the east 
end of the lake. The waters of the lake 
are at times as clear as lake Tahoe, and 
from that circumstance the distinctive 
name is taken. The bottom is covered 
with pebbles. The only outlet of the 
lake is Lime creek, which fed by such 
a body of water supplies an easily con 
trolled and constant power. A flour- 
ing mill has been built to avail itself 
of this motive, but there is room for 
much more enterprise. 

Timber is plentiful in the northern 
portion of the county, the common va- 
rieties being of course the bulk. Shell- 
rock river, Lime creek. Clear lake 
and extensions from the several locali- 
ties named are the main promoters of 
that liberal supply. In the east Owen's 
grove is mainly relied upon, and in 
the south Lime grove meets the wants 
of the settlers, as well for fuel as for 
lumber. The southwest is but ill sup 
plied with wood, but extensive peat 
marshes give fuel in exhaustless quan- 
tities. Twenty thousand acres of tim- 
ber is said to be now available in the 
county, and however rapidly popula- 
tion may increase, that bulk of grow- 
ing wood will meet all wants. 

Until the wonderful water powers 
just mentioned come to be fully im- 
proved, the main dependence of Cerro 
Gordo must be upon its fertile soil, at 
all times an indispensable adjunct to 
the highes* order of prosperity. When 
in the march of events property shall 
have reached its appreciation, and the 
demand for mills and factories shall 
have become developed, the rivers will 
have additional duties to perform in 
the work of enriching, as well as feed- 
ing the dwellers on their banks. 

Corn, wine and oil were in olden 
times considered necessary to the 
wealth of a people, but in modern days 
wine takes the place of oil with the 
major part of the dwellers in towns, 
with whom more potent and deadly 
stimulants are not deemed essential. 
When we grow wiser, oil will become 
popular as an article of diet, and there- 
upon the demand for stimulants will 
fradually die. The soil of Cerro Gor- 
o can be made to produce corn and 
oil in sufficient quantity, and the fruits, 

cereals and roots, good for man's suste- 
nance, and to feed his cattle during 
winter, can be raised there as favorably 
as in any other part of Iowa. 

Stone is plentiful as well for lime 
making as for direct use in building. 
Quarries of various extents have been 
opened in many parts of the county. 
The raagnesian limestone which has 
been mentioned several times else- 
where, can be procurred in its very 
best condition in this county, and is 
used for the very highest purposes as 
dressed stone and in heavy masonrj-. 
Other varieties of stone differing in 
color and texture have been found, but 
it is not practicable nor desirable that 
our pages should be converted into an 
exhaustive catalogue. 

Coal is not sought for in this county 
as the geological examination of the 
strata places the presence of that kind 
of fuel beyond hope, but timber is pres- 
ent, and can be raised in abundance, 
there are peat mosses of great extent, 
and there are all the advantages of rail- 
road transit to bring coal from other 
parts of this continent, while the rivers 
and other streams will give a cheap 
and endless motive power for all ma- 

Sand and clay are plentiful, and will 
be used largely to supplement the 
mineral wealth of building materals, 
already named. 

Clear lake was the camping ground 
of the first settlers in this county, 
where rude cabins were built in 1851. 
Elk and buffalo calves were the im- 
mediate objects of their pursuit, but 
circumstances mastered their roving 
intentions and they remained for the 
winter in their beautiful selection to 
which the}' afterwards caused their 
families to be brought. For some con- 
siderable time their nearest neigbors 
were fifty miles distant at Bradford, 
Chickasaw, where also only a very few 
families had congregated. Sometimes 
the Indians came among them revisit- 
ing old hunting grounds and fishing 
stations, but the red men were not ob- 
jects of disquietude among the adven- 
turous residents by Clear Lake. 

Two years later a settlement was 
made on Lime creek, and from that 
time onward the work of colonization 
went on by slow and irregular progres- 
sion until land was put into the mar. 
ket for sale ill 1854. The Indians have 
been mentioned as occasionallj- return- 

Sketches of Counties. 


ing to Clear Lake, which was now 
neuu-al territorj'. These were mostly 
Winnebagoes who were friendly to the 
whites. Some time afterwards when 
the friendly Winnebagoes came there 
to camp and fish, the Sioux came down 
in force to exterminate them and some 
blood was shed, but the settlers inter- 
fered on behalf of the Winnebagoes, 
and worse consequences were avoided. 
The Sioux gave trouble subsequently, 
but prudent courage terminated the 

Grazing and stock raising will long 
continue among the most profitable 
pursuits in Cerro Gordo county. Cli- 
mate, soil, and grasses unite with ex- 
cellent power to afibrd all that the 
good farmer wants to make those ven- 
tures successful and latterly the grow- 
ing demand for cheese has made dairy 
farming another and more valuable 
branch of the same occupation. 

Few counties in northern Iowa are 
better endowed with facilities for travel 
and traffic than Cerro Gordo. The 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul com- 
pany by their Iowa and Dakota divis- 
ion pass through the county near the 
center from east to west, and at Mason 
City that branch crosses the central 
railroad of Iowa. The Mason City 
and Minnesota railroad runs to Austin 
direct, from the first named city, and 
the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and 
Minnesota road also passes up tlie val- 
ley of the Shellrock. Thus nearly 
every section of the county is covered 
or reached by the iron road, and the 
steam horse is heard in the land. 

Mason City, the county seat of Cerro 
Gordo, is built on the banks of Lime 
creek, a few miles northeast of the 
geographical center. Masonic Grove 
was the name first given to the site, 
most of the early settlers there in 1854, 
being reverent followers of Hiram, and 
pursuers of the long lost secrets 
which he so resolutely defended. The 
town has good timber, good water, ex- 
cellent powers for machinery and un- 
exceptional railway facilities, added to 
which may be mentioned, a flourishing 
agricultural country to which it is the 
best outlet, and the seat for the admin- 
istration of its county business. The 
town is ver}- well built and the resi- 
dences are models of beauty. Most of 
the settlers came from New England 
and the eastern states. There is very 
little of the foreign element in the 

population of Mason City. The pub- 
lic school is a large building of stone, 
occupying and adorning a prominent 
position, and the manner in which it is 
directed is highly satisfactory. There 
are few towns of its size doing a more 
extensive and profitable trade than 
Mason City, and the nearness of the 
town to Clear Lake, only about six 
miles distant, makes tlie city a rendez- 
vous for pleasure seekers during the 

Clkak Lake was laid out in 1856, 
and being a station on the Milwaukee 
and St. Paul raUroad with good hotel 
accomodations, it becomes every year 
more favored by visitors to the beauty 
of the lake which it overlooks. 

Plymouth is a town ou the Shell- 
rock river, which was laid out in 1857. 

Rock Falls is about three miles be- 
low Plymouth on the same river, and 
was laid out two 3'ears earlier than 
that town. The water powers avail- 
able here will some day enrich the 

Rockwell is little more than a sta- 
tion on the Central railroad of Iowa, 
but being in the center of good farm- 
ing lands, the place must become im- 

Portland is similarly promising 
and for like reasons, on the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad. 

Cherokee County is of the accus- 
tomed dimensions, twenty four miles 
square and its average need not be 
stated. The county is well watered 
and drained, having numerous streams 
which flow south and southeast through 
its best vallies. Little Sioux river 
is one of the largest of those streams, 
and it flows diagonally across the 
whole extent of the county. West 
Branch is a tributary of Little Sioux 
which flows through and drains sev- 
eral townships ia the north. The west 
fork of Little Sioux flows through sev- 
eral townships before joining the main 
stream, and the waters are well sup- 
plied with fish excellent in quality 
and various in kind. 

The surface of the county is rolling 
and broken, but little of it beyond the 
skill of the agriculturist to improve, 
and the soil is of excellent quality, be- 
ing of the kind known as blufl' deposit 
with vegetable mould covering it, so 
that almost every growth desired by 
the farmers can be obtained from the 


TuTTLifs History of Iowa. 

willing earth. Little Sioux, Maple 
Creek and Mill Creek valleys are 
highly favored locations, a farm in 
either of which is provision for life 
for the fortunate occupants. There 
are fine groves of native timber along 
tlie several streams indicated and the 
scenery is largely improved thereby. 

Boulders of granite, red quartzite 
and magnesian lime stone are scattered 
plentifully over the prairies, but there 
have been no quarries worth mention- 
ing exposed, but clay is procurable 
and apparently must have been in re- 
quest here ages ago, as many speci- 
mens of the potterj' of the mound 
builders have been preserved here in 
their characteristic monuments. Their 
artificial eminences have attracted 
much notice along the course of 
Mill Creek, and it is possible that 
these burrows may be explored 
with advantage when their importance 
becomes more immediately apparent 
to the settlers. We should be as much 
interested in the records of >ur civli- 
zed predecessors on this continent as 
in the movements of the Babylonians, 
or the Ninevites as revealed by an- 
cient buildings buried beneath the dust 
of centuries, but there is a time for 

Beautiful water, where it does not 
force itself through the soil at the foot 
of the wayfarer, can always be obtained 
by sinking a well to a depth of a very 
few feet. The climate of this portion 
of Iowa challenges comparison with 
any other county in the state. Mill, 
sites can be found sufficient to cover 
all demands. 

The Milford, Massachusetts, Emi- 
gration Society, in the spring of 1856, 
sent a colony from that town to make 
a settlement in this portion of Iowa, 
every member being entitled to one 
hundred acres. The best timbered 
land of the Little Sioux river was thus 
selected at one heat, and the associa- 
tion went on with its work upon the 
cooperative principle, so far as that 
every member had an interest in the 
general prosperity. They were not all 
well qualified to become farmers, many 
having a positive genius for shoemak- 
ing, to which eventually they found 
their way back, greatly to the advan- 
tage of the understandings of their 

When the Sioux were on their way 
to the perpetration of the Spirit Lake 

massacre, they made a raid through 
this county, seizing the weapons of the 
settlers and offering violence to some 
who showed resistance, but no lives 
were lost during that time in Cherokee 
county. The effect of that raid and of 
the massacre which immediately fol- 
lowed, in 1857, cooperated with the 
great rebellion soon to commence to 
retard settlement here and elsewhere, 
or to call off those who had put their 
hands to the plow, and in any case to 
prevent improvements. There was a 
kind of block house built where the 
town of Cherokee now stands, and a 
band of soldiers there kept the peace 
of the neighborhood for a considerable 
time, but the ghost raised by the Spirit 
Lake massacre could not be exorcised. 
Until the year 1863 there were very 
few whites in the county. 

Pilot Rock is the best noted feature 
in the scenery of Cherokee county, and 
has long been a landmark for travelers 
across the prairies. The rock is a 
pinnacle of hard red granite, from 
which the top has been broken at dif- 
ferent times, the detached masses being 
scattered around its base, until the 
actual top is about twenty feet from 
the surface of the soil, and is a plain, 
tending toward a basin in the middle. 
This rock belongs to the boulder sys- 
tem of the glacial period; but having 
been in the country long before the 
oldest inhabitant, it is by many treated 
as a native; hence the broken and de- 
moralized aspect which Pilot Rock 
presents to the world at large. The 
rock is deeply imbedded in the soil. 

Cherokke is the county seat, and is 
located in an almost central position, 
at a point where the Dubuque and 
Sioux City railroad is intersected by 
the Little Sioux river, about midway 
between Sioux City and Fort Dodge. 
The site of the village is picturesque, as 
it is surrounded by gentle bluffs, which 
protect it partially from rude blasts, 
without shutting out the beauty of the 
landscape. The Sioux river winds its 
way to the south through the valley, 
going to its home in the bosom of 
Missouri. The waters of that stream 
are clear as crystal, and well stocked 
with fish. The timber on the banks 
of that river adds materially to the 
charms of the landscape, and it may 
be as well to say here that Cherokee 
county, taken for all in all, has more 
wooded land than ten of its neighbor- 

Sketches of Counties. 


ing counties massed together. The 
water in this county is equal to the 
best in Iowa. The village was located 
in August, 1870, although there had 
been a few buildings put up prior to 
that date. The first school house was 
erected in 1873, and that institution is 
presided over with due care to the best 
interests of the pupils. There are sev- 
eral handsome church edifices in the 

The growth of the county seat has 
been rapid but yet substantial, and it 
still continues to push ahead, every 
year adding materially to its business 
premises and the detached residences 
of its wealthier families. There is a 
very fine bank building and two news- 
papers are published in the village. 

AuRELiA is a village on the railroad, 
situated in the eastern part of Chero- 
kee county, and surrounded by fertile 
prairie, very beautiful to behold. The 
main support of the village arises from 
the facilities which it can afford for 
the shipment of produce. 

Hazakd is a small village, only six 
miles from the county seat, and situ- 
ated on the same line of railroad. The 
country around Hazard has a beautiful 
appearance, and being fertile, as well 
as moderately improved, the agricul- 
turists avail themselves largely of the 
village as a point of shipment for 
travel and freight. 

Marcus is a village much like Haz- 
ard, except for the fact that it has a fine 
little stream, known as Eleven Mile 
Run, which passes through the whole 
extent of the hamlet. The situation of 
the station on the same line of road 
as Hazard, six miles west of that place, 
makes it an object with many settlers 
to effect their shipment at that point. 

Pilot Rock and Washte are post- 
olfice stations only at present, but there 
are indications that before long resi- 
dences will surround these often vis- 
ited localities. 

Chickasaw County contains an area 
of five hundred and four square miles, 
in the northwest part of the state, in 
the third tier from the Mississippi 
river. The surface of Chickasaw 
county is more level than most of the 
counties named, but yet undulating 
pleasantly in most parts. A narrow 
strip of country in the southwestern 
township, near Cedar river, is the only 
rolling land in the county. The coun- 

ty is traversed by no Jess than seven 
streams of considerable size, flowing 
parallel to each other toward the south, 
east, and these, with their several trib- 
utaries and branches, drain and water 
the range of country abundantly. The 
rapid currents of these several streams 
have not cut deep into their channels 
so hard is the bed of rock which they 
traverse. The water powers of Chick- 
asaw county are very valuable, and a 
fair average of them have already been 
taken up and partially improved, but 
there will remain a large opening for 
the employment of capital and labor 
for many years to come, when manu- 
factories are demanded to supply the 
wants of the county, furnishing to the 
agriculturist an invaluable local mar- 
ket for all his produce. That time can- 
not be distant for Chickasaw. 

Following the several streams is a 
supply of timber, but not more than 
enough to meet the demands of a small 
population ; and when the country be- 
comes more thickly settled, it will be 
necessary for the farmers to plant arti- 
ficial groves, from which they will 
obtain good returns. The railroads 
have given facilities for the procure- 
ment of pine lumber from a distance, 
and the use of such material is more 
conducive to economy than the con- 
sumption of native woods. 

The presence of so many streams in 
the county would make it difficult to 
understand the poverty of timber men- 
tioned, but for the fact, that tradition 
and experience make known the preva- 
lence of prairie fires in the days pre- 
ceding settlement, and these visitations 
were terribly destructive to wood. 
Now that settlers possess the land 
and have adopted customary precau- 
tions to prevent conflagrations there 
are many small groves springing up, 
and within twenty years from date, 
even although no planting should 
be undertaken, the county will be- 
come mucli bettei wooded in propor- 
tion to an increased population than 
it is now, for the small numbers lo- 
cated. Along the Cedar river the best 
belts and groves are located in the 
southwest of Chickasaw county. 

The general character of the goo. 
logical formation shows limestone in 
different tints and thicknesses, and 
in some of the quarries the quality of 
stone exposed is very good. Materials 
for brickmaking can be found in 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

almost every locality, and lime being 
easily obtainable, building can go on 

When the county first claimed at- 
tention as a field for settemeut, it was 
feared that a large portion of the land 
was too low and wet for agricultural 
purposes, but upon more careful in- 
spection it was discovered that the 
circumstances which converted large 
areas into marsh were mainly acci- 
dental or trivial, and good drained 
land is now the rule. Manj- of the 
swamps complained of stood on high 
prairie, and in consequence, the very 
simplest operation sufficed to carry 
off the surplus moisture, leaving a soil 
of great value ready for profitable oc 
cupation. The natural drainage of 
the count}' is good, but the rivers hav- 
ing been unable to cut deep lines into 
the hard limestone, it often happened 
that the fall did not suffice to keep 
the land dry. The soil and subsoil 
are all that the most exigent farmer 
could desire. The wild grasses which 
have flourished on the surface for cen- 
turies sometimes rotting and occason- 
ally burnt off, have left a coating of 
vegetable mould upon a deep black 
loam which will not require dressing 
of any kind until some years of culti- 
vation have reduced its richness. The 
subsoil is of drift deposit underlaid 
by clay, gravel and sand, more or less 
intermixed. This formation is not 
well adapted for drainage, but a few 
trenches in convenient positions sup- 
ply every shortcoming. As soon as 
cultivation commenced, the faults of 
the countj' began to disappear, and 
there is now a very general content- 
ment with the drainage possibilities 
of the county. The plow is the best 
remedial agent. The land which has 
cost most trouble in breaking it into 
service is found to be most enduring 
now that it is available for use, and 
the productiveness of the farm lands 
in Chickasaw, in proportion to their 
e.itent, will bear favorable comparison 
with those of any other settled county 
in the union. 

Wheat, corn, oats and barley, are the 
principal grai n products of Chickasaw 
county, wheat taking the lead. The 
farmers have given their attention to 
stock raising, and the luxuriance of 
native and tame grasses makes the 
country specially suitable for that 
branch of enterprise. Mixed farming 

is found to be the best hold in this 
county, and the greater breadth of oc- 
cupations has many advantages, as it 
permits of rotation in crops and con- 
stant renewal of fertility. The county 
produces all the farm growths neces- 
sary for domestic and general con- 
sumption, leaving always a fair sur- 
plus for market. 

There are but few quarries of build- 
ing stone at present exposed, but the 
quality and quantity of lime stone 
observable in beds of the numerous 
streams may be accepted as a guaran- 
ty that materials for building will 
never stand at a verj- high premium. 
The agicultural resources of the county 
must constitute the main reliance of 
the present generation of settlers, but 
eventually, the well endowed sons of 
the present race of farmers will be- 
come manufacturers, giving employ- 
ment to thousands where a few hun- 
dreds are now fighting the battle of 
life. Flouring mills have been estab- 
lished at convenient points, but the 
highest value must some day, before 
long, be obtained by the adaptation of 
the unrivalled water powers of the 
streams to the highest orders of ma- 
chinery. The manufacture of woolen 
goods, agricultural implements and 
other such industries, will come next 
in order of succession. 

Railroads traverse the county in sev- 
eral directions in the manner which we 
will endeavor to make clear. The 
Iowa and Dakota division of the Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul runs from east to 
west, having stations located at New 
Hampton, Lawler and Chickasaw. 
The Illinois Central Railroad, by its 
Cedar Falls and Minnesota branch 
crosses the southwest of the county 
with a station at ISIashua. Two roads 
rapidly approaching completion cross 
diagonally from the city of Dubuque, 
and have reached Fayette already on 
their way to occupy the central sta- 
tions of the county. 

Next in importance to railroad traf- 
fic, if not even before that item in im- 
portance, is the matter of public 
schools, and in that respect the citi- 
zens of Chickasaw county have never 
objected to reasonable taxation. The 
schools are well organized. 

The settlement of Chickasaw county 
dates from 1852, near the point where 
Bradford is located, on the east side 
of the Little Cedar River, near its 


Tuttlb's History of Iowa. 

juncUon -witli the main Cedar river. 
Two years later, many persons came, 
following the pioneers, and desirous 
to enter into tlieir labors. There was 
was an attempt to organize the county 
in 18j3, early in the spring, but some 
of the movements having been ad- 
judged informal, the act of organiza 
tion stood over to August of that year, 
when the desirable object was accom 
plished. Chickasaw was then named 
as the county seat, but a change was 
subsequently made to New Hampton. 

New Hampton, the county seat was 
incorporated in 1873, and it occupies 
the geographical center of the county. 
The town contains one thousanrl in- 
habitants and the health rate of the 
locality is very good. The drainage 
of the place could hardly be improved, 
so well was the work of selection done 
when the town was first platted. The 
public school is a commodious build- 
ing in which a graded school of four 
departments is conducted, and the av- 
erage of attendance is good. The 
claims of New Hampton to be the seat 
of justice and administration have been 
disputed by Forest City, but the vote 
of the county gave the preference to 
the present location. The court house 
was built in 1865, but the authorities 
chose to incur but little expense in 
raising the edifice, hence, it is suffi- 
ciently commodious without being or- 
nate or costly. The Chickasaw coun- 
ty agricultural society has extensive 
grounds and the necessary buildings 
near this town. 

Nashtia is an important town in the 
southwest of the county, near a bend 
of the Cedar river and within easy 
reach of the largest body of timber 
in the county. The confluence of the 
Little Cedar with the main river oc- 
curs near this little town. The river 
valley, now that the stream has worn 
its way down into the underlying- 
strata, aJfords an excellent plateau of 
high and dry land beyond the reach of 
floods and upon that table the town 
was platted. It has inclination toward 
the river sufficient to secure drainage, 
and the town is sheltered from strong 
winds. The surrounding and enclos- 
ing timber is beautiful as well as valu- 
able. The Cedar river afl'ords excel- 
lent water powers and a good flouring 
mill is already established near the 
town. The Cedar Falls and Minnesota 
division of the Illinois Central rail- 1 

road passes the east side of the town 
and then crossing the river makes its 
way towards the north. This line of 
r jad is of great value to Nashua, as 
there is an extensive depot established 
in connection with which elevators 
and warehouses have been found 
necessary to facilitate shipments of 
produce. The commercial import- 
ance of Nashua must increase steadily, 
as there is a very extensive agricultur- 
al country, parts of three counties, 
which must long continue to make 
that town the headquarters of their 
business. Handsome residences and 
commodious business premises are the 
rule in Nashua, and the prevalence of 
shade trees gives an air of ele- 
gance to the place. This section 
of Cedar Valley has long carried 
the palm for the value of efl'ect- 
ed improvements and for the produc- 
tiveness of soil which has warranted 
so much outlay. The same features 
continuing to exercise their proper 
influence on the growth of the com- 
munity must build up Nashua to 
great wealth. Waverly is in one di- 
rection the first large town which can 
enter into competition for the bus- 
iness of the districts served ; Nashua, 
and Charles City on the other direc- 
tion, but neither of these will prevent 
tliis beautiful growing town from ag- 
gregating a very large share of pros- 
perity from many sources. 

There is an agricultural society with 
its headquarters in Nashua, and a good 
trotting park association, which hold 
their grounds in common near the 
track of the railroad. The public 
school building is an admirable struc- 
ture, and the afl'airs of that institution 
are well administered. The town has 
good banking accommodations, a large 
staff of professional residents and a 
live newspaper, and is incorporated as 
a city of the second class. Good 
building stone is easily obtainable, and 
there is a fine quality of clay used in 
brick making. 

Lawler is on the line of the Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul railroad in the 
eastern part of Chickasaw county, and 
is a shipping point of considerable 
value, as it commands the support of 
a very rich agricultural country, and 
has u fair share of prosperity. 

Chickasaw is mainly dependent on 
the shipping facilities which it can 
give to the farming community near 

Sketches of Counties. 


the center of the county. The old vil- 
lage is two miles west of the railroad, 
but the new village called Ionia in the 
records is custoniarily denominated 
Chickasaw. As a trading point the 
village ranks high, although nearness 
to New Hampton is not an advantage 
to the residents there. 

Bassett is a station on the railroad 
near the eastern boundary of Chicka- 
saw county, and the shipping business 
that is done there assures a large share 
of labor continually. 

Fredebicksbukg in the southeast 
of the county is a village on the east 
Wapsipinicon, surrounded by a fertile 
country, occupied by a lively com- 
munity of farmers bound to go ahead. 

Bradford was the first location of 
the county seat before the superior 
merits of New Hampton secured the 
vote of the county. Its natural ad- 
vantages once commanded attention as 
the most important point in the coun- 
ty, but in consequence of the railroad 
lines turning awaj' from the little cen- 
ter of prosperity, Nashua carried the 
palm away from Bradford. 

Jacksonville is in the northwest, 
and is located on Crane creek, where 
its importanee as a village will be 
recognized by and by. 

Besides the towns and village's 
named, there are posloffices at Deer- 
field, North Washington, Stapleton 
and Williamstown. 

Clarke County is in the southwest 
of Iowa, and is one of the small coun- 
ties of the state, being twenty-four 
miles in length by eighteen in breadth, 
containing 276,480 acres. The general 
surface of the county is high, undulat- 
ing and rolling prairie, and it has no 
large streams, but its small creeks are 
numerous and the land is well drained 
and watered. The Charlton river, 
Whitebreast, Bee creek and Long 
creek occupy the central and southern 
portion. South Squaw, North Squaw, 
Brush and other creeks flow through 
and across the east and northeast. The 
west and northwest have Seven Mile 
creek and South river, and these 
streams at all seasons of the year 
when water can flow, furnish abund- 
ant supplies for stock. Many sm:iller 
streams which have not been named 
are j et valuable, and many of these 
have their origin in clear and copious 
springs which welled forth from the 

virgin soil before it was pressed by the 
foot of the white man 

The waters which flow over Clarke 
county are in a large degree tributary 
to the Mississippi river, about one- 
third only flowing to the Missouri. 
Well water can be obtained custom- 
arily at a depth of about twenty feet. 
Along all the principal of these streams 
timber is more or less abundant, and 
there is not a township in the county 
which has not a supply. The south- 
east and southwest are the sections 
most liberally endowed by nature in 
this respect. Troy, Ward, \Vashington 
and Madison, in the northwest, have 
the least. The timber is of good qual- 
ity ; but the work of denudation which 
is incident to a rapidly settled country, 
must be counterbalanced by protection 
to young groves, or the continuous 
planting by farmers. This matter has 
alreadj- attracted the attention of set- 
tlers, and before many years the supply 
will be much larger than it is now. 
Pine lumber brought from a distance 
by the railroads is now much used for 
buildings and fences, and from its 
cheapness that consumption may be 
expected to continue. It has been noted 
that wherever hazel trees prevail, as is 
the case in some parts of the county, 
the soil has special fitness for growing 

The geology of Iowa gives to this 
county the upper coal measure alone 
underlying the drift deposit. Good 
building stone has been obtained from 
quarries easily exposed, and limestone 
is abundant. Clay, for the manufac- 
ture of bricks, has been procured in 
man}' places, and sand is readily avail- 
able ; consequently there will be no 
dearth of materials for building; but 
coal, should it ever be found in such 
quantities as to warrant the employ- 
ment of labor, must be procured by 
deep mining in the most favored local- 

Corn takes the lead among the pro- 
ductions of Clarke county, but oats, 
barley and wheat are also largely 
raised. Stock has been for some time 
one of the smaller staples, but it is 
probable that in consequence of the 
success with which all grasses can be 
cultivated, that the branch of enterprise 
named will come into greater promi- 
nence. Fruit growing has become a 
settled and profitable industry. Osage 
orange fences have been largely con- 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

structcd, aud they serve many purposes 
■which are high!}' appreciated by the 
farmers. Among other good results 
from their planting and growth, they 
afford protection against the strong 
winds prevalent in the county. 

The year 1846 saw the first white 
settlement in Clarke county, when a 
little colony of " Latter Day Saints," 
who were on their way from Nauvoo 
to cross the desert, lost themselves in 
this section of country, and established 
a home for their families in what they 
called " Lost Camp." The Mormons 
remained several years in that location, 
being joined by other wanderers from 
the Illinois* abode; but eventually 
when Gentiles came into the country 
in numbers, they moved off; but 
whether they crossed the plains to 
Utah, or merely went further west, this 
deponent saith not. Perhaps the wan- 
derers who remained so long off the 
track of the other saints were not very 
desirous to join their fortunes with the 
great body that rendezvoused at Coun- 
cil Bluffs, being prudently willing to 
wait the course of events under the 
leadership of Brigham Young. 

Gentile settlers came to the county 
in 1850, and from that time there was 
an approach toward organization, the 
necessary steps in that direction being 
taken in the session of legislature of 
1850-51. August, 1851, saw the first 
election, and the county seat was lo- 
cated at Osceola, in the same month. 
Osceola now stapds upon an area of 
two hundred and fifty acres, having 
been largely increased since the day 
of small things. When the great re- 
bellion broke out, Clarke county was 
patriotic to the core, and in every in- 
stance when drafts were made the quo- 
tas were largely exceeded. This is a 
record of great value, as it exhibits the 
morale of the settlement from its very 
earliest beginning. 

The Burlington and Missouri River 
Railroad gives to several points in the 
county facilities for shipment and 
travel as it passes through from east to 
west having Stations at Osceola, AVood- 
burn, and Murray. The prosecution 
oi the works in connection with that 
road gave an impetus to settlement and 
production which is highly appreci- 
ated by residents, and will continue to 
affect the status of the county as a field 
for an ever extending population. 

OscEOiiA is not a great city, but its 

position and beauty entitle it lo notice 
Three miles noitheast of the town is 
the poor farm, on which persons re- 
duced to want within the county are 
located. The land was purchased in 
Januar}', 1875, and about $2,000 have 
since been expended in improvements 
upon the two hundred acres of which 
it consists. The institution works 
well. The town lies on a broad tract 
of prairie land, and its position is such 
as to facilitate drainage. The streets 
are wide, and provided with shade 
trees. There is a central square around 
which the principal business houses 
have been erected and the place bears 
a good reputation for commercial 
soundness and general health. As a 
shipping point, Osceola commands a 
large share of business, as much grain 
and live stock are raised in the sur- 
rounding country, and besides that ad- 
vantage, it is also the site of a woolen 
mill. In the year 1868, there was a 
public school building erected at a 
cost of $23,000, and it is now proposed 
to add thereto at a cost of $8,000, from 
which facts it will be understood that 
the citizens are as solicitous as could 
be desired for the welfare of the rising 
generation. The building is architect- 
urally handsome, and the management 
of the school is progressive and effi- 
cient. There are several newspapers 
published in the town of Osceola, and 
the banking institutions therein de- 
serve mention. 

WooDBTiRN is a very enterprising 
village on the line of railroad already 
mentioned, the Burlington and Mis- 
souri, and the station there attracts a 
large average of business of all kinds. 
The village is ten miles east from Os- 

Murray is another village mainly 
dependent for its prosperity upon the 
Burlington and Missouri road, which 
has a station there, ten miles west from 
Osceola. The surrounding agricultu- 
ral country from considerable dist- 
ances, drive their stock and bring 
their produce to this thriving little 

HopviLLE, Smyrna, Liberty, La- 
CELLE, Gbeen B.\y aud Prairie 
Grove are villages of small extent, 
which wait for some special impetus 
to rise into importance. They are lo- 
cated in positions which will eventu- 
ally secure for them railway commu- 
nications east and west, and from that 

Sketches of Cou^'rIES. 


time, come when it may, the future of 
their fortunes will be assured. 

Clay County is located in the north- 
west of the state, and is twenty-four 
miles square, consequently it contains 
368,640 acres. The county is drained 
and watered in nearly every part by 
the Little Sioux river and its numerous 
tributaries, which extends by numer- 
ous windings to fully seventy miles in 
the county, and gives a large number 
of water powers, which must eventu- 
ally attract the attention of manufac- 
turers. Ocheyedan creek is the largest 
of the Little Sioux's tributaries, and 
there are fertile valleys through which 
both streams flow to their junction 
near the town of Spencer. Willow, 
Prairie, Muddy, and Henry creeks also 
deserve notice. There are several 
small lakes in the eastern part of the 
county, prominent among which are 
Lost Island Lake, Swan, Pickerel, Vir- 
gin, and Mud, besides other lakes of 
too little volume to be named. There 
are tish in abundance in the several 
lakes and streams. 

This part of the state is not favored 
by nature in the matter of timber, but 
this county is more fortunate than 
some of its neighbors, and the soil will 
respond liberally should groves be 
planted. The surface of the county 
undulates pleasantly, and it is said by 
those who are competent to pronounce, 
that it has no waste land, every acre 
being capable of growing the staple 
products of the county, such as wheat, 
corn, roots, oats, and grass. Nutritious 
wild grasses and pure water in abund- 
ance will make this county the para- 
dise of farmers, who will unite grazing 
to their other pursuits. 

The first white families that came 
into the county to settle drove their 
stakes in 1856, and the little colony 
was barely twelve months old, when 
the Sioux, on their way to the Spirit 
Lake massacre, made their raid 
through the territory, destroying prop- 
erty, and driving otf stock in a spirit 
of pure wantonness. The conduct of 
the Sioux on this occasion depopu- 
lated the county, as all the families 
cleared out, and did not return until 
many months had elapsed. 

The organization of the county was 
eflected in October, 1858, and the coun- 
ty seat was located at Peterson, to 
meet the wishes of the bulk of the set^ 

tiers, who were in the southwest cor- 
ner of the county, but when at ft later 
date the population had become more 
diffused, the location was abandoned. 
Peterson had the advantage of a large 
body of timber, and a good water pow. 
er in the Little Sioux river, which was 
used to drive a sawmill, but the place 
has not made much progress. 

Spekcbr is now the county seat, hav- 
ing succeeded to the honors relin- 
quished by Peterson. The town is sit- 
uated on the east side of the Little 
Sioux river, in a broad and fertile val- 
ley. The first settlement on this spot, 
appears to have been made in 1869. 
The river affords several good powers 
at and near the town, and beyond ques- 
tion the place will become noted for 
its factories, but its growth has not 
been rapid. The first settler upon the 
Little Sioux river, at this point, would 
have located the town on the opposite 
side of the river from that on which it 
stands, but immediately after the town 
was platted, and before his own resi- 
dence had been commenced, the pro- 
jector left for the war in the south, and 
his intentions were frustrated. 

Clayton County is bounded in part 
by the Mississippi river, and it em- 
braces an area of seven hundred and 
ninety-two square miles. Seven of its 
townships front the Mississippi. Gen- 
erally the surface of the country is 
rolling, but along the streams and 
water courses a rough and broken 
aspect presents itself Bold and pre- 
cipitous bluffs look down upon the 
deep channels cut by the rivers in this 
countj', in some cases several hundred 
feet. Here and there can, however, be 
found bordering the streams small val- 
leys of bottom lands, which are excep- 
tionally fertile. The uplands are at 
their best about six hundred feet above 
the Mississippi level, where the surface 
becomes a beautiful agricultural coun- 
try, undulating, well drained, product- 
ive, and healthful as any portion of" 
northern Iowa. One-third of the coun-- 
ty is prairie, and of the remainder a, 
considerable portion is wooded land.. 

There are three prairies in this coun- 
ty which are deemed sufficiently im- 
portant to be described. High prairie 
is the largest, and it varies in width 
considerably, being at its widest six 
miles across, and at its least expansion 
only one. Commencing at a point 

TvTTLifs History of Iowa. 

three miles west of the Mississippi, it 
runs to the northern line of the county',! 
gradually receding from the river. I 

Between the rivers Turkey and Vol- 
ga, is another prairie of less extent,* 
stretching to the northwest until bro-' 
ken by a belt of openings. This prai^ 
rie rolls more considerably than High 
prairie, and its undulations are much 
more abrupt. 

Garden prairie extends across the 
southwest of Clayton count)', varj'ing 
from one mile to three miles in width, 
and the land is thickly settled, being 
well watered and much less broken 
than the others. Besides these there 
are many smaller prairies, which dot 
the county in all directions, and are 
valued as locations for grazing and 
stock raising farms, second to none in 
the state of Iowa. Water can be easily 
obtained anywhere, and timber is suf- 
ficiently abundant for all purposes. 

The prairies, generally, have a deep 
black loam, the bottom lands have a 
rich alluvium, and elsewhere, in wliat 
are known among geologists as the 
" driftless " areas, the soil is commonly 
thin, and comparatively of little ac- 
count. The wide diversity of soil thus 
indicated admits of a very great range 
of productions, and the intuitions of 
scientific culture will probablj- show 
that the lands assumed to be least val- 
uable have special adaptations which 
can be improved to ver}- good advan- 

On either side of the Turkej- river 
and many of the other streams present 
the same characteristics; the land is 
timbered from one to five miles in ex- 
tent, the woods being generally the 
same as those named in other counties, 
and all indigenous to Clayton county. 

Turiiey river is the largest stream in 
the county ; it varies from two to four 
chains in widtli, and runs with great 
rapidity through no less than eight 
townships. The bed of the river is 
mostly limestone pebbles and sand, 
and it runs between high, rocky blufis 
•which 'sometimes expand into broad 
valleys nearly a mile across. . This 
river has for its main tributaries from 
the north. Dry Mill, Cedar and Pony 
creeks ; from the south the stream is fed 
by Little Turkey, Blue Belt, Elk creek. 
Peck's Branch, and Volga river. Vol- 
ga river is a deep and rapid stream 
■which flows through four townships. 
The bottom is of erravel mainly, and 

the river averages one chain in width. 
Deep slopes come down to the river's 
bank, geuerallj-, but at rare intervals 
there are valleys and bottom lauds of 
great fertilitj'. The principal feeders 
come from the south, and bear the 
names of Honey, Cox, and Bear creeks. 
There are other streams of less mo- 
ment which need not be enumerated 

Along the river banks there are ex- 
posed valuable stones for building pur- 
poses, such as magnesian limestone, 
St. Peter sandstone, Potsdam sand, 
stone, and the Trenton limestone. The 
geological strata in this county might 
be made the text for an interesting dis- 
course on the theory of upheaval, but 
the temptation must be postponed, and 
the boulders left to preach their own 

Some lead has been found mixed 
with silver in this county, but there 
does not appear to be enough of that 
material to merit special outlay. It is 
of much greater importance to the 
welfare of the state that lime and build- 
ing materials are plentiful. Some of 
the clay discovered has been made into 
excellent pottery. 

Before the territory of Iowa was or- 
ganized, the legislature of Wisconsin 
passed an act, in 1837, authorizing the 
establishment of Clayton county. The 
first settlement had been made five 
years or more before that date, on 
Turkey river, four miles from its 
mouth, and before that time a cabin 
had been built by a ferryman lower 
down on the banks of that stream. 
Most of those persons who came early 
to this country, were searching for 
lead, moved thereto by the excitement 
produced in Dubuque and Galena. 
The several efforts at settlement which 
have resulted at length in the prosper- 
ity now visible in Clayton county 
would require a volume to treat them 
with appropriate detail, and in the ab 
sence of such space it must suffice to 
say that the work of organization was, 
after many perturbations, successfully 
accomplished, and the county has pros- 

Prairie La Porte was at one lime the 
county seat; the next location was 
named Jacksonville, but upon some 
agitation being manifested, the same 
was changed to Garnavillo. The town 
of Gutteuberg contested the honor, but 
was not successful, and the present 


TvTTLifs History of Iowa. 

site was not resolved upoa until the 
year 1860. 

Elkader is the countj- seat, having 
been chosen for that honor by a large 
popular vote in 1860. The county has 
no court house, but a hall is rented for 
the purposes of administration, and 
the county oflJces are kept in a brick 
building with fire proof vaults, con- 
structed for that purpose in 1866. 
The jail is a substantial building, such 
as few thieves would like to lind them- 
selves lodged in, as the floors are of 
stone and the walls lined with boiler 
iron. Elkader is located on both sides 
• of the Turkey river, near the geo- 
graphical center of the county. The 
scenery is delightful. The town is 
built on table land, slightly rising un- 
til it suddenly descends by a steep de- 
clivity toward the right bank of the 
river. On the east the bank rises 
higher before reaching the table land, 
and from thence a fresh ascent leads 
to a series of undulating heights of 
very charming appearance. The sev- 
eral undulations have been partially 
improved by the location of residences 
more or less ornamental and nearly 
all adorned with trees. The river, 
flowing below with a rapid current, 
affords numerous powers which, when 
thoroughly in operation, will lead to 
still more charming residences being 
erected on the higher lands, supported 
by the waters which now idly murmur 
at the inutility to which its mechani- 
cal force seems doomed. 

A large flouring mill is the only in- 
dustry yet established to improve the 
Turkey river at this point. The town 
site was first selected as a residence in 
1836. The Indians having stolen the 
horses of some explorers led almost 
immediately to the location at Elka- 
der, and the place has gone on steadily 
increasing from that time. The man 
who thus determined the village site 
is still living in the town and is now 
ninety-four years of age. 

The town does a large shipping bu- 
siness in live hogs, dressed hogs and 
other products which aggregate large- 
ly. The line by which this iraffic is 
carried on is the narrow guage rail- 
road, which intersects the Milwaukee 
and St. Paul Railroad at Bulah, with- 
out which the greatness of Elkader 
must sulfer a decline. 

The town has a fine school building 
in which there are four grades culmi- 

nating in the high school, with an ad- 
ditional department for tuition in Ger- 
man. The schools are supplied with 
all the modern improvements and the 
teachers are fully up to their work. 
The number of pupils averages 280, 
and there are five teachers. Besides 
this institution there is a private 
school under the immediate supervis- 
ion and patronage of the Catholic 
church. There are several newspapers 
published in Elkader, and the town 
generally takes a high stand. 

McGregor is situated on the bank 
of the Mississippi, opposite Prairie 
du Chien, one hundred and ninety- 
nine miles from Milwaukee, by the 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, 
which crosses the river at this point, 
and gives the town access to a valua- 
ble line of travel through the north- 
west. The Chicago, Dubuque and 
Minnesota Railroad, running from 
Chicago to Dubuque, passes through 
McGregor to Winona, Minnesota, 
where it connects with other valuable 
lines. In the year 1857, McGregor 
was a village of less than three hun- 
dred souls, and now its population ex- 
ceeds four thousand, and there is be- 
fore this lively and wide awake town 
a very prosperous future. Northern 
Iowa and southern Minnesota find in 
this town their best outlet, and the 
success of the younger town is a kill- 
ing commentary on the lifelessness of 
the town on the further bank. During 
the seasons when the river can be nav- 
igated there are boats of the best de- 
scription to be availed of for travel to 
St. Paul, on the one hand, or to Du- 
buque and St. Louis on the other. 
Crossing the river to Prairie du Chien 
another range of travel and traffic 
opens up, and the commercial advan- 
tages of this center of business can 
hardly be overstated. 

The early French traders named the 
ravine, in which McGregor is built, 
" Coolie de Sioux." The bluffs rise on 
either hand to a height of four hun- 
dred feet, and the position has beauty 
as well as convenience to recommend 
it. A ferry from Prairie du Chien was 
established in 1836, by the man from 
whom the town took its name, and the 
place was at once known for miles 
around as McGregor's landing. From 
that date the town slowly rose and in 
spite of diversions which were made 
at one time to diminish its importance. 

Sketches of Counties. 


Tlie cabin built by McGregor, the fer- 
ryman, marked tlie beginning of tlie 
new great commercial center. The 
village was incorporated in 1857, and 
its improvements would alone serve 
to testify the growth of which it is ca- 
pable. There is a considerable share 
of manufacturing effected in the town, 
and the records, which have been ob- 
tained to show the amount of business 
transacted within twelve months, 
show a total of nearly sixteen million 

McGregor has a trout pond, one of 
the finest in the west, and the work of 
pisciculture is pursued wisely and 
well by its managers, who can already 
point to very satisfactory results. 

The largest graded school in Clay- 
ton county is located at McGregor, 
where four hundred scholars are en- 
rolled, out of a population showing 
more than twice that number within 
the school attending ages, and an av- 
erage attendance of nearly three hun- 
dred. Some day the Prussian system 
of compulsory tuition may have to be 
resorted to in this country unless there 
is a more general taking hold of the 
advantages which good schooling can 
confer. The idea seems repugnant to 
the genius of our institutions, but jus- 
tice to the rising generation, to whom 
the task of governing the union will 
be handed over in the course of the 
next thirty years at farthest, forbids 
that a sacred duty should be neglected 
merely to suit the whims of sickly 
sentiment. It is useless to make pro- 
vision unless those for whom schools 
are specially wanted can be made par- 
ticipants in the benefit. The school 
at McGregor is graded as primary 
school, grammar school and high 
school, and the staff' of teachers em- 
ployed is about as efficient as could 
be desired. German is also taught in 
the school as a special department. 

There are several papers published 
in McGregor, two of them being very 
admirable sheets. 

GOTTENBEBG would have been the 
county seat still, as it was at one time, 
but that the popular voice ruled other- 
wise throughout the county; and the 
location of the town on the bank of 
the Mississippi, away from the center 
of the region, over which its citizens 
aspired to rule, justified the negative 
with which the demand was met and 
ended. The town is situated on a very 

beautiful prairie, extending from the 
base of the bluffs half a mile eastward 
to the river, and about three miles 
long. The early name of the town 
was Prairie !a Porte, or "The Door 
Prairie," for which appellation it was 
indebted to French missionaries. The 
Chicago, Dubuque and Minnesota rail- 
road supplements the advantages of 
river navigation for Guttenberg, and 
that gives the town peculiar facilities 
for the shipment of produce, and for 
the transaction of other business. 

The town was laid out in 1837 ; soon 
after which the county seat was lo- 
cated here. The struggles for the 
the county seat have already been de- 
scribed, and it would be a work of 
supererogation to go over the same 
ground here. When the town was in- 
corporated, in 1851, there were only 
three hundred persons in the place; 
and from that time to the present, the 

frowth of Guttenberg has been steady, 
'he town has progressed in substan- 
tial improvements, every year being 
marked by better business premises 
and handsomer residences than had 
been possible, until that time in the 

Stone for building purposes can be 
procured readily ; and advantage has 
been taken of that fact to improve the 
aspect of Guttenberg, most of the 
buildings being erected from the quar- 
ries in the bluffs back of the town. 
There is a steam ferry boat which 
crosses the river to Glen Haven, three 
miles up on the Wisconsin side. The 
town is supplied with good schools. 

Gaknavillo is twelve miles south- 
west from McGregor, and six miles 
from the Mississippi. This town was 
once known as Jacksonville and was 
at that time the county seat. The vil- 
lage is located on a fine prairie, beauti- 
ful and fertile, with abundant timber 
near at hand. The town was twice 
the county seat, but the permanent 
settlement is supposed to be now 
reached at Elkader. 

Clayton is a town in the county of 
the same name, situated on the west 
bank of the Mississippi, ten miles 
above Guttenberg and the like dis- 
tance below McGregor. The steam- 
boat landing at Clayton very mate- 
rially assists the growth of the town, 
and the fact that it has a station of the 
Chicago, Dubuque and Minnesota rail- 
road, still further increases its busi- 


TuTTLhfs History of Iowa. 

ness. The rich county, of^ which it is 
the natural outlet by river or rail, is 
reached by good roads which continue 
and branch from the main street of 
Clayton, through the ravine which 
first marked out this site as the loca- 
tion for a town. Shippers coming 
here with their produce for shipment 
to destinations more or less remote, 
make this town their point of supply, 
and mutual advantage results. The 
population is about one thousand, and 
there is a good graded school, well 
administered and appointed to supply 
the needs of youth ; and good results 
have been attained. 

Clinton County is in the great east- 
ern bend of the Mississippi river, 
nearly midway on the eastern bound- 
ary of Iowa. The tirst railroad that 
sought to push its way westward 
toward the ilissouri river across the 
state, made Clinton county its point 
of departure. The heat of summer in 
this region is modified by northern 
breezes, and the rigor of winter is les- 
sened by southern winds. The county 
embraces an area of seven hundred 
and twenty square miles, being thirt}'- 
six miles long by eighteen miles wide. 
The Mississippi forms the eastern 
boundary of Clinton county, and its 
advantages therein cannot be euumer- 
ated. Before the railroads came into 
the county, the river carried merchan- 
dise to and fro, exchanging surplus 
produce for foreign supplies; and the 
locations which had the great riparian 
privilege, reaped profits proportion- 
ately great. With the railroads have 
come more enterprise, and advantages 
more widely diffused throughout great- 
er areas of country ; but the few towns 
which enjoyed special advantages, 
have not flourished in the same pro- 
portion as they once did. Actually 
they may be much belter off, but rela- 
tively they stand back from the posi- 
tions they once hoped to keep forever. 

The Wapsipinicon river crosses the 
southwest corner of the county, and 
becomes, in part, the southern bound- 
ary. The stream is clear and beautiful, 
aud has many considerable tributaries, 
among which are Big Rock, Brophy's 
and Silver creeks. North aud east the 
county is watered and drained by 
Deep creek. Elk creek, Sugar creek 
and Mill creek. Small lakes or ponds 
are also found in many locations; and 

springs are very numerous iu the 
county. Wells, easily dug, obtain cold 
and sparkling water at a depth of lit- 
tle more than twenty feet; and gener- 
ally it may be said the county is ex- 
cellently watered and drained. 

Groves of timber, varying in extent, 
are found on the borders of the several 
streams, the varieties being those com- 
mon to the state. There is so liberal 
a supply of timber that it is largely 
used for fuel ; and many of the settlers 
plant groves for such and similar pur- 
poses. The prairie lands are being 
dotted over with such groves, which 
may, in course of time, change the 
whole face of the country. The sur- 
face of the country rolls and undulates 
in such manners that there is no actual 
sameness to mar the scenic effect, and 
yet there is a uniformity of drainage, 
and a soil easy of cultivation almost 
everywhere. Near the Wapsipinicon 
and, yet more so, near the Great river, 
there is ground so bluffy and uneven 
that the agriculturist may well be puz- 
zled to know what present profit may 
be procured from them ; but these are 
very marked exceptions to the contour 
of the county. The deep, dark mould 
of the soil holds the rich accretions of 
centuries, waiting to enrich the hus- 
bandman whether he turns his atten- 
tion to fruit or to cereals, to root crops 
or to cattle. The grasses which spring 
up on the plains are nutritious to a 
degree seldom realized ; and graziers 
will, in the near future, make Clinton 
their stronghold in Iowa. 

Near the large streams the soil is 
not quite so productive and various in 
its powers as on the prairies, and 
among the groves where the rotting 
vegetation of unnumbered ages has 
given its best properties to the earth. 
Probably the land less worthy bf gen- 
eral cultivation will be found adapted 
for hardy grapes in good aspects. 
The preparation of raisins for the east- 
ern demand will some day become a 
very profitable industry in this country 
and the vine will cover millions of 
so called barren lands with a garment 
of beauty, which will employ an im- 
mense population. The surplus pro- 
ductions of this county will increase 
with every year, no matter how con- 
tinuous and rapid may be its increase 
of population. It would be superflu- 
ous to enumerate the vegetal wealth 
which such a county can send into 

Sketches of Covxties. 


the markets of the world. The dairy 
farmer will send its cheese to Europe 
after the demands of the east and nearer 
home have been supplied. The fruits 
which will be gathered from orchards 
and vines must secure good prices for 
the producer. Root crops bej-ond the 
requirements of the human popula- 
tion will find ready consumption as 
winter food for cattle, whose meats 
will allow of easy transport and profit- 
able sale in a thousand markets. 

The first white settler in Clinton 
county located on the Wapsipinicon 
or " White Potatoes " river sometime 
in 1836, where and when the Ameri- 
can fur company had a trading post 
to facilitate business with the trappers 
and Indians. At first employed by the 
company he became a permanent set- 
tler in the territory which was attached 
to Wisconsin. Hunters and red men 
had undisputed possession of the land 
and a man anxious to locate himself 
and fiimily permanently in these wilds 
was a rare phenomenon. The native 
tribes were said to be very peaceful in 
their traditional hunting grounds un- 
til the encroachments of their white 
neighbors made resistance a virtue, 
but it is highly probable that both 
sides were at fault in that matter. 
Certain it is that the Indians were at 
length compelled to take up arms 
against the lawless intruders who came 
to them outlaws very often, yet pre- 
tending to be the agents and represen- 
tatives of the great father in Washing- 
ton, and it was under such circum- 
stances that the country was partially 
prepared for permanent settlement. 
The years of 1836 and 1837 saw many 
new arrivals in the territory who made 
their homes at Round Grove, and 
Folk's Grove, until they could make 
their selections in the country waiting 
their choice. The first post office in 
the territory, which afterwards became 
Clinton county was established at this 
early date, the old trading post of the 
American Pur Company was the loca- 
tion and the name given to the place 
was Monroe. The county was organ- 
ized by the territorial legislature in 
1839-40, and the first elections were 
appointed for March in the latter year. 
Justice had been dispensed in Cam- 
anche until that time, but the county 
seat was located at De Witt. 

Clinton has made excellent provis- 
ion for schools, at least as good as any 

county in the state, and that is saying 
a great deal. Iowa educational insti- 
tutions have won a wide reputation 
and what is better, they deserve the 
best that can be said of their etEciency. 
Clinton saw from the first that brain 
pays for cultivation better than any 
other product which is subject to 
man's dominion, and with that fact 
fully settled beyond cavil, the school 
system was commenced. There are 
at present in Clinton county, three 
high schools and a college, all of 
which are available even to the very 
poorest, upon terms which they can 
easily compass, and if any person rises 
to maturity untrained, it must result 
from some radical personal defect. 

Clinton has facilities for transpor- 
tation such as few newly settled coun- 
ties can rival, many roads com- 
peting with each other for the traffic, 
and travel of the region until there is 
no considerable section without fair 
means at its disposal. The Chicago 
and Northwestern runs east and west 
through the southern townships; the 
Iowa Midland, and the Sabula and 
Ackley, run in a parallel line through 
the northeru townships. The Daven- 
port and St. Paui have two branches 
running north and south and the main 
branch goes thi'ough the western part 
intersecting the Chicago and North- 
western at Wheatland, The Maquoketa 
branch goes through the central p;irt 
of the county, crossing two lines, the 
Iowa Midland, and Sabula and Ack- 
ley at Delmar, and at Dewitt the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern. In addition 
to all these ramifications of the iron 
road, the river road otherwise known 
as the Chicago, Clinton and Dubuque 
runs from Clinton City north through 
the valley of the Mississippi river. 
Facilities such as these would be hard 
to beat anywhere. 

Clikton City, the countj; seat and 
otherwise important town, is beauti- 
fully situated on the bank of the father 
of waters. The town was laid out in 
conformity with the bend of the river 
on which it is located, and its site has 
compelled admiration from thousands. 
The town is now much larger than the 
original plat, and there are signs that 
before long still further additions will 
be wanted. The streets that run north 
and south are eighty feet wide and six 
hundred feet apart. Besides these 
there are avenues running back from 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

the river one liundred feet wide and 
three hundred feet apart. Second 
street is the main business street, but 
some large establishments are con- 
ducted elsewhere and many of the resi- 
dences might be called palatial almost 
anj'where. Neat cottages, in hand- 
some grounds well shaded with forest 
trees and considerable groves in the 
distance, make the scene truly charm- 
ing. The improvements of Clinton 
City have been made with wise econ- 
omy and therefore with no niggard 
hand. The streets are well graded 
with good sidewalks, and drainage has 
received competent attention. 

In the year 1838 the town of New 
York was laid out on the site now oc- 
cupied by Clinton City, and a ferry 
was established running to Whiteside 
Point, Illinois, but ten years later 
when the paper township was no 
nearer to success than at the first loca- 
tion, the land passed into the hands of 
a new purchaser. After that time the 
location was devoted to agriculture 
and so remained until seven years af- 
terward, when in ISS.") the Iowa Land 
Company laid ofl' the town of Clinton 
now the seat of Clinton county. The 
venture was a good one on the" part of 
company, as much of the emigration 
that has come into Iowa came hy way 
of Clinton, great numbers remaining 
there to invest their capital and energy 
in preference to going further and pos- 
sibly faring worse. At that point the 
future greatness of Clinton county will 
be materially aided by the develop- 
ment of manufactories which will have 
every opportunity to send their pro- 
ducts into neighboring states as well as 
to disseminate them throughout their 
own. These possibilities and circum- 
stances have raised Clinton City to its 
present status, and it is venturing little 
to say, will carry it much farther. A 
church and school house were the very 
significant first improvements in the 
embryo citj-, soon afterwards other 
works were projected and due care 
having been taken that the emigrating 
public should be advised of all the 
good in store for them, the tide soon 
set toward the young metropolis. 
There was a futile scheme to build a 
railroad to be known as the Mississip- 
pi and Iowa Central which was to cre- 
ate its own travel and traffic, from a 
town of two hundred people, who 
wished to stay at home, to no place 

in particular, where there were none 
to give a revenue upon the outlay, and 
the result need not be described. That 
collapse came very near bursting the 
plucky settlement, but the backbone 
that was in the county as well as the grit 
of the people would not permit of wider 
misfortune. After some few other 
mare's nest speculations the tide of suc- 
cess finally came with the construction 
of a road by the Chicago, Iowa and 
Nebraska Company, which connecting 
with the Dixon Air Line, ran from Clin- 
ton City on the Father of Waters to 
Council Bluffs on the Missouri. That 
road was completed, but a combina- 
tion of circumstances led to a consoli- 
dation not at all disadvantageous to 
the city, which made the Chicago and 
Northwestern Company directors of 
the traffic from Chicago to Omaha. 
Thus railway enterprise came to the 
rescue of an all but dispairing settle- 
ment, and made the wealth of the 
thickly peopled cities of the east avail- 
able to cover the wilderness with smil- 
ing homes, drawing back in a thous- 
and ways advantages which def}' enu- 
meration while they more than repay 
every sacrifice. There are few towns 
of the same extent in the Middle and 
New England states which have made 
better preparation for the purposes of 
youthful training than Clinton City. 
The inhabitants came mostly from the 
east and they have not forgotten their 
old uses and traditions, upon some of 
which they have engrafted consider- 
able improvements. There are street 
cars in Clinton City which run north 
to the city of Lyons, and the principal 
streets, as well as the best houses and 
stores have been lighted with gas. Dur- 
ing 1874, water works were started suc- 
cessfully. The timber trade of Clinton 
is large and prosperous, and the city 
has many newspapers which unite 
the interests of the immediate locality 
of publication with those of the county 
at large. 

Lyons i.'? the companion city of Clin- 
ton with which it is connected by easj- 
and direct communication. Lyons is 
also located on the Mississippi bank. 
The iirst settlement at this point was 
made in 1836, when some few families 
came to make their homes in the wild 
west. The town was laid off in 1837, 
and named after the famous silk man 
ufacturiug city of Lyons in France, 
but little progress was made with the 


TuTTLhfs History op Iowa. 

sale of town lots until after 1855, when 
the place was incorporated. The little 
town has manfacturiug interests al- 
ready important and which cannot fail 
to increase, besides which it transacts 
a very considerable business with 
settlers on the fine land back of the 
the town, whose wants will multiply 
with their means to satisfy them as 
long as industry thrives. 

De Witt is a town of some moment 
twenty miles west of Clinton City, lo- 
cated on high prairie land in the cen- 
ter of a rich farming country. It is 
placed at the intersection of two rail- 
roads, the Chicago and' Northwestern 
and the Davenport and St. Paul, and 
with such facilities at its disposal in a 
country which continuously produces 
a surplus of stock, grain, and other 
marketable stuff the town has grown 
rapidly into recognition as one of the 
best business places in that section of 
country. In 1840 the site of De Witt 
was chosen for the county seat, but the 
first name chosen was Vandenburg; 
but the honor of being the seat of jus- 
tice, although of long duration, was 
after thirty years of empire transferred 
to Clinton City. De Witt did not 
tamely submit to the tran.sfer but after 
a good fight the younger and stronger 
city came off victorious. 

Wheatland has already been men- 
tioned in the more general description 
of the county; it enjoys railway com- 
munication, and is a thriving place. 

Camakche was the first seat of jus- 
tice in the county before De Witt came 
into notice, and it is now quite a pros- 
perous little town. 

Grand Modnd and Low Moor 
are thriving little places, besides 
which the following villages and post 
offices must be enumerated in giving a 
record of Clmton county progress: 
Almount Station, Boon Spring, Brook- 
field Center, Brown's Station, Bryant, 
Buena Vista, Burgess, Charlotte, El- 
vira, Elwood, Goose Lake, Last Na- 
tion, Malone, Orange, Riggs' Station, 
Teed's Grove, Ten Mile House, Tor- 
onto and Welton. 

Crawford County is on the western 
slope of the state of Iowa, near, but 
not on, the Missouri river banks. The 
county contains seven hundred and 
twenty square miles. Western Iowa, 
in which Crawford county stands, is 
usually well watered, and the running 

streams in this county are numerous- 
The Boyer river is one of the largest 
streams; it runs, with many turnings, 
diagonally through the county, from 
northeast to southwest, and drains i 
large area. East Boyer river is a tribu- 
tary of the larger stream, which it 
joins near Denison, after flowing south- 
west from Carroll county. The Boyer 
has other tributaries which water and 
drain a very large proportion of the 
remainder of the county, among 
which the more important are Wal- 
nut, Dunham's, Buss, Welsh, Ernst, 
Buffalo, Otter, Paradise, Boon, Coon 
and Buck creeks. The Nishuabotany 
river and Williams creek, with several 
tributaries, are charged with the drain- 
age of the southeast. The northwest 
corner is crossed by Soldier river, 
where it receives a number of aflSu- 
ents, chief among which is Beaver 
creek. A branch known as East Sol- 
dier river, drains the northwest, aided 
by Spillman creek and several minor 
streams. Willow river has its rise in 
the southwest of Crawford county, 
and one township owes to that stream 
its drainage and main water supply. 
Boyer river is the only large stream in 
the long list enumerated, but the sup- 
ply of water tor stock is practically 
unlimited. Fine springs abound in 
this county. Thirty feet is the ex- 
treme limit to which it has been found 
necessary to sink to procure good 
well water, the more general depth 
being about twenty feet. Springs are 
the main sources of supply for many 
of the creeks and streams. Spring 
Grove is so named in honor of a very 
beantiful spring which is located about 
a mile and one-half from the town of 

Groves of timber follow the courses 
of the main streams, more especially 
of the Boyer and East Boyer rivers, 
but there are also good groves to be 
found on the smaller streams. Mason's 
grove is the largest grove in the coun- 
ty ; it covers about two thousand acres 
along the east side of the Boyer river, 
commencing at a point about five 
miles from Denison. Dunham's grove 
contains about three hundred acres. 
The aggregate sums up to about ten 
thousand two hundred and forty acres, 
or about one acre of wood to every 
forty-five acres of prairie. Extensive 
destruction by fires, in by-gone times, 
must be held to account for this small 

Sketches of Counties. 


supply of wood in a county so well 
watered ; but there will be a much 

greater plenty of the article within a 
few years, now that adequate precau- 
tions are observed to prevent confla- 
grations. The timber growing in this 
county contain some choice varieties. 
Many of the settlers, seeing the neces- 
sity for such operations, have planted 
groves of silverleaf, maple, cotton- 
wood, black walnut and box elder, 
which have sprung up with great ra- 
pidity, and their examples being ex- 
tensively followed, the prairies will 
soon wear a changed aspect. 

Generally, the conformation of the 
county is best described by the word 
rolling, as the lands which divide the 
streams sweep down toward the valleys 
and river beds in swelling profusion, 
seeming almost to globe their form to 
give fullness to their scenery as they 
plunge downward from the undulating 
plains. These features are varied in 
ditferent parts, becoming more de- 
clivitous toward the head waters of 
the several streams, and in such posi- 
tions the ground becomes too uneven 
for cultivation. The soil is of great 
fertility, bearing the general character- 
istics, as to color and composition, of 
the Missouri slope. Gravel pits are 
opened in many parts of the county, 
and such " finds " are very highly 
valued. The valley of the Boyer is 
one of the finest in the state, but it is 
only partially under cultivation, and 
does not yet begin to unfold the rich 
treasures of fertility in its soil. The 
valley is nearly thirty miles in extent, 
and its breadth in some parts is con- 
siderable. While thus mentioning the 
value of the bottom lands, it is due to 
the prairies to remark that many of 
the uplands are very productive. The 
best lands of that kind are to the east, 
north and northwest of the county. 
Heavy rains, on many of the slopes, 
have completely denuded the soil of 
its rich coating of vegetable mold, and 
the accretions are found in the valleys, 
but the slopes thus bared of their later 
accumulations, present just the quality 
of land which, bordering on the Rhine, 
produces some of the best grapes grown 
in Europe; and, where a good aspect 
can be secured, the grape which grows 
wild in the state of Iowa, will suggest 
to the farmer the advantage of varying 
his productions. 

The scene, gazing from the uplands 

down the valley of the Boyer, in many 
cases, could hardly be surpassed in 
quiet beauty. The farms dotted in all 
directions, the lovely orchards, the 
cattle grazing on the slopes, the sheep 
in the meadows, and the crops waving 
their promise of plenty, seem to invite 
man to enjoy the happiness of a ter- 
restrial paradise. 

A quarry on Buck creek, not far 
from Denison, is the only exposure of 
good building stone worked in the 
county; but, of course there will be 
many others, although the supply of 
such material is somewhat limited. 
Limestone, which can be used in the 
manufacture of quick lime can be ob- 
tained in Spring Grove, Burnt Woods, 
and in some few other places. Brick, 
making will he profitable in this sec- 
tion of country, the requisite materials 
being plentiful and the article neces- 
sarily in good demand. 

Veins of coal have been cursorily 
sought, without success, in this coun- 
ty; but it is probable that there are 
measures of some value, underlying 
the strata which have been found, 
and if so, many years must elapse 
before the demand will be such as to 
pay for such deep mining as would be 
necessary to win the treasure for con- 

Sprmg wheat in this county has va- 
ried in yield from fifteen to forty-five 
bushels to the acre, part of the differ- 
ence being chargeable to the idiosyn- 
crasies of the agricultural intellect, but 
beyond doubt there are great varieties 
of soil observable in Crawford county. 
Tame grasses have been cultivated by a 
few farmers and have succeeded very 
well, and clover can also be relied upon, 
but the native grasses are generally 
good enough to render substitutes un- 
necessary, unless by way of variety. 
The customary products of the state 
can be raised in this county with a 
fair average of success. Orchards of 
many years standing give abundant 
fruit, and cherries are abundant. All 
the surplus of the Boyer valley can be 
conveyed to distant markets by the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 
which traverses nearly its whole ex- 
tent, from the eastern boundary to the 
northwest, and the quantities shipped 
are already considerable. 

Dunham's Grove, about six miles 
from Denison, wa.s the first site settled 
In the county, and in the year 1849, 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

cabins were built there for two fami- 
lies. From that point the process of 
colonization went slowly on, but many 
years elapsed before organization as a 
county was found practicable. In 
1855, the first business of importance 
is recorded as having been transacted 
by county officials. Denison was lo- 
cated as the county seat, and a court 
house was erected in 1858. The build- 
ing is of brick, the county offices be- 
ing on the lower floor, and the upper 
floor being devoted to the court. The 
edifice cost $6,000, and it stands in 
a handsome square, surrounded by 
shade trees. 

Five miles below Denison there is a 
curious group of nine mounds, and 
not far from the same spot other groups 
are located. Their indications show 
that some were undoubtedly burial 
places, but it is probable that some 
were also places of human sacrifice. 

Denison is the county seat of Craw- 
ford county. The town is situated at 
the jimction of the Boyer and the East 
Boyer rivers, near the geographical 
center. The ground on which Deni- 
son is built is not level, and the resi- 
dences, which are built upon the slopes 
rising from the rivers, command very 
beautiful stretches of country, which 
at some seasons of the year are suffi- 
cient to entrance the beholder. Civi- 
lization contributes its share to make 
the scene delightful, as the waves of 
the swift messenger which outstrips 
Ai'iel suggest the mighty interests of 
which they are bound to tell through 
the livelong years, and the railroads 
with their grades and bridges fetch 
and carry the commerce which would 
make even a desert blossom as the 
rose. The railroad has a station at 
the south end of the town, whence it 
starts off to the southwest, and when 
the fertile lands surrounding that 
abode of industry and enterprise have 
been fully developed, there will be few 
places more delightful upon this foot- 
stool. The town takes the name of its 
founder, who first laid it out in 1856. 
The county seat was located there at 
the same time. About seven hundred 
acres have been platted, the principal 
streets being one hundred feet wide 
and the other streets eighty. Proper 
provision has been made for public 
park reserves, and the town must 
therefore grow in beauty. 

Dbloit is a village near Mason's 

Grove, six miles from Denison, and 
the town was platted in 1857. 

There are a few other villages and 
post stations at Boyer River, Dowville, 
Kiron, Vail and Westside. 

Dallas County is one of the central 
counties of Iowa, and it is twenty-four 
miles square. The Des Moines river 
drains the northeast corner of the 
county, and Beaver creek, one of its 
affluents, completes that function for a 
large area, besides giving good water 
and a wide acreage of timber. The 
Raccoon river drains the largest share 
of the county, as it has tributary 
streams which stretch their arms eve- 
rywhere. North, Middle and South 
Raccoon are the largest of these 
branches, to which Bulgar, Panther 
and Musquito creeks are tributary 
streams. The Des Moines, with some 
affluents, is found again in many other 
sections of the county, consequently 
there is not a spot to be named which 
does not lie within a mile on either 
side of running water. Pilot lake, in 
Lincoln township, is one of the many 
lakes that dot the county, but the lake 
named above is the largest and most 
picturesque. There are some very fine 
mill sites on the Raccoon river, and 
some of the powers would be equal to 
the driving of very extensive machine- 
ry. The main stream comes from 
Storm lake, and is fed by numerous 
springs which run all the year, unless 
the irost king lays his edict upon the 
streams and does the work in which 
King Canute was an egregious failure. 
The north branch runs the entire 
length of the county, passing on its 
way over fifty sections of land. Mid- 
dle Raccoon is well adapted for the 
establishment of mills and other man- 
ufactories, and the beauty of the stream 
is suggestive in the highest degree to 
the poetic intellect. The purely prac- 
tical man looks only to th£ future and 
the realizable value which can be ob- 
tained from all these beauties; the 
words of the poet Keats: "A thing of 
beauty is a joy forever," have for him 
no significance, unless they can be 
converted into greenbacks or specie 
payment, and it will be a comfort to 
men of that order to be assured that 
Dallas county can redeem all its prom- 
ises. Timber can be reached readily 
from the best prairie locations, and 
water is very plentiful. The native 

Sketches of Counties. 


grasses aie very nutritious and of 
rapid growth, and the tame grasses al- 
ready tried have succeeded marvelous- 
ly. Stock can be raised with certain- 
ty, and liept at little cost during the se- 
verest winters known, and there is no 
ditliculty in conveying all produce to 
convenient markets. There are no 
sloughs nor morasses in this county, 
as the streams are so close together 
thai drainage is perfect over almost all 
tlie soil. Springs are plentiful, issuing 
clear as crystal from innumerable beds 
of gravel in the blufl's which border 
some of its streams, and wells can be 
sunken at small cost with demonstra- 
ble certainty. There is a salt spring 
in the southwest of the county, which 
must have been visited during many 
centuries by herds of buffalo and other 
animals, attracted by its saline proper- 
ties. Nearly an acre of land in the 
neighborhood of the salt spring shows 
signs of having been worn down by 
the mighty beasts that came to them, 
guided by their mysterious instinct, to 
find medicine for their ailments and 
refreshing food for their blood. Sul- 
phur springs are not unknown in this 
county, and soft water springs, which 
gladden the housewife's heart, are 
quite numerous. 

There are some curious features in 
the springs of this county, and it is 
probable that when settlement has pro- 
gressed there will be fashionable spas 
established, dispensing health and dis- 
sipation, as is the approved custom in 
Europe, where water is found with a 
flavor of warm flatirons. 

The coal formations which underlie 
Dallas county have imparted a peculiar 
character to the surface of the country. 
The beds of the streams have been 
worn to great depths, and on the sides 
of the water courses the banks tower 
abruptly to great heights. Valleys, 
where they occur, are apt to be nar- 
row, and the ascents from the bottom 
lands declivitous. The northern por- 
tion of the county is more gently undu- 
lating, and west of the North Raccoon 
the surface descends into a broad, shal- 
low depression, not deep enough to be 
called a valley, but sufficient to mark 
the peculiarity of the coal strata in 
this section of country. The county 
is high and tolerably level east of that 
river, but tending towards the deep 
vallies of the Raccoon and Des Moines, 
which are fashioned out of the middle 

coal measure by the cunning hand of 
nature. From the river beds named 
the country rises to the south, forming 
a great divide, which descends again 
to the North river, and then stretches 
out to the bounds of the county where 
it joins the county of Madison. 

Prairie lauds prevail in this county, 
but the supply of timber is equal to 
one acre in every ten, a proportion 
which would suffice, with occasional 
renewals, even though lumbering were 
to be one of the main resources of 
Dallas county. 

The uplands are coated with a rich 
black loam, and the valleys have in 
addition a large proportion of sand, 
and the bottom lands are fertile, with 
a warm soil mixed with gravel, which 
will grow almost anything that is 
planted. Wheat and corn are the sta- 
ples, but all cereals, vegetables and 
grasses thrive abundantly. Fruit has 
been cultivated successfully, but that 
branch of industry has not yet been 
pushed to any considerable extent, 
such as alone can enable the surplus 
product to become an article of com- 

Coal beds have been opened, and it 
seems probable that in fourteen town- 
ships it can be found in workable 
thicknesses. The measures opened so 
far have revealed from three to five feet 
veins of carboniferous deposit, and 
such quantities, easily procurable, 
must pay for extensive mining opera- 
tions. The quality is fully up to the 
average. Adel is mainly supplied 
with mel from mines opened on the 
Raccoon rivers, and worked by a mere 
quarrying process; but the best coal 
yet found is on Middle Raccoon. The 
Des Moines has a good coal formation 
cropping out on its banks, but for suf- 
ficient reasons there has been but little 
labor yet expended in winning the de- 

Building stone is the next item to be 
sought in the inventory of a prosper- 
ous county, and in that respect Dallas 
county takes the lead of many of its 
neighbors, many valuable quarries 
having been opened, and a vast area of 
country offering facilities for further 
operations of the same kind. Sand- 
stone which can be easily dressed, and 
is found to be very desirable for bnild. 
ing purposes, is prime, favorable ■with 
architects and capitalists, and lime- 
stone of a good kind for building or 


Tuttle's History of Iowa. 

for burning is also very easily pro 

The Indian right to the territory did 
not die out until 1845 ; but before that 
date the hardy pioneers of civilization 
were on the land, drawn hither by the 
fine groves and other charms of the 
country. Settlement actually com- 
menced in 1846, the site of Adel town- 
ship being the locality selected by the 
first white famil}' located here, as their 
peimanent residence. Other families 
came after an interval of a few days, 
mostlj' from Illinois. Manj- locations 
were made in rapid succession, but it 
would burden our pages to follow the 
movements of every party, and we pre- 
fer to follow the larger movements of 
population and organization. The 
countj' was organized in 1847, and a 
place then known as Hickory, but now- 
unknown in the topography of Dallas 
county, was an aspirant for the honor 
of being the county seat. The town of 
Adel was selected as the favored loca- 
tion, and the honor has been justified 
by subsequent events. 

The railroads have assisted the de- 
velopment of Dallas county, as they 
do, when properly used, the growth of 
all localities in which there are rea- 
sonable inducements for human habi- 
tation. The Chicago, Rock Island and 
Pacific road runs through the south- 
ern townships and the Des Moines and 
Fort Dodge runs between Beaver 
creek and Raccoon river northwest- 
erly. With railroads there are custom- 
arily newspapers, and Dallas conntj- is 
well provided. 

Adel, the countj' seat, is built on the 
■west bank of North Raccoon river, on 
a semicircular plateau, from which 
some fine residence sites have been 
selected on the slopes that rise back of 
the business portion of the town. The 
situation is good. The elevations 
upon which the town must extend 
itself command delightful v